C) Our projectis the Bahrain World Trade Centre in Manama is a beautiful example ofsustainability meets plan. It wascomposed with the objectives of utilising renewable power sources as well aswith sustainable design.While stillon the designing phase, they initially suggested putting solar panels onto thetwo towers but then they concluded that the outrageous warmthclimate-conditions of Bahrain made it an unfeasible suggestion.
So they decidedto use another option to make the building sustainable. The new idea made itlook even more extreme and futuristic than the idea of putting solar panels.The idea of the three 29-meter wind turbines that are supported by a 30-meter bridgetraversing between the two towers. The keypoint in achieving this was the floor plan. The wing-like towers help tochannel and quicken the breeze speed between them. Besides, the distinction inthe vertical state of the towers should help lessen the weight contrastsbetween the bridges, which, when joined with an expanded breeze speed at themore high levels, ought to give an equivalent speed among the turbines.
Thiswill accommodate a much more noteworthy proficiency in the running of thegenerators. Environmental Design Principles Sustainabilitywas the main idea that was incorporated from the starting point. In its plan,the Bahrain world trade Centre exploits the area to amplify the energy that canbe caught from the ocean breeze. One of a kind to this building, and meetingpeople’s high expectations of incorporating sustainable power sourcearrangements with manageable engineering, the plan accommodates these three 29mdiameter wind-turbines to be placed horizontally between the two towers. Theresearch, the dialogues with the turbine makers earlier, the feasibility studyand design stages took months. The technical confirmation incorporated theconsolidation of environmentally responsive outline components such as the windexamination of turbines execution and also SARM (Safety, Analysis and RiskManagement) examination approval. Theturbines create energy that reaches the amount of 11 and 15 percent of thetotal electrical utilisation of the building. As aresult, this innovating achievement was the world’s first combination ofturbines inside a commercial building structure is considered as a triumph.
The Bahrainworld trade Centre building has other environmentally responsive outlinecomponents, which decrease carbon discharges in the atmosphere compared withmost of the structures in the district. That made Bahrain to be recognised asthe leader in the adoption of environmentally responsible practices among theregion. Theenvironmental aspects of the project create a new way of building withsustainability and what can be achieve in the future and more generally, theexhaustion of non-renewable energy sources.
As a result,Bahrain has built up the first of its kind inside the market, and added totheir capital esteem programs that will be developed around this point ofconvergence on Manama’s coast. Beside thebreeze turbines, it includes various other design features that are of interestand reduction of carbon discharges when compared with different structures inthe Middle East. Some of those features are: COPYPASTE 1.
Bufferspaces between the external environment and air-conditioned spaces to reducesol air temperature and reducing conductive solar gain;2. Deepgravel roofs in some locations that provide kinetic insulation;3.Significant proportion of projectile shading to external glass facades;4.Balconies to the sloping elevations with overhangs to provide shading;5. Whereshading is not provided to glazing, a high quality solar glass is used with lowshading co-efficient to minimise solar gains;6.
Lowleakage, windows;7.Enhanced thermal insulation for opaque fabric elements;8. Denseconcrete core and floor slabs presented to the internal environment in a mannerthat will level loads and reduce peak demand with associated reductions in airand chilled water transport systems;9. Variablevolume chilled water pumping that will operate with significantly less pumppower at part loads than conventional constant volume pumping;10. Lowpressure loss distribution for primary air and water transport systems thatreduces fan and pump power requirements;11. Totalheat energy recovery heat wheels of fresh air intake and exhausts to recover”coolth” from the vitiated air and recover it to the fresh make up air;12. Energyefficient, high efficacy, high frequency fluorescent lighting13. Dualdrainage systems that segregate foul and waste water and allow grey waterrecycling to be added at a later date;14.
Connection to the district cooling system that will allow an order of magnitudeimprovement on carbon emissions since in Bahrain efficient water cooledchillier are not allowed due to water shortage, whereas the district coolingsolution will involve sea water cooling / heat rejection and much improvedlevels of energy conversion efficiency;15.Reflection pools at building entrances to provide local evaporative cooling;16.Extensive landscaping to reduce site albedo, generate C02 and provide shadingto on grade car parks;17. Solarpowered road and amenity lighting. Economic Background of the Wind-Turbines into buildings IdeaAnd the Benefit of gaining experience from such project to the worldAtkins(Architectural engineering company) showed the world that Bahrain is focused onchoices that reduce the demand on fossil fuel reserves products. Bahrain holdsand will move urban and building design in dessert-climates to a whole newsustainable course.
The difficulty of incorporating huge scale wind turbines ina building structure isn’t to be underestimated, and it is expected after thecompletion of such project that the information and experience gathered wouldbe able to be spread to design groups worldwide. In the sameway as other architects around the globe, the Atkins design team in the MiddleEast has considered plan arrangements that fuse sustainability and haveexplored the idea of using integrated wind turbines on a few past design ideas.The wind in the Arabian Gulf with its prevailing ocean wind trademark ishelpful for collecting wind energy.
Research byAtkins has revealed that the usage of wind-turbines into structures most of thetimes fails because of the high cost (up to 30% of the project’s value) relatedwith the adjustment of the building design, and furthermore because of highdevelopment/research work costs for such turbines. From the start this venturehad as its essential premise of design the usage of customary technologies andthe improvement of a building design that would be supportive to gettingwind-turbines. The premium on this project for including the wind-turbines wasunder 3% of the project’s value. So with theadvantage of a good/strong wind and a design reasoning that limited turbinebuilding costs, Atkins, with a group of world driving technologists moved aheadwith the plan and addressed the key issues of : 1 Producingpractical solutions 2 Balancingenergy yield (advantage with investment) Moregenerally, while achieving such innovating ideas (incorporation ofwind-turbines onto structures) then a lot of things are affected from it.
Socially, people tend to think more about sustainability by seeing thesuccessful result of the Bahrain World Trade Centre and with that way, a lotmore can be achieved in the following years. PARAMETERS8-14 (12,14 not included) 8) Today largequantities of clean fuels are used in many countries, and there is a prospectof widespread use of them in the future. The need to use alternative andrenewable fuels for oil and its products has begun to play a very importantrole in the developed world.
Biofuels, biogas, hydrogen, etc. can replace orsupplement fossil fuels. Biofuels are all solid, liquid and gaseous fuelsderived from biomass (renewable energy source). The most important arebiodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, bioethanol producedfrom sugarcane, cellulose and starchy plants, biogas produced from organicagro-industrial and other wastes and residues, as well as from energy plants.Economic,social and, above all, environmental reasons require the replacement of fossilfuels, since biofuels contribute to reducing emissions of hazardous pollutantsthat have a significant impact on health and are responsible for global climatechange and, in particular, for greenhouse gases.Biomassproduction can contribute to local development, boosting agriculture andcreating new jobs, thus contributing to the development of a sustainable energysystem that ensures at the same time fuel safety, economic efficiency andenvironmental protection. Biofuelsgenerate 90% fewer hydrocarbon emissions and 50% less carbon dioxide emissions,which is safer for our health.
It is non-flammable and non-toxic and safe forhandling and touch.Thebenefits of cooking oils are that they can be mixed with regular oil and can beoperated with any diesel engine. So buildings can use it as a fuel for boilersor their heaters.Byconverting the food and other organic waste from the building into cleanenergy, bio-methanisation creates fertilizer and methane gas. The gas can beused to supply large gas engines to produce electricity.90% of thebuilding will be used to construct the building to avoid pollutants fromconventional fuels, such as power-operated concrete mixers and electricforklift trucks.
The use of hydrogen has been studied is difficult at present.As is well known, the use of fossil fuels in internal combustion engines leadsto the emission of hazardous pollutants that endanger public health. Nitrogenoxides, and various volatile organic compounds and increased carbon dioxideproduction, are threatening the atmosphere and therefore the use of alternativeenergy sources such as hydrogen production seems to be the best solution toavoid climate change and the greenhouse effect.
Hydrogen is theoretically thebest fuel, without any environmental burden, because when it is burned withoxygen it only forms water. Hydrogen can be used in automotive engines, sogreenhouse gases are not formed during its combustion, as opposed toconventional pollutants that continually contaminate the atmosphere withdangerous pollutants for health and the environment. In this way we will achievea reduction in air pollutants and noise in the wider area.
9) PublicUrban Transport is a key pillar in the day-to-day operation of urban areasaround the world. The use of public transport services contributes to theday-to-day movements of citizens and visitors of a region and leads to thereduction of urban traffic, which means reducing the number of private vehiclesand consequently congestion.By aimingto reduce energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants into the environmentand thus to create better traffic conditions, we contribute to improvingenvironmental conditions – reducing pollutants and upgrading the quality oflife.
BahrainWorld Trade Center is located in the core of Manama’s business region. Itoffers direct access to the Bahia’s primary courses, the King’s Faisal Highway.The central area of the building is only a fifteen moment drive from theairport which interfacing Bahrain to the world. Of course, near the building,there are various public urban transports, which are offered to people so thatthey can move around the country.
A Part ofthe Ministry’s procedure is to improve the public transportation divisionthrough provision of high level services to enhance the usage of the public transportationby adding facilities like terminals and new transport stations to basicallyhelp and enhance the standard and value of the bus-transport service. 10) With thecurrent data, the car is an integral part of everyday life and developmentitself as it is directly linked to the facilitation of travel with publicservices and in general with every aspect and activity of the citizens. The useof a private car leads to crowding out of public space and characterizes thearea by a lack of quality infrastructure for pedestrian and bicycle travel andenvironmental degradation.The abilityto cope and not to use a private car creates urban areas “free ofcars”. The implementation of measures to restrict private cars requiresthe promotion of alternative means of transport. Such as extensive pedestrianzones, an extensive network of city buses and fixed-track means (underground,tramway) as well as a bicycle path network.The abovealternative means of transport reduces air pollution from industrial andtransport activities. Secondly, noise pollution is reduced.
Sound generated bythe use of motor vehicles is an important source of negative impacts fornetwork users, pedestrians and residents of the area. And thirdly, jamming andcost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, in the area of Bahrain world tradecenter although there are a lot of public transports, the usage of cars is hasnot been reduced much due to the reason that the stations available do notinclude (mostly the local people) the destinations that they want to go.
On theother hand, tourists mostly use the public transports as it covers most oftheir desirable destinations so slowly the problem may be solved by adding moreand more bus-routes 11) It is notedthat in many countries, citizens show increased interest and implement innovativepractices to improve quality of life. They aim to promote cycling and walkingas an alternative means of transport. That is, they aim at integratedinterventions targeting cities without a car, a direction towardssustainability.Walking andcycling helps reduce traffic congestion and brings further public healthbenefits from reduced car use, thus reducing air pollution, carbon dioxideemissions, noise and the overall level of traffic risk and at the same timeimproves the human traffic system, allowing people to engage in a form ofhealthy exercise during everyday life. Finally it causes an increase in thenumber of people of all ages who are out on the streets, making public placeslook more hospitable and safer, day and night, providing opportunities forsocial interaction.Themeasures required to deal with wider walking or cycling influences should besafe, convenient and enjoyable. This includes measures to reduce road hazardsand redistribute road space, recreation of public space to create a morefavorable environment, flexible transport and taxi systems, bus services,express services, information and awareness raising.
Finally, action in theseareas is particularly important in addressing health inequalities, includingdisability-related issues. Bahrain isa big dusty country. Although people do cycling and walking the country is notbicycle and walking friendly. Especially during the summer time, daytime is nota good action no matter how prepared you are due to the reason that the temperatureis dangerously hot. 12) It is notedthat in most countries, citizens show increased interest and implementinnovative practices to improve the quality of life. They aim to promotecycling and walking as an alternative means of transport.
That is, they aim atintegrated interventions targeting cities without a car, a direction towardssustainability.Walking andcycling helps reduce traffic congestion and brings further public healthbenefits from reduced car use, thus reducing air pollution, carbon dioxideemissions, noise and the overall level of traffic risk and at the same timeimproves the human traffic system, allowing people to engage in a form ofhealthy exercise during everyday life. Finally it causes an increase in thenumber of people of all ages who are out on the streets, making public placeslook more hospitable and safer, day and night, providing opportunities forsocial interaction.Themeasures required to deal with wider walking or cycling influences should besafe, convenient and enjoyable.
This includes measures to reduce road hazardsand redistribute road space, recreation of public space to create a morefavorable environment, flexible transport and taxi systems, bus services,express services, information and awareness raising. Finally, action in theseareas is particularly important in addressing health inequalities, includingdisability-related issues. 13) Theconstruction sector, which is directly related to the construction ofbuildings, homes and infrastructure such as transport, communications, watersupply etc., is a prerequisite for the proper economic and social developmentof each country and the achievement of sustainability at a global level.
Accordingto the European Union, buildings account for 40% of the total energyconsumption, while the sustainability of construction concerns mainly technicalmatters, such as the type of local materials and energy saving as well as thereduction of the overall environmental impact.Thesustainability of a building must be local and renewable in order to contributeto the creation of an ecologically responsible world. It must be built usinglocally viable materials such as materials that can be used without negativeeffects on the environment and produced locally, reducing the need fortransport and transport and, at the same time, emissions of gases into theatmosphere.Bahrain’snature offers some wonderful building materials, some of which are renewableresources such as stones and sand. And because these materials require littleprocessing or transportation, environmental and economic costs are low. Of coursethe usage of other materials was used. Below is the list of the buildingmaterials. Concrete 4000cubic meter Steel reinforcement 730 tonnes Cement 1600 tonnes Stone and sand 7400 tonnes Water 1600 litre 14) The forest,as we all know, is trees, shrubs and other plant and animal organisms that,together with soil and climate, are in constant influence and dependence oneach other.
Our forests offer various forest products such as the necessarywood production, produces significant amounts of biomass, binds energy andcarbon dioxide releasing oxygen and moisture, which affects the microclimatepositively but also the air quality.It alsooffers a variety of operations at a global level, including the control ofwater erosion and control, the cultivation of water resources, the limitationof global warming from CO2 absorption, and the conservation of biodiversity.Our forestsoffer wood for the construction of houses, biomass for fuel, wood, paper pulp,medicines and many other products. Timber is a renewable, recyclable, naturalresource and a major factor in economic, social and cultural development.Nevertheless,it is up to us both to preserve existing forests and sustainable wood, as theclimatic and soil conditions of our country favor the development and expansionof forests.
Sustainabletimber refers to logs that have been harvested responsibly. This requires thatwhen a tree is cut for use, another is planted to replace it. However,”Sustainable forestry” means more than replacing trees such asharvesting – it also includes ensuring that there is no ecological damage tothe environment or its natural flora and fauna.Theharvesting of forest products refers to tree dropping, decay, shredding,peeling, log shifting and firewood transport. Wood products can still be usedeffectively even after they have served their purpose. For example, timber canbe reused after building demolition.
Woodcan also be used as a fuel. In this way, coal is retained until the woodproducts used as biomass fuel to produce electricity.