1.1 Invitational model
“What teachers accomplish in their profession is a function of the persons they are”. It means the quality and characteristics of a teacher can relate or contribute to his/her profession. The reflection of a teacher in thoughts and feelings about the world can influence the profession. Teachers positive interactions with oneself and others can formally or informally build on teacher’s accomplishments in the profession. The behaviour of a person toward oneself and others invite others to your environment.
• Being personally inviting with oneself
When inviting oneself, the personal development of oneself must come before everything including professional growth. Inviting oneself requires a teacher to look after him/herself, physical and mentally healthy. There are many things a teacher can do to maintain health; it can be exercising frequently, having enough sleep, time management and also to be a life- long learner. It is needed to develop one’s abilities by acknowledging your own potential in inviting oneself. It’s also important to believe in yourself and to know that you deserve the best. Invitational teaching calls for oneself to build positive and health relationship with yourself, this can be established by dressing very well and neat, walk tall and proud and being involved with others to avoid loneliness. Oneself must live life its extent and fruitfully. Self-respect is vital in inviting oneself and also to respect your feelings, meaning you must do what feel to do. Complement yourself if necessary or awarding yourself after an accomplishment.
• Personally inviting with others
Personal inviting with others demand considering other people, how you treat, interact and respect others. To invite others requires a teacher to be life-long learner, to learn beyond your qualifications and discover new skills. This process involves improving social relationships with family, friends and colleagues. Social relationships can be improved by showing love, support and care. Teachers must be part of organisations and enjoyments with colleagues and learners. Teacher can invite learners by knowing them by names in the classroom and that shows that you notice and care about them. As with colleagues, a teacher can remember and celebrate colleague’s birthdays and other important events. Sharing experiences and common goals can also invite others. Supporting learners by understanding and taking care of their needs even if it is a personal matter/special need. Appreciating and acknowledging that each learner is unique and being polite with them. Positive and trusted environment is needed in inviting others. The teacher must be open and approachable.
• Being professionally inviting with oneself
Professionally inviting oneself is one of the most crucial and vital process and it requires a teacher to be fully committed. Professional inviting needs a teacher to always want to learn new things every day, seek experiences, examine and discover new knowledge. Accepting praise when is done very well can boost oneself to always want perform well. Professional inviting teachers acknowledges that time is money and every minute counts, so they so use time productively by managing it. Keeping a dairy with daily schedules help oneself to be punctual. Be good with everyone including colleagues that teach same subject as yours. Share information and experiences. Attending workshops, meetings and group support can help in professional inviting oneself. A teacher must be in a relationship with the subject he/she teach and that can invite learners to want to learn and do better in their schoolwork.
• Being professional inviting with others
In professional inviting with others a teacher must understand that it is learner centred not a teacher. Meaning it all about learners, knowing that they are capable of doing their best, uplifting their self-esteem and concept. Language of instruction must accommodate everyone. Respecting learner especial their views, a teacher must also listen to the learners and allowing them to ask questions. Teacher must encourage “I can” statement to learners for them to know that they are able. Teacher have to develop more skills and different methods to assist learners. learner’s work must be evaluated in a good manner.
1.2 Attitudes and personality traits of teachers
Attitudes and personality traits together they make the fundamental structure of a personality or of a certain individual. For a teacher to be an agent of change he/she must adapt or cooperate with these attitudes and personality traits to inspire learners.
? Friendliness and courtesy
For new interpersonal relationships friendliness and courtesy are important key starters. It means to be polite with everyone even you meet that person for the first time. You must avoid to be overwhelmed by your moods when you with other people. It means to establish friendly conversations by choosing your words wisely. Friendliness goes hand in hand with love and care, a teacher can automatically inspire learners by being friendly. For example: lets a teacher had an argument with someone outside before coming to the classroom. When the teacher comes to class mustn’t bring his/her frustration to learners. The teacher must approach learners with friendliness and courtesy, with a loving heart. In that case learners will see a teacher as an approachable and easy person, whom they work with to reach their academic potential.
? Respect and warmth
Respect and warmth are a bit more in depth, since we know that respect is earned not given. It begins with respecting yourself first, knowing your value and worth before you expect others to respect you. It will be harder for you to respect others if you don’t respect yourself. When a teacher give respect to learners it means he/she give value to learners being and making them to feel good about themselves. For example; in the classroom the better way a teacher can show respect to learners is to listen to their point of views whether the teacher agrees or not. Allowing learners to take part of the lesson and perform motivates them to strive toward being the best they can be.
? Honesty and sincerely
Honesty and sincerely is the core of sound relationship between a teacher, learners. Colleagues and parents. It builds trust in the relationship and dependency to one another. It clears misunderstanding and restore appreciation in the relationship of learners and the teacher. It allows to speak about mistakes and correct them instead of criticizing one another. For an example if a learner has serious personal issues at home maybe a poor background and a teacher offers to help then a learner and parent will allow a teacher to intervene if he/she is known to be honest and sincerely.
VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
The association between learners and teachers, as well as with all stakeholders is said to be an interpersonal relationship; which is a strong connection between people with common achievement. Communication is a vital constitute of interpersonal relationship. Communication is a process of passing and receiving message or information to one another and it involves a sender and a receiver through speaking and listening. Teaching process is all about communicating and teachers must have prepared communicating skills to instruct, motivate and mentor learners with care. Teacher must communicate fluently with colleagues and parents. There are two forms of communication which is verbal and non-verbal communication.
• IMPORTANCE OF VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Verbal communication can be achieved by speaking and conversation. To pass message sound and language are used in verbal communication. Verbal communication is the key to explicit concept. Ideas and to enhance teaching and learning process. Teachers use words to teach, so they should use them carefully because each word can evoke a feeling and emotion to people. Therefore, it is for the best that teachers avoid negative or provoking words when communicating with learners or other stakeholders. The set of the tone of voice is important in verbal communication and there are characteristics of voice. Some teachers have a pleasant voice which is easy to listen and its suitable for long period lessons. A natural voice which display your real personality and sincerely. Others have dynamic voice which can accommodate in large groups and some have an easy heard voice those that are helpful in class.
Verbal communication gives more clarity in communication that’s why most researchers suggest that it is the best to communicate verbal because no more cultural clashes in speaking. Students can retain information much easily when its presented directly to them in person, they can also be engage in the lecture by answering questions fast and fully understands the lesson.
Verbal communication encourages motivation. Words of appreciation from a teacher uplift the confidence level of learners. Hearing encouraging words from the teacher in class or in public seems more pleasant than a written comment in a workbook, and it can increase learner’s performance. Verbal communication is the best way to let your learners to feel valued and understood. Even a teacher with colleagues can learn to help each other easier in verbal communication. Verbal communication assists to save time, giving instruction to students verbally makes them to have a clear understanding of what is required and do what is required appropriately.
• IMPORTANCE OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Non-verbal communication goes hand in hand with public speaking, which can include eye contact, often glance, blink rate, gestures, facial expression and posture. Someone’s body language can tell everything without behaviour. Teachers tend to use non-verbal communication unintentionally, however they must try to control and manage them. To manage them it means to first understand the behaviour of a student or a person from another culture so that they cannot get wrong idea. A teacher must be aware that there are different learning styles in different cultures. Not all students will make eye contact in class, questioning the teacher or speak unless spoke to, in that case the teacher have to understand their cultural behaviour because they may not mean what the teacher think they mean. Learning about non-verbal cultural behaviour will not only improve a teacher’s interacting with learners but also with parents and staff members as well.
Eye contact can help the to connect with learners during lesson and the teacher can tell if learners are focused and understand what he/she is saying. Public gaze or eye contact varies across cultures. In other cultures, eye contact displays attentiveness and honesty but if you do not make eye contact you might be regarded as uninterested and untrustworthy. While on other cultures it is considered as being rude to look at someone on the eyes. So it is important for the teacher to understand cultural behaviour.
One of the most noticeable non-verbal communication is a facial expression. Facial expression shows someone’s emotions, it could be anger, disgust, happiness, sadness and surprise. Facial expression is considered and interpreted in a same way across cultures. Teacher won’t have much problem to understand student’s facial expression except that they are expressed in different situations. There are certain cultural rules and principles which don’t allow learners to display some facial expressions due to some circumstances, sometimes you have to mask or hide your emotions to not hurt others.
Teachers sometimes use gestures to pass message but they must use them correctly and smoothly because some gestures may have different meaning in different cultures. For example; nodding head means “I agree” in some cultures, but in other cultures it means “I don’t agree”. Teacher use gestures emphasise what they are saying, they may snap fingers. They use it to show approval or disapproval maybe by giving high five to agree or may nods head to disapprove. Other gestures involve body movement; some learners notice a teacher movement when trying to concentrate so the teacher must be careful with his/her movements.
3.1 ways in which Mr Lavender can manage conflicts positively
Invitational teachers can create classroom climates that promote self-discipline and even so conflicts will rise (Good and Brophy 2000). This signifies that conflicts occur regularly in schools or classrooms and learner usually don’t know how to deal with them. That is where invitation teachers need to play their vital role in assisting learners to resolve conflict positively instead of using violence. Learners can learn from the teacher on how to manage conflict through the use of classroom disciplines proposed by the teacher. for Mr Lavender resolve all the worries that he has for students he need come up or set classroom rules for discipline to build trust and respect in the learning environment.
Purkey and Novak (1996) have proposed a systematic approach to conflict management that addresses problems in ways that maintain invitation. Mr Lavender will need to use this system which uses the “Rule of the Six C’s” to discipline his learners positively from their bad behaviour without hurting their feelings. The C method will benefit both the teacher and learners and will also build interpersonal relationship among them. The first step is being concern, Mr Lavender have to acknowledge the conflict and be sure if it is really a problem. He need to understand the role that learners played to cause conflict and the reason for that role, getting to the root of the cause. Mr Lavender should think about the factors that influence the bad behaviour of his learners, he must look in all sides of the conflict to understand the problem.
After realising that there is a problem then he should confer with his learners, ask them to talk in private. Before they could talk the teacher must remember to remain calm so that the learner won’t feel personally attacked for something. when Mr Lavender rise his concern he should make it as inquiry not an accusation and rephrase his words. However, it is important for teacher to listen to the learner’s perspective and consider his/her feelings. During the talk the teacher should be kind, listening positively non-judging, show care. The learner must feel safe, valuable and responsible for their decision. If conferring succeed, then the teacher has to consult a learner but the teacher should avoid blaming the students. The learner must remember his/her responsibility and make an agreement with the teacher. Giving a learner a second chance. The teacher will now connect the choices and the consequences by confronting. The learner sort all the facts to construct and explain the main problem. The problem must be checked in details since they are sure that there is a problem. After they combat, enforces the consequences. They reach the possible solution maybe by drafting them down. As the conflict has not been resolved on previous stages now in this stage they to come possible solutions. As for Mr Lavender’s problem the possible solutions may be to: make a learning process interesting to learners for them to find the objectives of learning. He could link the school work with what learners like most. Arranging extra time for them to watch a motivating video with their teacher, a video that teaches a lesson that if you misbehave there would a punishment for or not to have a bright future. Giving prize to those who perform better to their school work can motivate others to perform better.
The last stage is to conciliate, re-build a working relationship. Invitational teacher and the learner should find an idea where when they compromise or communication more effective. Mr lavender will have to make changes where possible, changing rules of the class and teaching style.
3.2 it is held that teachers need to maintain teacher-student relationships within a professional territory (cf Austin 2006). The teacher need to keep a professional closeness and professional distance and yet having a teacher-learner relationship. Teacher s connect with their student every day and they may encounter that some students have personal problems that hinder them from learning effectively. The teacher
? Reasons why staff 0f Syazama Secondary school cannot be considered as a successful group
? There is no positive interdependent among the staff members and the principal. Staff members are not linked they are divided between those who are committed to their work and those who do the minimum that is required. The principal as the leader don’t structure this interdependence instead he set goals by himself without involving others.
? They lack face-to-face support interaction. They don’t encourage and facilitate each other as individuals to achieve and accomplish task. They don’t even have one aim or common goal to achieve since they are divided according to their performance. Staff members don’t support one another.
? No individual accountability, meaning they don’t strengthen one another in the field of performance. They don’t seem to help those who perform badly, doing the minimum that is required in order to ensure that the task is completed. They don’t attend the case of those who do less to ensure that they all cooperate equally and well.
? They don’t have social skills. For them to be a successful group they all need to be engaged with developed social skills. The principal lack leadership skills and decision making, he don’t communicate with other members, he take decision without anybody’s views.
? There is no progression in their cooperation. Nothing noticeable that each member can point as his/her contribution that have been helpful. All staff members should be asked, what each as a member can do to improve the group. (Szul 1995:12)
? Options to strengthen team-building efforts
• The first thing they need to strengthen their team-building effort is cooperation. Once they all cooperate, they will be motivated to work together and strive for common goal to achieve as a group.
• They must support each other and that in turn will build trust among staff members as a group. They would be able to share information and assist those that do the minimum to perform better and be committed as others. Members must work together as unit than being divided.
• They should communicate with one another to improve their teaching styles and skills. Communication will also help them to build interpersonal relationship among themselves as a group that will in turn stimulate their relationship with learners. Communication will uplift their reputation as a group.
• Principal should develop leadership skills to manage the school and staff. Good decisions are made when people work together. So the principal must engage with the management to have their views before taking a decision that involve everyone. The principal must set an example to staff members by developing positive interpersonal relationship. He has to motivate members and give direction to progression of work.
• Group members should appreciate one another and acknowledge each member’s effort. Value individual’s ideas, share strong points, special talents and experiences. As successful group they must know and help one another to over weaknesses to obtain better results.