Bullying computers, cellphones and other electronic devices. Beran

Bullying as per research studies, has taken an immense attention by many educators (Smith, 2014). As defined by Hindjua and Patchin (2012), bullying is a wilful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cellphones and other electronic devices. Beran (2005), also referred the term as a new form of bullying involving with purpose and repetitive harm that is directed at peers via electronic media. Masseni (2014), sees bullying as a purposeful violent act involving an imbalance of power committed overtime. Several related research were conducted to explore the nature of the behaviour and the methods of handling the major components of bullying namely; the bullies, the victims and the bystanders (Smith, 2014).
MacKay (2012) pointed out that bullying is one of the symptoms of a deeper problem in society that causes deterioration of responsible and respectful human relations. This aggressive behaviour has transformed from the school grounds to cyberspace (Juvonen & Gross, 2008). A close link between bullying and cyberbullying therefore suggests that information obtained from bullying research, can be instrumental for studies of cyberbullying (Li, 2008). Specifically, reviewing teachers’ views of bullying will provide information into teachers’ perceptions of cyberbullying (Hayashibara, 2017).
Subsequently, technology brought an advantage in terms of self-directed and differentiated learning because the world has become highly interconnected through social interactions where individuals can interact with more anonymity and less monitoring (Shal, 2016). For this reason, a more dangerous form of bullying termed cyberbullying emerged (Masseni, 2014; Yilmaz, 2010).
As claimed by Yilmaz (2010) due to the increased spread and usage of technology, Cyberbullying has become rampant in schools and extended bullying into the cyberspace and into the virtual experiences. This is in connotation with Ang (2015) description of cyberbullying, wherein he asserted that the availability of electronic devices and the increased used as well as accessibility to social media has provided students a new venue for bullying which is now known as cyberbullying.
As cited in the study conducted by Hayashibara (2017), cyberbullying encompasses graphic forms of aggression. This supports the idea of MacKay (2012), who stated that technology promotes behaviors that previous generations would deem offensive and rude. One example is sexting which is a type of cyberbullying involving the transmission of nude or suggestive photos. It brings about the dissemination of sexually explicit photos or graphics intending to embarrass victims. The use of electronic communication to distribute pornography and partake in harassment, social exclusion, and threatening behaviors is becoming more rampant with the increase in technology Moreover, cyberbullying can inflict far more serious and lasting pain on its victims than traditional face-to-face bullying (Goebert, Else, Matsu, Chung-Do, & Chang, 2011).
Teachers’ Perception of Cyber Bullying
The beliefs and perceptions of teachers towards cyberbullying play a major role in effectively shaping and controlling the phenomenon of cyberbullying among students, (Griezel et al., 2012 ; Stauffer, 2012).
As revealed in the study conducted by Rigby ; Johnson (2016), that there is an unrelenting belief among many teachers that most bullying nowadays is through cyber bullying despite numerous demonstrations in the research literature to the contrary (Olweus, 2012). Whilst this belief may encourage teachers to deal with a serious menace, it can lead to attention being taken away from other forms of bullying.
In a study conducted by Ghamrawi (2016), which investigated the Lebanese teachers’ perception of cyberbullying, the findings indicated that teachers reveal caution of cyberbullying among students and recognize its negative impact on them.
Furthermore, the study provides awareness to value the perceptions embraced by teachers in relation to cyberbullying. Whether a preventional program is to be implemented or an interventional program, it is believed that the support of teachers is key for its effectiveness and success (Ghamrawi, 2016).
This is supported by the study conducted by Hayashibara, (2017) whose findings revealed that increased parental and administrator involvement and encouraging students to report cyberbullying instances should be supported by the teachers as a form of intervention and prevention measures. His research findings further found out that over a third of participants agreed cyberbullying as a problem, and schools do not effectively address this issue.
Over half of respondents admitted their schools do not have a cyberbullying prevention program. The majority of teachers were concerned about cyberbullying and would intervene if they knew of a cyberbullying occurrence in school. They realized that students are affected by this problem. However, many teachers do not have enough knowledge on managing cyberbullying cases which results to a lack of confidence in detecting and handling cyberbullying. In regards to schools’ role in addressing cyberbullying, teachers supported counselling, partnering with parents, creating policy, and developing community partnerships (Hayashibara, 2017).
Similarly, as evident in the study conducted on twelve middle school teachers from a suburban middle school located in central New Jersey whose participants were asked to join a semi structured interviews and a mini-focus group. The results of the study indicated teachers perceived bullying as a serious problem but it is difficult for teachers to determine the extent of cyberbullying due to the hidden nature of cyberbullying (Strobel, 2016).
In a journal entitled Teachers’ perceptions, beliefs and concerns about cyberbullying authored by Eden et. al (2013), the researchers contends that in dealing with teen-age violence, including cyberbullying- the teachers and educators have a vital role. Moreover, it is essential to know the beliefs and perceptions of teachers about bullying in order to help the teachers develop skills to cope with it (Siu, 2004).
As revealed in the above study conducted by Eden et. al (2013), the teachers are paying cautious attention regarding cyberbullying. The results of the study enlisted the following concerns of the teachers; their con?dence in handling cyberbullying problems was not high; they believe that the school has an obligation to deal with cyberbullying; and they believe that cyberbullying is a vital issue and should be studied by teachers and educators. Some teachers were themselves cyberbullied and about half of the teachers accounted for the students complain of cyberbullying. Regarding the teachers’ gender, the study revealed that female teachers were more concerned than male teachers about cyberbullying, they also expressed a higher belief in the school’s dedication to address the issue and had more faith in the significance of learning about cyberbullying. Furthermore, it was found that the teachers’ scholastic level and the age of the students they taught affected their level of concern about cyberbullying and therefore how credible they found the school’s commitment to act on it is influenced by the teachers’ educational background (Eden et al, 2013).
Similarly, as revealed in Li’s (2008) study, the result showed that most of the teachers stated their concerns about cyberbullying, they believe that it is the school’s commitment and responsibility to deal with it, and they felt the need to learn more about it, to be trained how to cope with the subject and to be more familiar with speci?c training programs.
In recent remark, though cyberbullying has increased signi?cantly. Teachers’ perspectives regarding cyberbullying has only a limited number of focused studies. With regards to examining differences according to gender and professional diversity, there are only a few focused studies as well. Women, have speci?c characteristics, such as being more protective than men. It can be assumed that this characteristic has an in?uence on the women/men perception regarding the violence phenomenon of cyberbullying. Also it can be assumed that teachers of young children will be more concerned of the child well-being and safety compared to teachers of older children (Eden, Sigal & Heiman, Tali & Olenik Shemesh, Dorit, 2013).
Students’ Perception of Cyberbullying
As cited in the study conducted by Compton et.al (2014), it is an essential factor to understand the motivation of students who cyberbully in conceptualizing preventive measure and intervention efforts for this threatening form of bullying. This is manifested in the results of the study they conducted which suggested that the differences was not only in definitions of cyberbullying and bullying between the three groups of their research participants, but also there were differences in perceptions of what motivates some youth to cyberbully.
Approximately, the literature discloses that 21% of high school students – 21.8% of female and 19.5% of male students had experienced cyberbullying. High and middle school students experienced 17% of 1 or higher forms of incidents 2 to 3 times in the last 30 days, and experienced 14% of incidents in general upsetting or mean-spirited messaging; and 16.8% of high and middle school students were attackers or perpetrators (Patchin ; Hinduja, 2012).
As manifested in this data, 22% of college students – 22% of female and 21.9% of male students – with 25% of incidents occurring on social networking sites has experienced cyberbullying. This only implies that investigations on cyberbullying was experienced as frequently by college students according to a research done in Indiana State University (2011). Also 8.6% of tertiary education students were the person behind the cyberbullying cases (MacDonald ; Roberts-Pittman, 2010), the majority of whom were already middle, high or elementary school perpetrators or victims (Walker, Sockman, ; Koehn, 2011). Though male students may be more involved in perpetration than female students (Chapell et al., 2004), literature have showed that even female students were more involved in both perpetration and victimization (Snell ; Englander, 2010).
Because the literature on cyberbullying is focused most of the time on high school and middle school students, the notion may be that cyberbullying is limited to high and middle school learners and not a dilemma for college students who are considered emerging adults (Zacchilli ; Valerio, 2011).
Electronic bullying is determined by class room as well as individual level factors as identified by Elledge et al., (2013) in his study. One factor that he identified is the individual’s perception of not becoming a victim of cyber bullying is more likely to become victim of such incidents. On the other hand, the incidence of cyber bullying in class rooms are relatively less as they are being monitored by their teachers. Consequently, indicating the fact that the bullying took place in class is more of indirect form rather than direct owing to the risk of being intervened by the class teacher.
In another study, Sticca & Perren (2013) pointed out the fact that the bully harass or attack with the purpose to expose victim regardless of medium; as the adolescents perceive such attack as an embarrassing and shameful incidents attached with severe consequences to harm their public status and image. Hence this form of aggression i.e. to attack on one’s image and reputation electronically is a brutal form of aggression causing severe results on target within the less time period.
Another scholar, Schenk ; Fremouw (2012) investigated that such incidents lead to the segregation of a victim form society as he start avoiding his friends, or discontinue to attend public events. Moreover, they do not report to their adults with the perception that they hold less knowledge regarding these tools and it won’t be helpful for them (Elledge et al., 2013). Students ‘ adoption of such online technologies in their day to day activities can lead to consequences that may either be positive or negative.
The literature highlights the fact that one who bullies electronically are more than often seems to be students from school; where they target their friends or siblings while half of them are those who prefer to target strangers and leads to such incidents in result of some school event (Mishna 2012). Such form of maltreatment is staggering since few years; as youth find it as an attractive way to harass others (either relative or non-relative) by hiding their identity or via stealing someone else name to get fun of the situation or for exchanging a fact that is hard to communicate otherwise. Moreover, anonymity makes a perpetrator more fearless and a mean to take revenge from their mates through cyber space; hence 11% of them reported that they never come to know the identity of their perpetrator (Mishna, Cook, Gadalla, Daciuk, ; Solomon, 2010). Anonymity is also perceived important by cyber bully than the medium to be opted; as the severity heightens owing to the hidden identity of bully. Moreover the fear to receive messages irrespective of time rises the insecurity among teenagers; leading to severe outcomes such as helplessness and depression (Mishna, 2010). The anonymity to be revealed is still a hardest problem; the victim feels high level of depression because of hidden identity of perpetrator (Sticca ; Perren, 2013). The cyber bullying has been widely researched (Kowalski ; Limber, 2007) the occurrence of cyber bullying among teenagers and the risk associated with in bully and target category has not been researched yet. The extended use of cyber space as a mode of communication has risen the risks associated with more prospects for youth of being abused online (Mishna et al., 2012).
Based on the review of related literature, it has been found that there is a dearth of materials related to the relationships of the two variables. Hence, this study focused on the perceptions of teachers’ and students on cyberbullying at Toribio Minor National High School, District of Margosatubig, Zamboanga del Sur.

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