Before bodily functions. When the hypothalamus is activated

Before the bee stung, you may have looked back and realized that you started sweating and had red skin. Harvard Health Publishing (2016) states that these affects are due to what is known as the “fight-or-flight” response. The process that occurs during the fight-or-flight response is initiated by the amygdala. When you first notice the bee, this sends a red alert to your amygdala because you know you are allergic and, for those not allergic, bee stings hurt. When the amygdala senses this change in environment it sends a signal to your hypothalamus. Your hypothalamus is a part of your Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and regulates many involuntary bodily functions. When the hypothalamus is activated it passes a signal along to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands release epinephrine, more commonly known as adrenaline, into the blood stream. This results in several physiological changes. When the increased amount of adrenaline reaches the blood stream it causes vasoconstriction to protect against damage (it hides). It also causes your sweat glands to open to allow quick cooling when it reaches your sweat glands because it anticipates heavy activity.
In relation to homeostatic control systems, Patton and Thibodeau (2016) provide clarity on the definitions involved in the system. Ultimately, in relation to the previous paragraph, the control pathway would be the ANS. The sensor involved would be the amygdala, as this is what recognized the change in environment (recognized stressor). The control center would be the hypothalamus, as this is what received input from the sensor. The effector in the previously described situation would be the adrenal gland. The adrenal gland directly sends the increased amount of epinephrine throughout the system. As explained by Medline Plus (2017) is usually around 0- 140 pg/ml. When the adrenal gland releases more epinephrine, this amount doubles. The response of the epinephrine to the sweat glands is for them to open and prepare for increased activity (fight or flight), which causes sweating. The response of the blood vessels to the epinephrine is for them to reroute majorities of blood to muscles and vital organs, causing skin redness. Ultimately, your body is ready for the sprint to the car.


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