BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Saccharomyces paradoxus

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Saccharomyces paradoxus, is the closest known relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae commonly known as brewer’s yeast that has been proven by many previous researches that can remove heavy metal compounds (Johnson et al. 2004). It is a type of yeast that can be found on the bark of a deciduous (tending to fall) tree. Potential metal biosorbents such as algae, bacteria, fungi and yeast are capable of bioreduction. Adsorption is a very effective process for a variety of applications, and is considered economical and widely applicable. It creates relatively little sludge and is an efficient method for metal ions removal from wastewaters (McKay, 1996; Kannan and Rengasamy, 2005).

(Focardi et al. 2013) stated that coming up with a project or new technologies that involves “the removal of different toxic metals has directed attention to bio-adsorption, biosorption, bioreduction, and biofilm formation” (Batool et al. 2015). The removal of the different toxic heavy metals from the environment is an important challenge.

Canal waters, which contain heavy metal compounds specifically Zinc and Iron, are connected to rivers that’s also connected to seas and oceans. Zhang et al. (2005) stated that wastes that contain metals are considered to be hazardous to both human life and the environment due to their acute toxicity and non-biodegradability, even when the heavy metals are present at trace concentrations. This can lead to various disorders and can also result in excessive damage due to oxidative stress (imbalance between the oxygen and biological ability to detoxify) induced by free radical formation. This gives details about some heavy metals and their toxicity mechanisms, along with their health effects. Heavy metal poisoning could result from drinking-water contamination (e.g. lead pipes), high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate (absorbing a substance at a given rate). Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over a period of time. Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and stored faster than they are broken down (metabolized) or excreted. Heavy metals can enter a water supply by industrial and consumer waste, or even from acidic rain breaking down soils and releasing heavy metals into streams, lakes, rivers, and groundwater. From these statements it was concluded that canal waters are dangerous and can cause different diseases.

Microbial-assisted removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater effluents was subsequently studied using either synthetic or simulated wastewater, and effluents obtained from electroplating and leather tanning plants. Microbial assisted removal of different heavy metal compounds using free oils of this yeast isolate required only one tank bioreactor. Conorado et al. (n.d) explained that for immobilized yeast cells, treatment was done in one or two tanks bioreactor system depending on the volume of wastewater involved.

. A lot of different methods for the removal of metal ions from waste waters have been developed (Ahn et al., 2008). (Ahn et al., 2009, Xiong et al., 2009) explained that several processes have been suggested to remove heavy metals from wastewaters such as “chemical precipitation, ion exchange, cementation, coagulation, flocculation, complexation, biosorption, adsorption, and membrane processes. However, most of this processes or methods have disadvantages, such as continuous input of chemicals, high costs and even incomplete metal removal (Minceva et al., 2007). Thus, this study is designed to help improve the body of knowledge that was given by the previous researches and to fill the gap on the study of the Isolation of Heavy Metal Compounds using Vanrija. The researchers decided to come up with a project that will help to remove different heavy metal compounds from these canal waters using the Saccharomyces paradoxus which is one of the closest to Saccharomyces Cerevisiae that can also remove heavy metal compounds.

Statement of the Problem
This study aims to investigate the removal of the different heavy metal compounds (Iron and Zinc) from Canal Water using the Bio-adsorption Potential of Saccharomyces paradoxus. Specifically this study aims to answer the following:
1. What is the Pre-assessment condition of canal water in the heavy metals content in terms of:
a. Effect on pH
b. Metal Concentration
2. What is the Post-assessment condition of the canal water after the adsorption of different heavy metal compounds using Saccharomyces paradoxus in terms of:
a. Effect on pH
b. Metal Concentration
3. Is there a significant difference between the Pre-assessment condition of canal water versus the Post-assessment condition of the Canal water after the bio-adsorption of different heavy metal compounds in terms of:

a. Effect on pH
b. Metal Concentration

Hypothesis/Hypotheses
This study will test the hypothesis in its null form (Ho) at 0.05 level of significance:
There is no significant difference between the pre-assessment condition of the canal water and the post-assessment condition of canal water after the process.

Significance of the Study
This study hopes to establish the understanding on the bio-adsorption potential of Saccharomyces paradoxus in removing heavy metal compounds from canal water. Furthermore, the study could be of importance to the following:
Farmers.
The removal of different heavy metal compounds from canal water can help our dear farmers because they may use this as an alternative watering for the plants because it has less amount of pollutants which will lead to healthy crops. They may also use this as an alternative food for the crops.
Community.
The removal of heavy metal compounds from canal water can help in reducing the number of people having Leptospirosis and Dengue which are diseases that is caused by dirty water. A lot of people are suffering from this kind of diseases.

Air.
The removal of this compounds can help in lessening pollutants in the air that are caused by canal waters coming from factories, restaurants, hotels and other public places.

Living Organisms in different Bodies of Water.
Organisms like fishes can accumulate compounds in their body and if this happens they are going to bio-magnify up the food chain.
Soil.
Heavy metal compounds can negatively affect the microorganisms present in the soil. It can also contribute in the contamination of the ground water. Heavy Metal Compounds are threat to the production of the farmlands.