Background:Non-communicable diseases are disease that caused by prolonged exposure to certain environmental lifestyle or socio-economic factors, this condition develop often over a period of time and lead to premature death, disability and poor quality of life.(Walley J, 2010).The increase in non-communicable diease had been warned by international agency,International agencies and it is considerd one of the main threat to future development ,governments in developing countries need to focus further on prevention and control through healthy policies(Walley J, 2010).
Non-communicable dieases such as chrononic pulmonary diseases (COP) ,cancer cardiovascular diseases (CVD) diabetics as been noted an emrging pandemic world wide and developing countries are notice to be having higher rates. (Islam et al., 2014)Non-communicable diseases previously has been classified as disease for the rich and advanced countries (Wanger,K 2012).However this concept is proving wrong, the alarming data by WHO below shows reverse results with about 80% of non-communicable disease occurring in developing countries. Burden of Non-Communicable DiseasesAccording to World Health organization (WHO) by 2020 non-communicable dieases will account for 80% death worldwide while in developing countries it would be 7 out of every 10 death around age of 70.In the next 10 years the burden of the disease will rise to abot 17% and 27% in region African region.Nearly 50% of death in Asia are linked to non-communicable diease.
(WHO, 2013) Uganda has a total 27% of death caused by non-communicable diease acoording to WHO country profile in 2014.Uganda is smiliar to other developing countries where there have been change noticed in the epidemiological move by higher rates of non-communicable dieases ,the higher rates of non-communicble dieases has increased pressure on the already burden caused by communicable diease. The ministr of health in Uganda had introduced polices that addreses non-communicable dieases.(Wandera, et al 2015)Treating non-communicable dieases are very expensive,studies have shown that there is a problem of equity within developing countries for instant in Japan excellent treatment and rehabilitation services are offered to women with non-communicable dieases around USD 550 per year whilst in Sierra Leone women recived around 3USD for medicines and treatment.(Boutayeb and Boutayeb, 2005).This is a pure evidence of differences within health system of developing countries; some countries reach the level of almost providing free health services to their citizen while others such as Sierra Leon are yet to reach that level.(a) How does lifestyle contribute to prevalence of non-communicable diseases in your1-Physical Activity.The use of technology and globalization has had a negative impct on lifestly where the level of physical activities had dramatically reduced.
People prefer to drive rather than working,all farms of work that were done manually had been mechanized.(Nick Wooding, 2012)2- Harmful use of alcohol.There has been increasing mobility and mortality through alcohol related diseases such ascancers, liver cirrhosis and cardiovascular due to the abuse of alcohol.Studies in Uganda slumshave noted that many jogbless youth are entertaining them self with locally breawed alcoholdueing during working hours of the day .(Nick Wooding, 2012)3-Nutrition There have been dramatically shift from local food to processes food from western coutries,this shift has had an impact on the eating style of African people that had been propagate mainly by commercial advertising and mass media promoting foods from the west.
For example, fast food companies such as McDonalds and king of fried chicken (KFC) in low and middle –income countries has influence the eating habits mainly the youth and young children. .(Nick Wooding, 2012)Additionally, having unhealthy diet has been significantly linked by the culture of eating away from home as a result tight programs and lack of ample time to cook .For example, studies in all almost all commercial hubs in Uganda have indicated that fast foods sellers do good trade with foods like fried chicken, chapatti, chips and fried fish. These foods are catogorised by high calories, high salt and fats content and are consumed together with carbonated drinks .
(Nick Wooding, 2012)4. Smoking and TobaccoAs population go through transition, more poor and uneducated people are affected by the use of tobacco, most tobacco growth and cigarette manufacturing is now taking place in developing countries. Free tobacco trade is becoming one of international monetary Fund’s conditions for loans in Eastern Europe and Asia, such trade liberalization is making cigarette cheaper, easily accessible and better marketed .(Nick Wooding, 2012)(b)What would be the role of a public health specialist in control of these diseases at your country? As a public health specialist I would design a control program for non-communicable diseaseat the national level which would be in the ministry and community level through partnershipwith Community,National and international organization.
National Level:1. At the national level I would design strategies, policies and action plan for non-communicable diseases and the different risk factors associated with it such as harmful use of alcohol smoking, tobacco, unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity.2. Produce guide lines on how to manage and prevent non-communicable diseases3. In cooperate WHO MPOWER package as a method of controlling the use of tobacco 4. Allocate a special budget for training and research on non-communicable diseases annually so as to give a clear picture of non-communicable disease trends and as a means to evaluate impact of program at the national and community level5. Introducing policies of physical activity programs in schools as well as national physical activity day for all citizens to be fit6.
In cooperating non-communicable diseases to primary health care ,7. Strengthening the monitoring and reporting systemCommunity Level:At this level the control programme will focus mainly on health education and health promotion, where different actors within the community are brought on board. Based on the criteria for development of health education and health promotion the following measure would be taken to control non-communicable diseases (Wurzbach, M.
E. ed., 2004)1-Address one or more risk factors associated with the diseases in the community through awareness raising program, for example high consumption of alcohol.2-Design intervention according to priorities and preference of community3-Intervention deign should clearly and effectively reduces a targeted risk factors and are appropriate for specific settings, for example personal and environmental factors4-The program should identify and implement intervention that makes optimum use of available resources.ConclusionNon-communicable diseases are the major causes of death in developing countries. The burden of the diseases have lead to economic loss due to low productivity, there are affordable and cheapest way of controlling NCDs such as increase in physical activities ,low salt intake and sensitizing programs to the community about non-communicable disease.
More public health measure needs to be in place such as laws, policies and regulations. Governments in developing countries need to build partnership with international organization such as WHO to the decrease burden. Introduction:Pedagogy of the oppressed was written in 1968 by Paulo Freire an educator by profession he was born in Brazil his main area was education and he worked with poor communities in Brazil and Latin America.Padagogy of the oppressed was first published in Portuguese and later on translated to English.
the book is divided in to four chapters chapter one focus on the oppressors are dehumanized by the oppressed and the different ways in which they become deeply involved in the situation that they think it’s normal and that’s how life is supposed to be without critically thinking and analyzing why are things happening around them in that way. In chapter two Paulo scrutinized the banking system of education as tool used by the oppressor who is the master the students who don’t know anything.Chapter three and four is about dialogue and its importance to the oppressed as well as the different ant dialogical theories used by the oppressed to impose their agendaChapter one: Paulo starts by defining the oppressed as an abstract category and sees them as persons who are deprived of their voices and cheated in the sale of their labor he added that the oppressed are the ones who understand their situation better than anyone else as well as the struggle for freedom. However the oppressors themselves become afraid for the struggle liberation is a struggle and the oppressed cannot get liberation for free it’s a sacrifice that the oppressors have to unite and work to achieve it through dialogical method, however during for the struggle liberation the oppressed are faced with many challenges they become afraid to struggle for their freedom because they have adopted and duplicated the strategies of the oppressors about themselves and communities and they tend to believe that that’s how life is because they don’t know when you’re out of oppressed how does it fells, and so they become and so they are scared of new role that comes with an independence state. furthermore he added that oppression leads to dehumanization of the oppressed and consequently they become mistreated in these process they don’t think critically because they are benefiting from that situation however the only way they can reason is when the take themselves out of such position this is when they would start to think critically and start questioning to know and understand why are things happening this way and what could be the causes Chapter two: This chapter Paulo examines the banking system of the education and discloses its importance to the oppressors as a method of decreasing students trust. in this method of education the teacher is considered the depositors who believes that he knows everything whist the student listen attentively and memories without analyzing and questioning what is being thought Paulo said education is sick and is suffering from narration education is not about listening but a process of understanding and sharing of knowledge where students develop critical consciousness.
Paulo believes that problem-posing education and dialogue gives both the student and teacher the chance to learn from each other and becomes effective and efficient citizen. the author further analyses this system as a way where student don’t become transformers of the world but rather fully accept submissive role imposed negate 4-1 cultural invasion: Freire talks of cultural invasion as one of the anitidialogical action and he further said that invades penetrates cultural contexts of another group they impose their own views of the world upon those they invade and prevent the creativeness of the people invaded this is exactly what is happening in Uganda heath system in relation to the donor funding and support verses ministry of health priorities the oppressed need a lot of work to fight and oppressive to fight a system which they live in lack of incentives to health workers working in the field.