AWARENESS ON EFFECT OF TOOTH BLEACHING AND DEMINERALISATION AMONG SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION – A SURVEY
Type of manuscript : Survey article
Running Title : Tooth bleaching and its demineralisation
Tasleem Abitha S
Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University
Co – Guide
Dr. Vishnu Priya
Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University
Mrs. Gayathri R
Department of Biochemistry
Saveetha Dental College
162, Poonamallee High Road
Chennai = 600077
Tamil Nadu, India.
Faculty Email ID : [email protected]
Telephone Number : +91 97106 80545
Word count :
To create awareness and assess the effect of demineralisation in bleached teeth among South Indian population
MATERIALS AND METHOD
A group of people who have undergone tooth bleaching in homes as well as clinics were selected
and examined with the questionnaire prepared. The information collected through the survey is analysed and presented in statistics.
People take up this treatment with interest and more enthusiasm, where they are lacking the interest to know the dangers and side effects of the treatment. So due to lack of care and poor maintenance of their teeth, they end up with demineralisation leading to white lesions along with cavities and caries. Hence from this survey, Awareness on Tooth bleaching and demineralisation was produced among the South Indian population.
Oral health is an important part of systemic health. So from this survey Awareness on demineralisation and side effects of tooth bleaching was given to the common people of South India.
Teeth whitening, Demineralisation, Home remedies, Enamel Erosion, White lesions.
Tooth bleaching is also called as Tooth whitening which is either the restoration of a natural tooth shade or whitening beyond the natural shade 1.
It’s also refers to removing dirt and debris from the teeth. This removes the stain leaving the enamel crack open and exposed. Some of the cracks are quickly re-mineralised by saliva, while others are filled up again with organic debris.
Tooth bleaching are mostly preferred by the people whose teeth looks more yellow and brownish in colour which is known as Teeth Discolouration. They are of two types : Extrinsic and Intrinsic and age-related 2.
EXTRINSIC : This occurs when the outer layer (Enamel) of the tooth is stained. Coffee, Wine, Cola or other drinks can stain teeth. Other factors such as
dental plaque and calculus, tobacco, metallic compound, etc 3 4.
INTRINSIC : This occurs when the inner layer (Dentin) of the tooth darkens or
gets a yellow tint. These stains are caused by certain dental materials, dental
conditions like caries 5, trauma, infections, medications, root resorption 6, nutritional deficiencies, genetic defects and hereditary diseases.
Betel chewing are one of the major reason for tooth discolouration 5. Tooth bleaching is one of the most commonly preferred treatment among cosmetics dentistry for making people’s teeth look clean and beautiful. Inspite of all the
advantages of tooth bleaching, there are certain side effects in it like,
increased sensitivity of the teeth 6 and irritation of the gums and mucous membrane 7, and over bleaching leads to damage to enamel 8 and weakened Dentin 9.
In the recent world, people wanted there teeth to look white and attractive when they smile, so even without consulting a dentist they take up bleaching method to whiten there teeth without remembering the future consequences. So finally, they end up having demineralised teeth along other side effects. Along with the other activities done by our body, people nowadays are giving equal importance to the way they talk and smile also. They wanted to rise heights in there confident level with a shining teeth. Basically, It is an usual habit in everyone’s life, initiating there day by brushing. But undergoing a treatment for permanent whitening is actually modernised and new from our normal stories.
But commonly people whoever is taking up this bleaching treatment, often forget the side effects and dangers they face. So rather than undergoing clinical treatments for bleaching, using home remedies at home for whitening are far better, easier, affordable with lesser side effects.
The aim of the survey is to create awareness and assess the effect of demineralisation in bleached teeth among South Indian population.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
This was an online survey undertaken by using the link https://surveyplanet.com/
This survey was taken by about 116 people who have undergone the treatment of tooth whitening in home as well as in dental clinics. The information collected through the survey is analysed and presented in statistics.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
One hundred and sixteen people were examined for the survey.
Fig.1 : 50% of the people’s reason to take up tooth bleaching is to gain a good impression at there first sight with an beautiful winning smile. And 18.1% of the population prefer Tooth bleaching on a purpose of making there teeth white and bright. And the other 31.9% of the population prefer Tooth bleaching to maintain a good self esteem and also as there dentists suggestion.
So from the above study it is noted that, majority of the individuals not only gives importance to there physical looks and outfits but also to the way they talk, laugh and smile. These individuals must be attention seekers, beauty conscious and also economically rich backgrounder. But why people are going wild even when they knew the consequences to be faced ? Because a big bright smile seems to have an influence upon the people and makes the individual more likeable and approachable 10. But as well the person should be aware of the side effects too.
Fig. 2 : 61 people believe that there teeth is getting stained more because of consuming Coffee and Tea despite brushing there teeth twice a day. From the study it is analysed well that, when people do there brushing and cleaning correctly using the right technique and the suitable toothpaste (or) tooth powder for there teeth itself, there are 85% of the chances to reduce teeth discolouration, which will further not allow the individuals to follow tooth bleaching/whitening techniques 11 12.
So for the growing young generation, Awarenesses and correct method of brushing and flossing there teeth should be thought by there parents and adults of there family. So that they won’t end up bleaching and spending money for there teeth in the future. And it is also every parents duty to make kids follow the right habit.
Fig. 3 : According to the Survey, Baking soda and lemon orange peels are the widely used home remedies to bleach participants teeth. In modern times, baking soda was used as tooth powders to brush people’s teeth 13 and now it is being used to whiten people’s teeth. In this survey, main part of the people selected Baking soda as there remedy to bleach teeth, as it is cheap in price, gives instant whiteness, easy to use with more good benefits and lesser side effects.
Next to it, Early morning oil pullings are done by most of the people to whiten there teeth. Oil pulling is noting but it is an Indian Ayurvedic folk practice in which oil is swished around or held in the mouth 14. Its is followed by n number of people all around the world to keep there mouth clean and healthy. This method has more number of benefits to be cherished and one among them is Tooth whitening 15.
And from the survey it is analysed that, Oil pulling among Indian population is very common and followed by even young children.
Fig. 4 : 82% of the people claim the fact that, tooth bleaching leads to demineralisation which affects the structure of the tooth along with our bones.
Fig. 5 : And also 60 people out of 116 people have faced white lesions along with cavities in there teeth due to demineralisation. Due to this reason people whoever undergone Tooth bleaching in dental clinics once in there life, gave up on it because of there health issues and dental problems. Around 69 people out of 116 people are unhappy with there treatment of Tooth bleaching.
Home remedies for tooth bleaching are also not safer when it crosses the number of time done without an limit. Too much bleaching will cause the teeth to appear very translucent 16. Treatment in home for whitening teeth can have significant negative effects on tooth enamel 17.
So proper maintenance should be followed by the participants who have undergone whitening to maintain the bleached teeth in an accurate manner 18 Like
• Brush of floss mouth after eating and drinking
• Do touch up treatments
• Chewing gums
• Using straw for drinking harsh beverages
From the survey it is seen that 69% of the people who took tooth bleaching treatment a year before are not satisfied with the process due to demineralisation of there teeth. So rather than treatments usage of home remedies to whiten there teeth are more safer and easier than other clinical procedures. And it also gives instant whitening to the teeth and also easily affordable by everyone. So from this survey Awareness on demineralisation and side effects of tooth bleaching was given to the common people.
1. Herekar M; Mangalvedhekar M; Fernandes A (Dec 2010). “The Most Prevalent Tooth Shade in a Particular Population: A survey”. Journal of the Indian Dental Association. 4 (12).
2. Chi AC, Damm DD, Neville BW, Allen CA, Bouquot J (11 June 2008). Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 70–74. ISBN 978-1-4377-2197-3.
3. Rajendran A; Sundaram S (10 February 2014). Shafer’s Textbook of Oral Pathology (7th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences APAC. pp. 386, 387. ISBN 978-81-312-3800-4.
4. Barnes DM, Kihn PW, Romberg E, George D, DePaola L, Medina E. Clinical evaluation of a new 10% carbamide peroxide tooth-whitening agent. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1998; 19:968–972, 977–978.
5. Crispian Scully (21 July 2014). Scully’s Medical Problems in Dentistry. Elsevier Health Sciences UK. ISBN 978-0-7020-5963-6.
6. Watts, A; Addy, M (2001-03-24). “Tooth discolouration and staining : Tooth discolouration and staining: a review of the literature”. British Dental Journal. 190 (6): 309–316. doi: 10.1038/ sure.bdj.4800959. ISSN 1476-5373.
7. Li, Y (1996). “Biological properties of peroxide-containing tooth whiteners”. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 34 (9): 887–904. doi:10.1016/s0278-6915(96)00044-0. PMID 8972882.
8. Haywood, Van & Houck, V.M. & Heymann, H.O.. (1991). Nightguard vital bleaching: Effects of various solutions on enamel surface texture and color. Quintessence Int. 22. 775-782.
9. Lewinstein, I.; Hirschfeld, Z.; Stabholz, A.; Rotstein, I. (February 1994). “Effect of hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate on the microhardness of human enamel and dentin”. Journal of Endodontics. 20 (2): 61–63.
10. Gladstone, G. (2002). “When you’re smiling, does the whole world smile for you?”. Australasian Psychiatry. Vol. 10(2). June 2002. (144-146).
11. M. Addy, M.L. Hunter. ” Can tooth brushing damage your health? Effects on oral and dental tissues”. International Dental Journal, (June 2003) Vol.53(53). (177-186).
12. Curtis, Jeannette (13 November 2007). “Effective Tooth Brushing and Flossing”. WebMD. Retrieved 2007-12-24.
13. Ganesan S (April 2008), “Traditional oral care medicinal plants survey of Tamil Nadu”. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Research (IJNPR). NPR Vol. 7(2) March – April 2008 . ISSN : 0975-1092.
14. Sooryavanshi S, Mardikar BR (1994). “Prevention and treatment of diseases of mouth by gandoosha and kavala”. Ancient Science of Life. 13 (3–4): 266–70.
15. Hujoel PP, Cunha-Cruz J, Banting DW, Loesche WJ (2006). “Dental flossing and interproximal caries: a systematic review”. J Dent Res. 85 (4): 298–305.
16. Betke, H; Kahler, E; Reitz, A; Hartmann, G; Lennon, A; Attin, T (2006). “Influence of bleaching agents and desensitizing varnishes on the water content of dentin”. Operative dentistry. 31 (5): 536–42. doi:10.2341/05-89. PMID 17024940.
17. Azer, SS; Machado, C; Sanchez, E; Rashid, R (2009). “Effect of home bleaching systems on enamel nanohardness and elastic modulus”. Journal of Dentistry. 37 (3): 185–90. doi:10.1016/j.jdent.2008.11.005. PMID 19108942.
18. Swift EJ, May KN, Wilder AD, Heymann HO, Wilder RS, Bayne SC. Six-month clinical evaluation of a tooth whitening system using an innovative experimental design. J Esthet Dent 1997; 9:265–274.
19. Karthikeyan Murthykumar, “The impact of milk with Xylitol on dental caries”. Journal of pharmaceutical science and research. Vol.5(9), 2013, 178 – 180.
20. Trinaina Somas Kandhan, Gayathri. R, Vishnu Priya. V. “Awareness of Carpel Tunnel Syndrome – A survey”. Journal of pharmaceutical science and research. Vol.44(1), May-June 2017; Article No. 6, Pages : 24-26.