Authentication refers to the task of verifying the

Authentication refers to the task of verifying the identity of aperson/softwareconnecting to an application. The simplest form of authenticationconsists of asecret password that must be presented when a user connects to theapplication.Unfortunately, passwords are easily compromised, for example, byguessing, orby sniffing of packets on the network if the passwords are notsent encrypted.More robust schemes are needed for critical applications, such asonline bankaccounts. Encryption is the basis for more robust authenticationschemes.Many applications use two-factor authentication, where two independentfactors (that is, pieces of information or processes) are used to identifya user.

Thetwo factors should not share acommon vulnerability; for example, if a systemmerelyrequired two passwords, both could be vulnerable to leakage in the samemanner.While biometrics such as fingerprints or iris scanners can be used insituationswhere a user is physically present at the point of authentication, theyarenot very meaningful across a network. Passwords are used as the first factor inmost such two-factor authentication schemes. Smart cards or other encryptiondevices connected through the USBinterface,which can be used for authentication based on encryption techniques are widelyused as second factors.

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 1)   Authorization:- the selected After users are successfullyauthenticated against the selected data source, they are than authorized forspecific data or database or network resources. Authorization is basically whata user can and cannot do on the network after that user is authenticated.Authorization is typicallyimplemented using a AAA server-based solution. Authorization uses a created setof attributes that describes the user’s access to the specific data or database.These attributes are compared to information contained within the AAA database,and determination of restrictions for that user is made and delivered to thelocal router where the user is connected.2)   Encryption:-Encryption can be used toencrypt data while it is in transit or while it’s stored on a hard drive.

Cryptography is the study of protecting information by mathematicallyscrambling the data, so it cannot be deciphered without knowledge of themathematical formula used to encrypt it. This mathematical formula is known asthe encryption algorithm. Cryptography is composed of two words: crypt (meaningsecret or hidden) and graphy (meaning writing).

Cryptography literally meanssecret or hidden writing. Cleartext is the plan text which can be read byeveryone and understandable data, and cipher text is the scrambled text as aresult of the encryption process. Cipher text should be unreadable and show norepeatable pattern to ensure the confidentiality of the data.There are three criticalelements to data security. Confidentiality, integrity, and authentication areknown as the CIA triad.

Data encryption provides confidentiality, meaning thedata can only be read by authorized users. Message hashing provides integrity,which ensures the data sent is the same data received and the information wasnot modified in transit. Message digital signatures provide authentication(ensuring users are who they say they are) as well as integrity. Message encrypting,and digital signatures together provide confidentiality, authentication, andintegrity.  


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