1.1 Outline the stages of human growth and development
The table below demonstrates the 6 stages of the human growth and development with signing the most significant areas of physical, cognitive, emotional and social changes which is the most typical of each stage.
Stages Age Main areas of growth, & development
Stage 1 Infancy from 0- 3 years Powerful growth in every areas
Stage 2 Childhood from 3 -10 years Individual Personality
and mayor cognitive
Stage 3 Adolescence from 11- 18 years Puberty begins
Sexual maturity reached
Stage 4 Early adulthood from 19- 40 years Maximum sexual activity
good motor skills
Stage 5 Middle adulthood from 40 – 65 years Ageing process,
Stage 6 Late adulthood from 65 and beyond Ageing process deepens,
Decline of cognitive and
1.2 Outline social, emotional, cognitive and physical development within one life stage.
The age of adolescence is about between age 11 – 18 we can say teens because difficult to decide exactly when it begins and ends. Adolescence completes at the end of the teens. Some young person are relatively mature others pre-pubertal.
Intellectual, biological, emotional and social maturity can vary widely. Adolescence a time of transition between childhood and adulthood.
Physical development and hormonal development
Growth spurt adolescence undergo a radical changes.
In girls between 11-13 – 9 kg/ year, in boys between 12-15 years 11 kg/ year.
Significant external and hormonal changes occur.
Transformation of puberty contributes to the reproductive process.
Secondary sexual characteristics develop in both sex.
But pace of development varies from one individual to another Later this causes emotional and social conflict in the mind of adolescent and with the peer or sometimes rivalization can occur.
subcutaneous fat is forming, breast enlarging, pubic hair is appearing,
Heading towards the mature size and shape of body
Oestrogen hormone is developing, menarche is beginning.
penis, testes begin enlarging,
More muscles are growing, strengthening and the shoulders widening, reaching the physical mature size of body
Androgen hormone producing
Experiencing “wet nights”
Cognitive or intellectual development in adolescence.
Most of the youngsters begin to behave as an adult, because of their physical appearance encourages them, other hand they are impressed about it from their peers. This is very important for them at this stage of life.
The pace of development varies and they notice that some of them early-maturate others late- maturate. This gives them some tension and constant ‘competition’ in mind.
According to examination of Brooks-Gunn ; Paikhoff:
“The emergence of the secondary sexual characteristics prompts them to think of themselves as young adults, and to change their appearance and activities accordingly”
“These developmental changes are important from a psychological perspective, because they affect the young person’s sense of self and relations with others (Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, 1992; Durkin, 1995).”
Piaget calls this period of” formal operation” based on ‘reasoning about abstract proposition and evaluation of alternative outcomes’. (Piagetian perspective)
This last stage of cognitive development no longer dependent on concrete operations tied to present object and action as it is in the late childhood.
Adolescence have a higher level of reasoning
They are systematic
Able to formulate abstract hypothesis
Make opinion about issues i.e. politics
Problem solving skills more developed
Plan ahead without having all information what they need for the decision
Social and Emotional development in adolescence:
The age adolescence is full of ‘storm and distress’. In this period the socialization and emotions are closely linked. The hormones are boosting and patently control the emotions.
Adolescence hormone plays an enormous part of influencing emotion, associated with heightened interest in sex (influenced by parents and friends’ sexual behaviour)
Gender is more central importance
Western countries’ adolescence are keen to socialize with opposite sex. In these countries allows the mixed gender interactions in the age of adolescence.
In adolescence it is a difficult time: ‘storm and distress’, which causes mood swings, frustration, anger, devotion, insecurity etc.
Adolescents try to achieve independence, causing conflict with parents.
For adolescents the importance of peers instead of parents mostly increases, called: ‘secondary socialization’ (Referring to this, there is a strong popular assumption about effects of friends, their harmful influence like drug, sex dereliction of responsibility. The folklore belief does not provide a reliable basis for the psychological analysis.More often the parents are the first model, than peers. (smoking, drinking, drug use.
Parents, teachers, peers provides more messages to the adolescent about the acceptable or unacceptable behaviour. Parents encourage or discourage some friendships. Adolescents often resist or balance.
Searching the sense of identity refers to self-concept that will guide the young individuals from adolescence to early-adulthood. Adolescent increasingly focus on peer relations to their sense of identity.
Importance of friends’ influences about appearance “cool to be seen”, dating, socializing. So called ‘ Peer pressure’ Peers are important but not omnipotent.
Sometimes peers have less influence to bad habits and more often they are influential to moral values, example: dissuade from smoking
The following table shows clearly what the beliefs are and what the reality is.Contributed by Kevin Durkin Psychologist
“Table 10. Myth and reality about adolescence
Adolescence is a period of storm and stress
There is a huge ‘generation gap’ between adolescents and their parents
Adolescents are dominated by peer pressure
Adolescents are dominated by television viewing
Adolescents are irresponsible
Adolescents are reckless drug takers
Adolescents are all the same
Only a minority of adolescents experience serious psychological disturbances.
Most adolescents continue to value their parents as companions and as sources of advice
Adolescents tend not to rate peer pressure as a major problem and feel able to resist it
Adolescents spend less time in front of the television than other age groups
Many adolescents undertake substantial responsibilities at home, at school and at work
Most adolescents experiment with legal and illegal drugs, but for the majority this is a short-lived experimentation that does not lead to dependency
This is patently not true: adolescence covers a large developmental period
and there are enormous individual differences among people in this age group as in others.”
The adolescents’ world is changing rapidly. The changes reflect new opportunities and impact of other people.
But it is undeniable important age for an individual to move to an adulthood
1.3 Describe holistic development
Holistic means: ‘ relating to the whole of something or to the total system instead of just to its parts.
By Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary
According to the Gen 2 Genius Children
What is Holistic Development?
Holistic development is a practical approach to a comprehensive learning system where physical, social, emotional, mind and spiritual growth of a child is taken care. This style of education not only focuses on mere learning but also on implementing what is learnt.
Health problems usually require holistic solution. In education
Contributing author: Kevin Durkin
Title :Adolescence and Adulthood, Chapter 10,
Refers how the infant develop physical, cognitive, emotional and social aspect
Inhelder & Piaget, 1958,
Megkeresni az oldalt
Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary,
Cambridge University Press