Aquatic ecosystems that move through agricultural areas have high risk of being polluted by run off and ground water leaching by a variety of chemicals.
A large number of pesticides are used that are very effective when they enter the aquatic environment they cause multiple changes in aquatic organisms by altering the growth rate, nutritional value and behavioral patterns etc. Fish is the major source of food so we have to secure fish (Tripathi et al, 2002) .When toxicants such as heavy metals ,phenolic derivatives and detergents enter the environment of fish cause haemotological changes that results in abnormal growth (Deshmukh D.R,2016)Blood parameters are affected by temperature, salinity, oxygen, hydrogen ion concentration of water which effects the respiration and leads to affect the blood constitutions (Deshmukh D .
R,2016).The haematological studies in fishes have gained much importance because of these parameters and they were used as a systematic, logical and delicate key to examine the physiological and pathological changes produced by natural and anthropogenic factors like bacterial or fungal infection in fishes and aquatic life. Hence, blood parameters are considered as a useful index in detecting the functional status of the body in acknowledgement to different stressors. The toxicants are stressors accumulated in fish’s body through dermal absorption or by food chain and it greatly affects the life supporting system at molecular and biochemical level. The toxicants mainly produce expeditious changes in haematological attributes of fishes.(chap 14)Organochlorines (fertilizers and pesticides) are used in large quantities to produce food for increasing human population in developing countries. The use of pesticides to control pest are increasing day by day because of increasing human population.
(Yakeen and Fawole ,2011).Due to their impulsive and in discreet use water bodies like ponds and lakes are constantly polluted ( Kumar and saradhamani ,2004)Exposure to low level pesticide may cause intense and keen effects on non -target individuals. Pesticides when enter the food chain cause physiological damages and may inhibit and restrict the endocrine system .Disturbance of the endocrine system by endosulfan occurs at doses that causes neurotoxicity.(Yakeen and Fawole,2011)Endosulfan is an organochlorine belonging to cyclodiene group and is commonly used as a broad-spectrum pesticide to treat wide variety of pests and bird repellent on food crops in more than 70 countries of world. Endosulfan is contact poison and is persistent , with a half life in water up to 6 months under anaerobic conditions and half life in soil is 6 years under anaerobic conditions .
Fish can be exposed to toxicants by absorption through gills, skin, and by contaminated food. Gills are the primary organs that adsorbs pesticides which are then distributed by blood to other organs .(H.Khadim, Abudlmotalib, 2012)Health and environmental scientists reveals that only 0.
1% of pesticides applied to crops reach the target pests and the remaining 99% move to environment to contaminate ground and surface water and proves dangerous for fish(Yakeen and Fawole,2011) The best method to check alterations in the physiology of organisms is through examination of blood samples .Haematological study of an animal gives a clear way to understand the effects of environmental stressors and being a medium of intercellular and intracellular transport blood directly comes in contact with all organs ,tissues and cells of the body .Mutations and variations in erythrocyte index had been reported in fishes subjected to environmental stressors and heavy metals(Yakeen and Fawole ,2011).It was with this view that this study was carried out to investigate the potential effects of endosulfan on haematological parameters of Cirrhinus mrigala. Abstract: The toxicity of pesticides and insecticides on haematological and biochemical parameters of common carps will be determined under static conditions. Elevation in toxic level will lead to stress.
Stress responses will produce many physiological changes including changes in haematological parameters in the fishes. The purpose of this study will to evaluate the effects of organochlorines on haematological parameters as biomarkers to monitor environmental stress The median lethal concentration of insecticide was found to be 5.28ppm showing high toxicity. When fishes are exposed under this concentration their parameters will be studied after 24hour period.
Rbcs(red blood cells) ,plasma protein and haemoglobin level will be decreased in treated fish. Whereas, Wbc(white blood cells) and glucose level will be elevated.