Antibiotics et al., 2006). Several kinds of antibiotics

Antibiotics act a vital role in modern agriculture and livestock as well
as in poultry industries and their use has been on the rise in many developed
nations. The major uses of antibiotics in recent years is to enhance
growth performance, improve gut health, reduce sub-clinical infection,
anti-inflammatory, control diseases and support intestinal health in livestock
as well as poultry by preserving microbial populations in check resulting in
enlarged nutrient availability (Levy,
1992; Engberg et al., 2000). Twelve
classes of antimicrobials—arsenicals, polypeptides, glycolipids, tetracyclines,
elfamycins, macrolides, lincosamides, polyethers, beta-lactams, quinoxalines, streptogramins,
and sulfonamides may be used at different times in the life cycle of poultry,
cattle, and swine (Sarmah et al., 2006).


Several kinds of antibiotics used in the animal feed
industry are poorly absorbed in the gut of the animal, remaining as much as
30–90% of the parent compound is excreted (Elmund et al., 1971; Alcock et al.,
1999). As most of the antibiotics are water-soluble, as much as 90% of one dose
can be excreted in urine and up to 75% in animal feces (Halling, 2001). If
antibiotics, secreted from the animals into the environment are not efficiently
degraded, it is possible that these residues may help in preserving or
developing antibiotic-resistant microbial populations (Witte, 1998).
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria of animal origin have been found in the
environment surrounding livestock farming operations, on the meat products of
animal and as the cause of clinical infections and subclinical colonization in
humans (Landers et al., 2012).

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Since the early 1950s, the indiscriminate use of
antibiotics as feed additives in commercial farming may have developed
bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Concerns over the increasing incidence of
bacterial resistance to antibiotics in animal and human have caused increase
worldwide interesting in eliminating the sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in
livestock. In addition, some groups of consumers prefer animal products as well
as poultry meat with free-antibiotics and present a restriction on the
consumption of poultry meat raised with diets containing antibiotics (Loddi et al. 2000).  In some countries (such as those
in the EU), the use of AGP has been discontinued, and some Asian countries are
beginning to follow the EU in banning AGP. All antibiotics growth promoter
(AGP) were banned by Sweden in 1986, Denmark in 1998, the European Union in
1999 (Mark Casewell et al., 2003), and South Korea in 2005 (Ministry for Food,
Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries).

ionophore antibiotics are still widely used as feed additives in the control of
coccidiosis, although these substances are also considered to have
growth-promoting properties (Elwinger et al., 1998, Chapman, 2001,
and Johnson, 2002). Furthermore, feeding chicken with the containing of
ionophore salinomycin in the diet could improve feed conversion ratio and
(Stutz et al., 1983; Radu et al., 1987; Engberg et al. 2000, Chapman et al., 2004), decreased intestinal damage
caused by Eimeria infections (McDounald et al., 1996) and reduced lesion scores
due to C. perfringen (Martel et al., 2004; Ghany, 2010). Salinomycin (SAL) is one of antibiotic that
belongs to a large group of polyether ionophores (Huczynski 2012). It plays important role as antibacterial and coccidiostat ionophore therapeutic drug. Salinomycin and its
derivatives exhibit high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but it inactive
against fungi (Antoszczak et al. 2014). However, the ionophore coccidiostats supplementary may be restrictively used or
banned as has been the case for other antimicrobial growth promoters, in the
near future.  (Johansen et al., 2007)


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