Antibiotics et al., 2006). Several kinds of antibiotics

Antibiotics act a vital role in modern agriculture and livestock as wellas in poultry industries and their use has been on the rise in many developednations. The major uses of antibiotics in recent years is to enhancegrowth performance, improve gut health, reduce sub-clinical infection,anti-inflammatory, control diseases and support intestinal health in livestockas well as poultry by preserving microbial populations in check resulting inenlarged nutrient availability (Levy,1992; Engberg et al.

, 2000). Twelveclasses of antimicrobials—arsenicals, polypeptides, glycolipids, tetracyclines,elfamycins, macrolides, lincosamides, polyethers, beta-lactams, quinoxalines, streptogramins,and sulfonamides may be used at different times in the life cycle of poultry,cattle, and swine (Sarmah et al., 2006).  Several kinds of antibiotics used in the animal feedindustry are poorly absorbed in the gut of the animal, remaining as much as30–90% of the parent compound is excreted (Elmund et al.

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, 1971; Alcock et al.,1999). As most of the antibiotics are water-soluble, as much as 90% of one dosecan be excreted in urine and up to 75% in animal feces (Halling, 2001). Ifantibiotics, secreted from the animals into the environment are not efficientlydegraded, it is possible that these residues may help in preserving ordeveloping antibiotic-resistant microbial populations (Witte, 1998).Antibiotic-resistant bacteria of animal origin have been found in theenvironment surrounding livestock farming operations, on the meat products ofanimal and as the cause of clinical infections and subclinical colonization inhumans (Landers et al., 2012).

Since the early 1950s, the indiscriminate use ofantibiotics as feed additives in commercial farming may have developedbacterial resistance to antibiotics. Concerns over the increasing incidence ofbacterial resistance to antibiotics in animal and human have caused increaseworldwide interesting in eliminating the sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics inlivestock. In addition, some groups of consumers prefer animal products as wellas poultry meat with free-antibiotics and present a restriction on theconsumption of poultry meat raised with diets containing antibiotics (Loddi et al. 2000).  In some countries (such as thosein the EU), the use of AGP has been discontinued, and some Asian countries arebeginning to follow the EU in banning AGP. All antibiotics growth promoter(AGP) were banned by Sweden in 1986, Denmark in 1998, the European Union in1999 (Mark Casewell et al.

, 2003), and South Korea in 2005 (Ministry for Food,Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries). Nevertheless,ionophore antibiotics are still widely used as feed additives in the control ofcoccidiosis, although these substances are also considered to havegrowth-promoting properties (Elwinger et al., 1998, Chapman, 2001,Chapmanand Johnson, 2002). Furthermore, feeding chicken with the containing ofionophore salinomycin in the diet could improve feed conversion ratio and(Stutz et al., 1983; Radu et al., 1987; Engberg et al. 2000, Chapman et al., 2004), decreased intestinal damagecaused by Eimeria infections (McDounald et al.

, 1996) and reduced lesion scoresdue to C. perfringen (Martel et al., 2004; Ghany, 2010). Salinomycin (SAL) is one of antibiotic thatbelongs to a large group of polyether ionophores (Huczynski 2012).

It plays important role as antibacterial and coccidiostat ionophore therapeutic drug. Salinomycin and itsderivatives exhibit high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but it inactiveagainst fungi (Antoszczak et al. 2014). However, the ionophore coccidiostats supplementary may be restrictively used orbanned as has been the case for other antimicrobial growth promoters, in thenear future.

  (Johansen et al., 2007)


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