An estimated 1,500,000 Algerians died forindependence, according to Algerian historians (“Algeria”).
Colonization of Algeria by France began in 1834, even though local tribesresisted the French annexation. In Algeria, the European minority formed aprivileged elite and forced an economy similar to France’s on the Algerians. OnNovermber 1, 1954, the Fronte de Liberation Nationale (FLN) started the waragainst France for independence and in retaliation, a French army of 500,000troops were sent to Algeria to combat rebels. Algeria used guerilla tactics,while the French military used torture and execution on hundreds of Algerians.On March 18, the Evian Accords were signed and the war ended. Algeria becamefully independent on July 5, 1962.
Consequently, through the Algerian War ofIndependence, Algeria was able to gain independence by using guerilla warfarestrategies and foreign negotiations, which resulted in new policies andbehaviors of Algerians.Algeria longed forindependence from France and acted upon by starting the Algerian War ofIndependence. For example, the movement for independence began during WWI andgained momentum after French promises of greater self-rule in Algeria wereunfulfilled after WWII (“Algerian War”). Algeria had assisted France in bothWorld Wars. The Muslim population didn’t have political rights like the Frenchdid and had many restrictions.
Additionally, the FLN’s principal objective wasthe liberations of Algeria, but also a sovereign state based on Islam(Feraoun). It pledged to respect Algeria’s basic liberties without distinctionof race or religion. The FLN was a socialist political party organization thatled in the movement for independence. Algeriawas able to gain independence by utilizing guerilla strategies against theFrench. The FLN divided Algeria into 6 zones and a guerilla commander led eachzone in 1956 (“Algeria”).
Guerilla warfare includes the use of hit-and-runtactics, raids, ambushes, and sabotage by small, mobile groups to fight a moretraditional army. Algerian geography is especially well suited to guerillawarfare. The nation had a vast and carried terrain, from mountain summits tolush valleys that provide great hiding spots for attacks. In addition, “Themost serious fighting occurred in/around Algiers, where FLN fighters launched aseries of violent urban attacks know as the Battle of Algiers” (“France inAlgeria”). The Battle of Algiers lasted from 1956-1957 and began with terroristattacks launched by the FLN.
The French army had a lack of knowledge ofAlgerian territory, giving Algerians an advantage in where to attack and whereto hide. Foreignnegotiations were curcial for Algeria to gain independence from France. In May1958, a typical settler uprising called for Charles de Gualle to return topower (“Algeria”). Charles de Gualle was the head of the French governmentduring the 1945 repression of Algeria, retired, but continued to negotiate withthe Algerian government.
He granted Muslims full rights of French citizenshipand declared Algerians had the right to determine their future in front of theUnited Nations. On March 18, the Evian Accords were signed and cease-fire wasdeclared (Feraoun). The Evian Accords consisted of 93 pages of detailedagreements about Algeria’s independence and was signed by France and theProvisional Government of the Algerian Republic. On July 5, 1962 Algeria wasrecognized as fully independent by the United Nations, following the successfulnegotiations with the French.