American Although slave imports were banned in 1808 they

American Chattel slavery ran from around 1640 to 1865. It was mostly operated in large southern plantations which needed lots of cheap labor to become successful. The practice included Africans being brought to America on ships in the terrible trip known as the middle passage. They were then sold at slave auctions to different masters who they would work for until death or being resold. Although slave imports were banned in 1808 they were still being smuggled into the country and the slaves kept having children which kept the business alive. Slavery ended on May 9, 1865 after a brutal civil war between the northern and the southern states. Slavery was caused by increased trade and a need for cheap labor. Native Americans knew the land too well so they could escape. Also 90% of the population was killed off by smallpox and other diseases. Indentured servants only worked for 7 years and as conditions got harsher under the king’s rule people stopped coming to America. Chattel slavery seemed like a good solution. The Africans could not get back to Africa and even if they escaped they did not know the territory and could be found easily. They would be slaves for life and so would their children and grandchildren. They provided a good source of cheap labor. The Underground Railroad ran from 1793 until May 9, 1865, when slavery ended. The Underground Railroad was one of the leading causes of the American Civil war and impacted the economics of American Chattel Slavery by freeing slaves and thus raising slave prices. Harriet Tubman and Levi Coffin shape the way the Underground Railroad was put into usage by raising awareness of it through the number of escaped slaves. Slavery was an important part of life in the Southern colonies. The economy relied on the large plantations which supplied the companies that made products from cotton as well as produced a large portion if the agricultural goods of the country. Increasing trade raised the demand for cheap labor and thus, slaves. “African American slaves were essential to the economy of the Southern United States in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.”(“Fugitive Slaves”). Increasing trade raised the demand for cheap labor and thus, salves. People began to depend more and more on slave labor to support the economy. Soon slave labor began to become the basis for life in the Southern States. More and more people started to live on plantations which relied heavily on slave labor. This added to the demand for cheap labor.As cotton farming became increasingly popular in the south the need for cheap labor increased and the economy depended upon slave labor to maintain itself. “As cotton farming increased throughout the South, so did the need for cheap labor. Even though the importation of slaves was illegal in the United States after 1808, estimates say that at least three hundred thousand African slaves were smuggled into the country. A strong slave trade developed between the states, and many from the northern areas of the nation were sold to southern plantations.”(Benson). Although slave import was illegal people smuggled slaves into America. Slave children also were slaves for life and normally could not become freed. They were often sold in auctions and the slave population kept increasing which kept internal slave trade alive. Many slaves were also sold to southern plantations from places where the demand was not as large, such as the Northern States.Although the demand for cheap labor was still high many in the United States were opposed to slave labor. “By the end of the eighteenth century, opposition to the slave trade grew strong in Europe and the United States. Great Britain abolished the trade in 1807, and the United States did the same in 1808, prohibiting the import of slaves from foreign countries but continuing to allow the sale of slaves between states.”(Benson). As more and more people began to oppose slavery the government listened and banned the American slave trade. There was still internal trade and the slave population kept growing. Some slaves were smuggled into the country and although the external trade was illegal the demand for slaves was still growing. The Underground Railroad was one of the leading causes of the American Civil war. It was a main factor in the rising tensions between the Northern and Southern states. The Underground Railroad was an extremely effective effort to free slaves and end slavery. It was led by abolitionists who managed to free thousands of slaves. “The work of the underground was so effective that its action intimidated slave owners. Most regarded the underground as ‘organized theft’ and a threat to their livelihood.”(“The American Civil War, the Underground Railroad”). Slave owners felt intimidated by the Underground Railroad and those running and contributing to it. The escaped slaves were going North so, as a result tensions rose and eventually war broke out.The Underground Railroad was one of the leading causes of the American Civil war. It was a main factor in the rising tensions between the Northern and Southern states. “Though scholars estimate that Underground Railroad conductors assisted thousands of refugees, the total number of runaways whom they aided to freedom will never be known simply because of the movement’s secrecy.”(“The American Civil War, the Underground Railroad”). Because the Northern states aided in the escape of slaves from the Southern states, tensions between the Northern states and the Southern States rose eventually leading to the Civil war.The Underground Railroad was one of the leading causes of the American Civil war. It was a main factor in the rising tensions between the Northern and Southern states. The South depended on slavery whereas the North thought it was wrong and sought to destroy it. “They not only called for slavery’s destruction, but also acted to assist its victims.”(“The American Civil War, the Underground Railroad”). The purpose of the Underground Railroad was to destroy slavery, which the South depended on. The Northern states thought slavery was wrong and was home to many important abolitionists as well as being the destination of the fugitive slaves and had outlawed slavery. All of these factors related to the Underground Railroad led to rising tensions between the states which eventually led to the civil war and the end of slavery. The Underground Railroad impacted the economics of American Chattel Slavery by freeing slaves and thus raising slave prices. The Underground Railroad was an organization that helped slaves escape in the first half of the nineteenth century. “As many as one hundred thousand slaves used the network to flee the American South during the first half of the nineteenth century.”(“Underground Railroad”). So many slaves escaping would have driven slave prices higher because demand would have increased. Slave import was banned in 1807 so slave prices would have been driven even higher by the slightly increased rarity of the slaves. There would also have been slave catchers hired which would have cost money as well.The Underground Railroad impacted the economics of American Chattel Slavery by freeing slaves and thus raising slave prices. Fugitive slaves were becoming increasingly common with the rise of the Underground Railroad. “$200 Reward. Runaway from the subscriber on the night of Thursday, the 30th of September, Five negro slaves.”(W M. Russell). These and other slaves escaped, most likely with the help of the Underground Railroad. These slaves would have cost money to purchase and the reward poster showed that even if the slaves were returned, $200 would have had to have been paid to the person who returned them. Slave catchers were common practice and also would have cost money to hire.The Underground Railroad impacted the economics of American Chattel Slavery by freeing slaves and thus raising slave prices. Slaves were still escaping when Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. “Eli Whitney introduced the cotton gin, a labor inductive machine that transformed cotton from a ridiculously high labor crop to a profitable one.”(Newman). The cotton gin vastly increased the demand for slavery. Slaves now had a higher value and a higher demand. Cotton became a cash crop so demand for slave grew. When they escaped through the Underground Railroad It cost much more money and also slightly increased the already high demand. Harriet Tubman and Levi Coffin shape the way the Underground Railroad was put into usage by raising awareness of it through the number of escaped slaves. Harriet Tubman is one of the most famous conductors of the Underground Railroad. “Tubman helped hundreds of slaves escape slavery as part of the Underground Railroad.”(“Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad: Themes and Construction”). All of these slaves could not have gone unnoticed. Slave owners and slave catchers would have ether noticed a pattern in where the slaves were escaping from or they would have developed new methods to find safe houses and fugitive slaves.Harriet Tubman and Levi Coffin shape the way the Underground Railroad was put into usage by raising awareness of it through the number of escaped slaves. Harriet Tubman became infamous for her work in the Underground Railroad. “She earned the nickname ‘Moses,’ a reference to the biblical figure who led slaves out of Egypt to the ‘promised land.’ Many slave owners believed Moses was a man and put out a reward for his capture.”(“Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad: Themes and Construction”). Slave owners and slave catchers knew about her. Even if they did not know her by her real name they still knew what she was doing and there were reward posters out that were publicizing the Underground Railroad. This was forcing the conductors and people running the safe houses (station masters) to be more careful. The fugitive slaves also had to be very careful when they were escaping the plantations because there would have been h heavier patrol out looking for fugitive slaves.Harriet Tubman and Levi Coffin shape the way the Underground Railroad was put into usage by raising awareness of it through the number of escaped slaves.  Levi Coffin also helped many slaves to freedom. “Levi Coffin (1798-1877), a Quaker who helped more than three thousand slaves to freedom.”(“Levi Coffin”). With that many slaves escaping the people who were working with him would have had to have been more careful than the other people on the Underground Railroad and because he was also Quaker there would have been even more investigations into himself and those working with him because the Quakers were known to oppose slavery in that time period. Some of the short term impacts of Harriet Tubman, Levi Coffin and the Underground Railroad included slaves escaping to freedom, slave catchers were employed affecting the economics of slavery and led to rising tensions between the Northern and the Southern states. The Underground Railroad led to slaves escaping their masters and fleeing to the north. “An antislavery organization known as the Underground Railroad helped hide fugitive slaves and smuggle them away from their masters.”(“Fugitive Slaves”). As many as one hundred thousand slaves escaped through the Underground Railroad. “As many as one hundred thousand slaves used the network to flee the American South during the first half of the nineteenth century.”(“Underground Railroad”).    The slaves escaped to the north by the means of the Underground Railroad. This in turn led to rising tensions between the Northern states and the Southern states.Some of the short term impacts of Harriet Tubman, Levi Coffin and the Underground Railroad included slaves escaping to freedom, slave catchers were employed and rewards were put out affecting the economics of slavery and led to rising tensions between the Northern and the Southern states. Rewards were put out “$200 Reward. Ranaway from the subscriber on the night of Thursday, the 30th of September, Five negro slaves.”(W M. Russell). Posters like this were not uncommon. Every poster cost money to put out and if the slaves were caught rewards would have to be paid. Slave catchers were also employed which cost money. Every escaped slave drove prices higher as the demand was still the same if not increasing.  Some of the short term impacts of Harriet Tubman, Levi Coffin and the Underground Railroad included slaves escaping to freedom, slave catchers were employed affecting the economics of slavery and led to rising tensions between the Northern and the Southern states. Slaves were escaping to the Northern states from the Southern states. “The Underground Railroad was a secret network in the United States used by African American slaves to escape from the South to freedom in the North.”(“Underground Railroad”). Because the slaves were escaping from the Southern stated to the Northern states the Southern states felt that the Northern states were aiding in the escapes. The North opposed slavery and had abolished it, therefore there were even more tensions between the Southern states and the Northern states. Some of the long term impacts of Harriet Tubman, Levi Coffin and the Underground Railroad included the civil war, the end of slavery, and the era of segregation. Harriet Tubman freed a lot of slaves and made such a large an impact that a large reward was put out. “She made nineteen dangerous return trips into the American South to help runaways make their way into the Underground Railroad.”(“Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad: Themes and Construction”). “Having a $40,000 reward for her capture.”(“Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad: Themes and Construction”). Her trips and the large reward for her capture would have driven the people who supported her to new lengths to support her and new lengths to end slavery. Likewise, it infuriated the South and made them even more determined to keep the institution of slavery alive which led to the civil war.Some of the long term impacts of Harriet Tubman, Levi Coffin and the Underground Railroad included the civil war, the end of slavery, and the era of segregation. Many slaves escaped through the Underground Railroad throughout the era of slavery “As many as one hundred thousand slaves used the network to flee the American South during the first half of the nineteenth century.”(Underground Railroad). These slaves were escaping which did do some damage to the institution of slavery but more importantly it created a large controversy that led to the civil war. The people who worked for the Underground Railroad helped in the war effort against the confederacy which led to the war being won and slavery being abolished.Some of the long term impacts of Harriet Tubman, Levi Coffin and the Underground Railroad included the civil war, the end of slavery, and the era of segregation. African Americans have been discriminated against for years ever since the beginning of slavery. “African Americans have been subject to discrimination throughout America’s history. Laws explicitly discriminating against African Americans were in place from the colonial era to the civil rights movement of the 1960s.”(“History of African American Discrimination”). Although the members of the Underground Railroad were helping slaves to freedom they were also sending them to a place with discrimination and unjust laws against blacks. With more freed slaves coming to the North the white population felt an ever increasing need for discrimination which led to the postwar era of discrimination and the discrimination that already existed before Jim Crow. Chattel slavery in America was in use from around 1640 to 1865. Africans were captured by white men or other tribes and brought to the Americas on the horrid trip known as the middle passage. The slaves that survived were sold to different masters throughout the American South who they worked for until death or the event of their reselling. The slave trade was banned in America in 1808 however, slaves were still being smuggled into the country and the slave population was still growing which kept the industry alive. Slavery ended on May 9, 1865 after a long and harsh civil war between the North and the South. Slavery affected many people in the past and the present. It led to discrimination and the civil rights movement. It also led to organizations such as the Underground Railroad. It led to racial discrimination which is still evident in society today.

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