After the building is $68,000,000 and the

After choosing a specific group of users and a sample new building designed for them, theresearcher tried to get the users feedback from their current places and their expectationsof the new design.

The result was not used as an evaluation of the new building, as is usual,but to provide information to simulate experiences in the schematic design of the newbuilding.The approach is summarized in the following three steps:The first step was to choose a sample office building which was designed but not built yet.The Environmental and Natural Resources Building at the University of Arizona. Thisbuilding is designed for environmental sciences at the University of Arizona. The buildingaims to achieve LEED- Platinum rating. The projected Budget for the building is$68,000,000 and the gross square footage of the building is 128000 sq.ft.The next step was to collect data about the behavior of the future users of the building.

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Thiswas achieved based on interviewing the future users of this building from four differentenvironmental programs on campus and the r searcher’s role as an observer of Users’behavior.Twenty-six users including six professors, six staff members, eight graduate students andeight researchers, working in Harvill building Marshall building and Campus ChristianCenter, were interviewed, each for about thirty minutes and the interviews’ result was usedfor a systematic behavioral post occupancy evaluation.They chose the interviewees to be half male and half female, eight were over forty and 18under forty, twelve people had worked in their office for one to five years, seven for fiveto ten years, five for less than a year and two for more than ten years. twenty-five percentof the interviewees spent between thirty to forty hours in their office every week and morethan fifty percent of them were there for less than twenty hours.10The last step was to simulate users’ particular behavior in the Environmental and NaturalResources Building. By simulating users’ behavior in the new design it would be possibleto predict how the design would perform according to their needs.As mentioned before, different questions were asked in five behavioral categories.

Thequestions are as below:A- TASK PERFORMANCE:1-How do you rate the usability of furniture provided for you? Have you got any otherfurniture yourself to enhance what was provided for you?2-Do you open any windows in your office? Do you have a balcony and a door which canbe opened to it? And How long do you leave them open? Is the air conditioning on whilethe window/door is open? Are doors/windows kept closed during heating and coolingseason?3-What do the rating of this building’s heating/cooling, temperature and air quality inwinter and summer?4-Is it possible for you to work well in your office temperatures? Do you have control overair conditioning in your office?5-Are you happy with the placement of vents in your office?6-Do you have enough natural light in your office that let you work without using artificiallighting? How long a day are artificial lights on? Do you have control over them?7- Do you turn your office’s lights off when you leave your workplace? How about thelights of corridors, meeting rooms, kitchen and rest rooms?8- Does the lighting cause you glare? How do you solve this problem?119- Is lighting on after hours & weekends or is it used only when needed? Do you havestickers to remind people to turn off lights?10- Are there any noises from inside or outside that disturb your work?11- Are there any unpleasant or pleasant smells in your office that disturb your work orhelp you work better? Where are they coming from?12- Do you use the elevator or stairs? Why?13- Do you recycle paper in your office? Are the recycle bins located near your desk? B -WAY FINDING1- How many people come to your office wrongly each day? Can visitors find youeasily?2- Can all the users easily find light switches? recycle bins? Which one is easier tolocate: elevator or stairs?C- SOCIAL TERRITORIALITY1-Where do you meet and socialize with other people who are in your department? Howoften do you see them?2-How many hours a day do you work with your colleagues? Where do you work together?3-Where do you meet or work with outside visitors?4- How much space do you have for you own? What separates your workspace fromothers?5- Do you think there should be windows for everybody?12D- VISUAL-NON VISUAL AESTHETICS1-What makes your workspace unpleasant for you?is your office space noisy? Are theregood sounds, smells?2-Do you like the lighting in your office space? Quality? Are you happy with theventilation?Based on Department of Energy classification, artificial lighting counts for 21.7% of thetotal energy used in commercial buildings. Excessive artificial lighting not only results inwasting energy but also reduces satisfaction of the users and decreases their visual comfort.In general visual comfort relates to the quantity and size of illumination, contrast, glare andshadowing. The glare caused by this type of lighting can cause headaches and discouragethe users from staying in their offices.As a result, seven aspects are essential for influencing the building consumption which are:Climate, Construction characters, Users features, Establish service system, Occupantbehavior and activity, Social and economic factor, and Indoor air quality requirements.Researches categorized the occupant behavior into five essential clusters, each one has thecorresponding action characters: Conservers (low temperature, low ventilation), Spenders(high temperature, high ventilation), Cool (low temperature, high ventilation), Warm (hightemperature, low ventilation), Average (standard). Refer to the average cluster, theconservers, warm and cool could save energy by 35%, 20% and 17% respectively whilethe spenders wasted 36%.

Others concentrate into different family arrangement such as single, couple, family. sothey design four different occupant actions: Convenience/ease, Conscious, Costs,Climate/environment. Convenience/ease just focus on comfort; the energy waste is 100%.Conscious concerns comfort, environment and money so that it saves energy by 15%. 13Climate/environment takes environment into consideration so that the energy saving ismuch higher, 26%. In addition, profile of cost makes a balance between energy and money,the saving is highest at 41%.Others distributed the occupant behavior into three groups: Energy conscious (Standard,concern energy), Habit related, High quality.

habit related concerned an energy consciouslifestyle which lead to an almost 190% waste. Even worse, the high quality just consideredthe indoor environmental quality. The energy waste is horrendous, over 1400%.Human behaviors are the root and the solution for today’s environmental challenges. Proenvironmentbehaviors have been stimulated in the design of energy and climate policies.Pro-environmental behaviors as a range of behaviors that benefit the natural environment,enhance environmental quality, or harm the environment as little as possible.Environmental behaviors often involve a conflict between the different goals a personpursues and suggested a value belief norm model to help understand a person’senvironmental behaviors.

Many studies have applied the theory to predict various types ofpro-environment behaviors, such as acceptability of household energy conservationbehaviors, travel mode choices, and workplace energy use behaviors. Studies of proenvironmentalbehaviors are going beyond the singular linear process of behavioralactivation and looking at the complexity between two or more pro-environmentalbehaviors. Similar behaviors, such as recycling paper and plastics, would fall into distinctcategories; while, when behavior is defined from the inside by the actor’s environmentallyprotective intentions, even diverse acts such as recycling and willingness to pay for solarpanels would appear to belong to one class of actions. For example, people are more likelyto recycle plastics when they already practice recycling paper.

On the other side, whenpeople perform one pro-environmental behavior, the successful performance of thatbehavior might be perceived as having achieved the goal or having done enough to movetoward the goal. A number of studies pointed out that resources and cost of behaviors could 14play a significant role in the link between two pro-environmental behaviors and theconsistency of two pro-environmental behaviors.


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