African particular field, to carry out treatment for the

 

African
Americans and Healthcare

In
this analytical essay, I will be discussing the cost, geographical
maldistribution in the U.S, how African Americans are effected by those two
factors, and U.K healthcare system. In a working and functional healthcare
system that includes a full continuing care from primary to secondary to
tertiary care. Primary care is defined as accessible health care services by clinicians
who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care
needs, developing a continue partnership with patients, and practicing in the
context of family and community. Secondary care can be defined as a patient who
has been provided with primary care may be referred to be a secondary care
professional—a specialist with great information on the patient’s issue. These
are consultant services include orthopedics, psychology, and psychiatry.

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Secondary care is usually accessible in hospitals, clinics and a referral usually
has to be made by a primary care professional. Tertiary care now once a patient
has been hospitalized, there may be require highly specialized treatment and
care within the hospital. This care requires professionals usually surgeons,
with specific expertise in a particular field, to carry out treatment for the
patient. Examples include neurosurgery, cancer management, and cardiac surgery.

In the United States is engaged in three overriding goals of change: access,
quality, and cost. According to the CDC the percent of persons who failed to
obtain needed medical care due to cost 4.4% and percent of persons with a usual
place to go to for medical care 88.1%. Now the quality in the United States has
mixed opinions. Much interest in quality of care has developed in the dramatic
revolution of healthcare system in recent years. New organized structures and
repayment strategies have created incentives that may affect quality of care.

Some of the systems may be likely to improve quality, concerns of potential negative
effects have a direct movement to assure quality will not be controlled by
costs. Cost in healthcare can vary to person income, family size, and financial
status. According to the most recent data from the Centers for Medicare and
Medicaid Services, “the average American spent $9,596 on healthcare” in 2012,
which was significantly from $7,700 in 2007.” Here’s the breakdown, according
to eHealthisurance, for unsubsidized customers in 2016, “premiums for
individual coverage averaged $321 per month while premiums for family plans
averaged $833 per month. The annual deductible for individual’s plans was
$4,358 and the average deductible for family plans was $7,983.” Like I stated
cost can vary depending on status. People who seek medical attention
uninsured usually have to go emergency departments due to lack of insurance to
see a primary care physician. According to “JAMA 274(4):305-311”
Respondents who
reported they had a regular place for health care were asked to describe the
type of place. Individuals who identified an emergency department as their
regular place were considered to have no regular place for care.

When
it comes down to overall health, African Americans are on the bottom of the
pyramid. A couple examples: according to the Center for Disease Control, death
rates for African Americans surpass those of other races overall for heart
disease, cancer, HIV, and diabetes. According to Health Services Research,
white males lives approximately seven years longer than African American males,
and white women live more than five years longer than black women. Now when it
comes to infant mortality African American rate is double the national average.

There is one huge problem that contributes to the negative viewpoint: lack of
insurance. In this day, most private insurance plans include high expenses that
it can be too costly to see a physician, even if someone has insurance. Why
do African Americans struggle to get the health care they need? The answer
varies and complicated. The most common problem is that we have a very divided
health care system that consists of a lot different ways to maximize profits.

Insurance companies deny coverage to anyone they think might cost them money,
and keep large amount of money that should be used to take care of patients.

Hospitals are built where the most profitable clients are ones leaving poorer
areas with little coverage. The bottom line is that if the people aren’t
profitable those people are left out with no coverage.

The U.K healthcare system history
goes back to 1940’s; The National Health Service (NHS) was founded in 1946 and
is responsible for the public healthcare sector of U.K. Before this was
available for everyone, healthcare in U.K was generally available only to the
wealthy, unless you can get access for treatment through free clinics. The NHS
consists of a series publicly funded healthcare funded healthcare systems in
the U.K. It includes the National Health Service (England), NHS Scotland, NHS
Wales and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland. Citizens are entitled to
healthcare under this system, but also have the option to buy insurance from
private healthcare providers. The NHS supposedly promise the patients more
engagement and quality—meaning patients know more information, more hospital,
hospital beds, more doctors and nurses, significantly shorter waiting times for
appointments. The U.K healthcare system is one of the most advance. The
Commonwealth fund report that they excel in five areas—quality, efficiency,
access to care, equity, and healthy lives. With that being said to access to
care, the study states “The U.K has relatively shorter wait times for basic
medical care and non-emergency access to services after hours, but has longer
waiting times for specialist care and elective, non-emergency surgery.”  According to the WHO, government funding
covers 85% of healthcare expenditure in the U.K. The remaining 15% is covered
by private sector. The NHS covers healthcare for the majority of the population
in the U.K and is tax funded fully, but there are more private health insurance
companies that are more popular, for instance, BUPA, AVIA and AXA to name a
few. However, the U.S does hold some advantages over U.K when it comes to the
private healthcare sector. The
US also ranks higher in percentage of patients diagnosed with diabetes who
received treatment within six months. The number of US patients who received
timely treatment for diabetes was more than 6 times that of the UK, and twice
that of Canada. This shows you that healthcare can vary in different parts of
the country.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Word Cited

Bloom, Ester. “Here’s How Much the Average
American Spends on Health Care.” CNBC, CNBC, 23 June 2017, www.cnbc.com/2017/06/23/heres-how-much-the-average-american-spends-on-health-care.html.

 

A
Comparative Analysis of United Kingdom and the United States Health Care
Systems Abbie McClintock Roe, MSHSA; Aaron Liberman, PhD, The Health Care
Manager, Volume 26, Number 3, pp. 190-212. 2007 Wolters Kluwer Health I
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins http://www.slideshare.net/abbiemc/A-Comparative-Analysis-of-the-UK-and-US-Health-Care-Systems

 

‘The
UK Healthcare System’, Sean Boyle http://www.commonwealthfund.org/usr_doc/UK_Country_Profile_2008.pdf?section=4061

 

World
Health Organization “Measuring overall health system performance for 191
countries”

http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~wgreene/Statistics/WHO-COMP-Study-30.pdf
‘2011 Global Medical Trends’, Towers Watson
http://www.towerswatson.com/assets/pdf/3585/Towers-Watson-Global-Medical-Trends-Svy-Rpt.pdf

 

1 9, 2017 Sep. “Key Facts about the Uninsured
Population.” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 21 Sept. 2017, www.kff.org/uninsured/fact-sheet/key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population/.

 

Edmunds, Margaret. “Evidence of Geographic
Variation in Access, Quality, and Workforce Distribution.” Geographic
Adjustment in Medicare Payment: Phase II: Implications for Access, Quality, and
Efficiency., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 17 July 2011, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207343/.

 

Studios, Sensor. “Primary, Secondary and
Tertiary Care.” Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Care | Dumfries and
Galloway Advocacy Service,
www.dgadvocacy.co.uk/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-care/.

 

“National Center for Health Statistics.” Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, 3 May 2017, www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/access-to-health-care.htm.

 

Schuster, Mark A, et al. “How Good Is the
Quality of Health Care in the United States?” The Milbank Quarterly,
Blackwell Publishing, Inc., Dec. 2005, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690270/.

 

“Health Care System a Major Factor in African
Americans’ Poorer Health.” Health Care System a Major Factor in African
Americans’ Poorer Health | Physicians for a National Health Program, www.pnhp.org/news/2012/june/health-care-system-a-major-factor-in-african-americans-poorer-health.

 

 

 

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