In the modern world, the
education system seeks to contribute to large extent knowledge and the overall
development of an individual. The student is the central character in our
education system. It is necessary the students’ transformation from an
untutored, unskilled individual to a tutored, competent person. Education is a
major vehicle to transform the cognitive abilities into a useful format. The
most crucial concern, today for schools has been to identify to creative potentialities in children and to plan the
educational programmes, in such a manner that creative abilities are developed
among them and their talents are exploited to the fullest possible extent. The
main purpose of the study to see the effect of birth order, gender on the
verbal creativity of secondary school student. Verbal creativity developed by
Baqer Mehdi was used by the investigator.
been endowed with tremendous potentialities as well as great powers. Among all
these powers, the man possesses wonderful imagination powers, marvellous
intelligence and astonishing discriminating powers, sense of judgement,
penetrating reasoning and unparallel power of plunging into his inner self are
some of the special gifts given to him by the nature. Man is remarkable because
of his fantastic creative powers.
is essentially a human phenomenon. It is a process that helps an individual to
achieve dignity and meaning in life. Every child is born creative. Creativity
is a special quality in all children. They have urge to explore and investigate
natural tendency to create something with the aid of whatever knowledge happens
to have at that time. They have unusual curiosity to observe various objects in
the environment which they like to explore further and to assimilate into their
experiential structure. Such children do not get satisfaction with routine type
solutions to the problems like intelligent ones. Today, the education imparts
to the children merely center around the learning which at the best them in the
acquisition of certain information, desirable habit pattern and skills but what
is more important is to prepare them to meet their individual needs on the one
hand and contribute their mite to the good of the society and also be a source
of satisfaction to themselves on the other hand.
modern world, the education system seeks to contribute to large extent
knowledge and the overall development of an individual. The student is the
central character in our education system. Our interest is the student’s
transformation from an untutored, unskilled individual to a tutored, competent
person. His cognitive abilities would remain dormant, if not activated in a
desired direction it will develop frustration, stress and strain which make
them unable to adjust to the new conditions. Education is a major vehicle to
transform the cognitive abilities into a useful format. As we enter the twenty- first century, children and teachers must be able
to progress and succeed in their rapidly changing learning or working
environment. They need to learn new techniques, skills and knowledge for
adapting to the changing environment throughout their life. Hence, greater
attention has to be paid to the quality of education and to preparation for
life in a rapidly changing and often technology – dominated world. The educationists are seriously concerned about
introducing different techniques in the classroom to make education more
creative, intelligently transacted, relevant, applicable and interesting to
enrich the corpus of knowledge to further the prospects of sustainable
development of man’s world.
CONCPET OF CREATIVITY
earliest scientific approach to the study and understanding of the nature and
implications of “creativity” was undertaken in the 1950’s in the USA under the
initiative and guidance of J.P. Guilford of Southern California University.
Guilford developed the “Structure of Intellect” model which is a
three-dimensional figure representing various intellectual factors. He tried to
show how content, operation and products interact to give a unique factor of
the mind. He identified five factors: (i) Cognition (ii) Memory (iii)
Convergent production (iv) Divergent production and (v) Evaluation.
is generally associated with divergent production which is a problem-solving
activity involving originality, flexibility, fluency and sensitivity to new
problem, definition, skills, ability to abstract, synthesize, organize a wide
variety of ideas into a coherent, meaningful whole not seen before, elaboration
etc. Creativity is regarded as “the ability for divergent thinking or open
ended thought” (Page and Thomas, 1979).
MEANING OF CREATIVITY
has two aspects: one, the process of creation and the other the product of
creation. As far as the process is concerned, there is no definite opinion,
because it is almost an inner happening and it differs from individual to
individual. But the products of creativity can be seen and defined.
Psychologists have presented various definitions to explain the meaning of
done remarkable work in creativity. According to him, “creativity means to understand the gaps, mistakes and unknown
principles and draw speculation hypotheses to evaluate them, search out
conclusions and convey them to others and examine them again.”
According to Passi, “Creativity is
multidimensional attribute differentially distributed among people and includes
chiefly that factors of solving problems- fluency, flexibility, originality,
acquisitiveness and persistency.”
CREATIVITY AND BIRTH ORDER
order in which a person is born into their family plays a substantial role in
the individual’s development of personality, creativity, character and
intelligence. In psychological literature, birth order is considered to be an
environmental determinant of the physical, cognitive and social development of
creativity. Like many other human attributes creativity is also considered as a
mixed product of heredity and environment. Among the hereditary factors, birth
order of the children appears to be an effective but least studied variable
In Born to Rebel, Sulloway (1996) approached
birth order through an evolutionary psychology lens by arguing that functional
birth order, like Adler’s psychological birth order, has preeminence over
biological birth order. In his research about birth-order personality factors,
Sulloway’s findings lent support for Adler’s theory. Specifically, Sulloway
asserted that first-born children are typically more achievement-oriented,
antagonistic, anxious, assertive, conforming, extraverted, fearful, identified
with parents, jealous, neurotic, organized, planful, responsible,
self-confident, and traditional than their siblings. They also tend to
affiliate under stress and are more likely than later-born children to assume
leadership roles. Conversely, Sulloway found later-born children are generally
more adventurous, altruistic, cooperative, easygoing, empathie, open to
experience, popular, rebellious, risk-taking, sociable, and unconventional.
CREATIVITY AND GENDER
Boys show greater creativity than girls, especially as childhood
advances in large part, this is due to the different treatment boys and girls
receive. Boys are given more opportunity to be independent, they are prodded by
peers to take more risks and they are encouraged by parents and teachers to
show more initiative and originality. As Torrance has explained, “There is
little doubt that the attitudes and treatment accorded girls and women by a
society influence their creative development and behaviour”.
inconsistent findings have been reported. The superiority of first born male
adults over those of later born was reported in a few studies Helson (1968),
Taylor and Eisenman (1963), Rosenbery and Sutternsmity, (1970),
Looft&Barantuski (1971), but these studies did not show the same trend for
female adults. Badrinath, S. and Satyanarayanan, S.B. (1979) and Dalta (1968) could not observe significant difference among
high school seniors of different birth orders with respect to their creative
Passi (1971), Raina
(1971), Goyal (1973) Bedi (1974), Singh
(1975), Rawat and Garg (1977), Arora (1978) and Jarial (1981) found that female
students were significantly superior to male student on verbal creativity. Male
students were found to be significantly superior to their female counterpart on
verbal creativity Prakash (1966), Gangneja (1972), Jain (1972), Rawat
andAggarwal (1977), Badrinath and Satyanarajan (1979) and Sharma (1979).
Contrary to these
finding, no significant differences were found between male and female students
with respect to verbal creativity Raina (1970),
Thammaprakeep (1976), Dutt et.al. (1977), Lal (1972), Singh (1977), Thorat
(1977), Singh (1978), Gupta (1979) and Pandy (1980).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Creativity, Gender and Birth Order
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To find out the
differences of Gender on various dimensions of verbal creativity viz. Fluency,
Flexibility, Originality and Total creativity.
To find out the differences
of Birth order on various dimensions of verbal creativity viz. Fluency,
Flexibility, Originality and Total creativity.
To find out the
interactional effect of gender and birth order on various dimensions of verbal
creativity viz. Fluency, Flexibility, Originality and Total creativity.
OF THE STUDY
There would be
significant differences of Gender on various dimensions of verbal creativity
viz. Fluency, Flexibility, Originality and Total creativity.
There would be
significant differences of on various dimensions of verbal creativity viz.
Fluency, Flexibility, Originality and Total creativity.
There would be
significant interactional between gender and birth order on various dimensions
of verbal creativity viz. Fluency, Flexibility, Originality and Total
METHOD AND PROCEDURE
The population of
the present study consisted of all students of 9th and 10th
class studying in Government secondary and senior secondary schools of district
Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh.
comprised 1000 students of class 9th and 10th studying in
Government secondary and senior secondary schools of district Sirmour, Himachal
Pradesh. The schools were selected randomly keeping in view the population of
First born students.
Four dimensions of Verbal Creativity were
regarded as dependent variables. Gender and Birth Order were treated as
Thinking of Baqer Mehdi (1973) was used for data collection.
in the present
study a 2×2 factorial design was used for analyzing the data in respect of
Verbal Creativity. There were two levels of gender- male and female and also
two levels of birth order- first born and later born. In each cell of the
design, there were 200 subjects. Thus 4 factorial designs of 2×2 nature were
employed in the present investigation.
followed by’t’ test was employed in the study of analysis of the data.
Summary of Two-Way ANOVA in respect of various dimensions
of Verbal Creativity
Source of Variance
Sum of Squares
Means of Square
Table 2: Mean
Scores of Verbal Creativity of Male and Female Secondary School Students
Figure1: Gender wise mean scores on
Fluency, Originality and Total Creativity
Table 3 Mean Scores of Verbal Creativity of First Born and Later
Born Secondary School Students
Order wise mean scores on Fluency, Flexibility, Originality and Total
Results: – The obtained results of two way ANOVA
in respect of Verbal Creativity have been given in table1. Means scores of male
and female students for those dimensions of Verbal Creativity where differences
have been found are presented in table 2. Further significance of the
differences in mean scores of First born and Later born students have been
reported in table3.
It may be
observed from Table1 that gender had main effect on Fluency, Originality and
Total Creativity. Table1 further shows that birth order had main effect on
Fluency, Flexibility, Originality and Total Creativity. However, there was no
interaction effect of gender and birth order on any dimensions of Verbal
gender differences, it was observed (vide table2) that female secondary school
students tended to rate them higher on Fluency, Originality and Total
creativity than male counterparts.
scores (vide table3) disclosed that on Fluency, Flexibility, Originality and
Total Creativity, first born secondary school students tended to score higher
than later born.
Hyothesis1 stated that there would be
significant differences in Verbal creativity of male and female secondary
school students. This was retained with reference to three dimensions of Verbal
Creativity viz. Fluency, Originality and Total creativity. The findings revealed
that female secondary school students were showed high mean score on fluency,
originality and total creativity than male secondary school students. Such
findings of the study is in conformity with the findings of Passi (1971), Raina (1971), Goyal (1973) Bedi (1974), Singh (1975), Rawat and Garg
(1977), Arora (1978) and Jarial (1981) Li(1996),Hoff(2005) and Matud, Rodriguez&
significant differences in the Verbal Creativity of the first born and later
born secondary school students. This was retained with regard to all dimensions
of Verbal Creativity namely Fluency,
Flexibility, Originality and Total Creativity. First born students were found
high mean scores on all dimensions of Verbal Creativity viz. fluency, flexibility,
originality and total Creativity than later born secondary school students.
of interaction of gender and birth order did not emerge out to be significant.
Hence research hypothesis 3 was rejected. The
studies support this findings are Badrinath, S. and Satyanarayanan, S.B.
(1979), Dalta (1968) and Grakauskaite –Karkockiene, Daiva
(2013). Since so far few studies have been conducted on the theme of present
investigation, empirical support could not be extended with reference to interaction
effect of gender and birth order on Verbal Creativity. Further research in the
concerned area may highlight this aspect.
of the study suggest that there is need to integrated the interventions or
specialized programmes for enhancing the creativity. Differential treatment
towards the children is seen in the family, school and society. The parents,
teachers are expected to be above such mental set up and should provide equal oppourtunity
to first born and later born children for the development of their originality
and self-expression both in academic as well as non-academic matters. The
curriculum of school subjects flexible so that it may have ample scope for
. The primary function of education should be to identify
to creative potentialities in children and to plan the educational programmes,
in such a manner that creative abilities are developed among them and their
talents are exploited to the fullest possible extent. This is a challenging
task which the teachers must take up for the progress of the nation.
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