Abstract The materials chosen for structural up gradation should not pollute the environment and endanger bioreserves. They should be accessible to the ordinary people and be low in monetary cost.
Coconut fiber is an abundant, versatile, renewable, cheap, lignocellulosic fiber and more resistant to thermal conductivity. The aim of investigation is to study the possibilities to use the coconut fiber in addition to the other constituents of concrete and to study the strength properties. A literature survey was carried out, which indicates that the detailed investigation of coconut fiber concrete is necessary. In the present study the deformation properties of concrete beams with fibers under static loading condition and the behavior of structural components in terms of compressive strength for plain concrete(PC) and coconut fiber reinforced concrete(CFRC) has been studied. The testing of various material constituents of concrete was carried out according to the Indian Standard specifications.
To identify the effects on workability and mechanical strength properties due to the addition of these coconut fibres, workability tests such slump, vee – bee, compaction factor test, Flow table tests, and the mechanical strength tests on standard specimens such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, modulus of rupture were conducted on the different aspect ratio. The standard cubes, cylinders and beams for conventional concrete and coconut fiber reinforced concrete were prepared and tested under compression testing machine and flexure testing machine respectively. The suitability of CFRC as a structural material is studiedCHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTIONAs the world population grows, so do the amount and type of waste being generated. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years. The creation of non-decaying waste materials, combined with a growing consumer population, has resulted in a waste disposal crisis. One solution to this crisis lies in recycling waste into useful products. Research into new and innovative uses of waste materials is continually advancing. Many highway agencies, private organizations, and individuals have completed or are in the process of completing a wide variety of studies and research projects concerning the feasibility, environmental suitability, and performance of using recycled products in highway construction.
These studies try to match society’s need for safe and economic disposal of waste materials with the highway industry’s need for better and more cost-effective construction materials.This article summarizes current research on those waste materials that have shown promise as a substitute for conventional materials. It primarily focuses on new and innovative highway industry uses for waste materials and byproducts, rather than on more commonly followed practices.
General Plain concrete is a brittle material. Concrete without any fibers will develop cracks due to plastic shrinkage, drying shrinkage and changes in volume of concrete. Development of these micro cracks causes elastic deformation of concrete. In order to meet the required values of flexural strength, fibers are used in normal concrete. The addition of fibers in plain concrete will control the cracking due shrinkage and also reduce the bleeding of water. Not much importance is given to the use of coconut fibers (coir) in concrete. Some of the researchers have used coconut shells as a partial replacement of coarse aggregates.
To overcome the brittle response of the concrete. Micro structural properties of natural fibers as composites in terms of flexibility, ductility and energy absorption improve seismic resistance. Fibers in concrete serve as crack arrestor which can create a stage of slow crack propagation and gradual failure.
The use of natural Fibers is economical Coconut fiber is used in many ways. Some of them are floor mats, floor tiles, sackings. A small amount is used in making twine. The major use is in rope industry. White coir is used in making fishing nets due to high resilience to salt water. However, the use of coconut fibers in concrete has to be investigated.
Proposed Objectives, Methodology and OutcomesTo investigate usefulness of coconut fiber in concrete, by preparing samples of floor mats, floor tiles, sackings and comparing them on several fronts with conventional concrete.To compare coconut fiber concrete with normal concrete on the basis of physical and chemical characteristics.To test several properties of coconut fiber concrete such as Compaction Factor, Vee – Bee test, Flow-Table test, Compressive Strength and Flexural Strength.Major outcome of this study is utilization of coconut fiber concrete in floor mats, floor tiles, sackings and observing its advantages in terms of cost and enhanced properties.1.6 Project WorkThe Project work is organized as:An introduction, describing the statement and objectives of the work. The scope of this work is properly stated here in this chapter.
Literature Review and summary comprises various study over coconut fiber concrete.This chapter summarizes parameters and experimental methods of testing the prepared specimen, sampling of concrete mixes.Results obtained from the experiments conducted and their analysis. Conclusions obtained from different analysis and comparison of the graphs.References used.CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEWDried CS contains 33.61% cellulose, 36.51% lignin, 29.
27% pentosans and 0.61% ash ( Shelke et al. 2014). CS has low ash content but high volatile matter which was about 65-75% ,Nagarajan et al. (2014) 1, CS also has resistance against impact, crushing and abrasion compared to others conventional crushed granite aggregate ( Shelke et al. 2014). It can be mix with asphalt mixture directly for the experiment except water absorption test.
Abiola et al.(2014) 2, reported that there have two methods to mix fiber into bitumen modification. The wet process blends the fibers with asphalt binder prior to incorporating the binder into the mixture while the dry process mix the fiber with aggregate before adding asphalt. From the experiment result, Abtahi et al.
(2008) 3, stated that there is no difference in the Marshall properties between the dry process and wet process. However, the dry process is easier to carry out and better distribute the fiber in the mixture. Besides that, there is no advantages carry out wet process since fibers would not melt in the asphalt and the field work normally used dry process. Do Vale et al. (2006) 4, have applied the coconut fiber on Stone Matrix Asphalt using two different methods which are Marshall and Superpave.
The Marshall method controls the void during the compaction of the mixtures with different blows adopted for each face. The samples in Superpave were compacted in 100mm cylinder with 100 turns for the sample without fiber and with fiber of cellulose while 160 turn for samples with fiber of coconut to reach 4% of air void content. The samples from Superpave and Marshall had been used for indirect tensile strength, drain down test, resilient modulus, moisture susceptibility and fatigue life. The results show that tensile strength and resilient modulus of SMA CAP 50/70 with coconut fiber was higher by using Superpave method and it was the highest among three different condition of samples: without fiber, with coconut fiber and with cellulose fiber. The coconut fibers are used to prevent flow of asphalt at high compaction and mixing temperatures. The percentages of fiber used are 0.1 to 0.
7 and they were heated up separately with aggregate at 175°C before mixing with asphalt binder. Do Vale el al. presented the result that 0.5% of coconut staple fiber is workable in mixtures of types SMA with CAP 50/70 can prevent the flow parameter. The length of coconut fiber should not be more than 20 mm.
On the other hand, Thulasirajan et al. (2011) 5, conducted a study on flow, stability and volumetric properties of the modified fiber with coconut fiber by varying binder content, fiber content and fiber length. A 5.72% of bitumen content with 0.52% of 15mm of fiber content shows good stability and volumetric properties. The research can conclude that coconut fiber can improve the structural resistance to traffic loads in flexible pavement Hadiwardoyo et al. (2013) 6, has investigated the contribution of short coconut fiber to pavement skid resistance and the results are presented.
The length of coconut fibers used was 0.5-1.25 cm and mixed with pen 60/70 asphalt and the percentages of fiber contents used were 0%, 0.75% and 1.5%. The modified asphalt mixtures mixed with course aggregate then mold and compacted with wheel tracking compactor by using an 8.
16 ton of standard vehicle axle load. Skid resistance was tested by using British pendulum tester at temperature of 26°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C and 50°C. The samples were cut into 120 mm x 50 mm x 50 mm for skid resistance test to get the British pendulum number. His result shows that the modified asphalt with 0.
75% of coconut fiber has higher skid number when compared to others two specimens. However, the skid number has decreased when temperature reached above 30°C. Meanwhile, skid number for modified asphalt with 0.75% and 1.5% of coconut fiber has after 2520 load passes has decreased after 30°C. The skid number has decreased for three different specimens, however, the modified asphalt with 0.
75% of coconut fiber still has higher skid number when compared to others two specimens. It is concluded that modified asphalt with 0.75% of coconut fiber improved skid resistance but did not increase the resistance of the asphalt and temperatures changes. Al-Mansob et al.(2013) 7, has investigated the modified asphalt with palm oil shells (POS) and coconut shells (CS) as additives. Both additives are added by using 4.75 mm with various percentages (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of the total weight of size 4.
75 mm of the aggregate. The modified asphalt samples were compacted by Superpave method and tested the modulus, static and dynamic creep tests by using IPC Global Universal Testing Machine. Besides that, the POS and CS had been tested for their density, relative density and absorption according to ASTM C 127 and ASTM C .
His result shows the specific gravity of the aggregated and additives that used. The result shows that Gsg of CS is much lower than conventional aggregate which is 0.94 and 2.
63 accordingly CHAPTER 3MATERIALS USED3.1 Introduction Test sample preparation and laboratory tests will be introduced in this section. First of all, the type and amount of each material were selected. The selection of various material and values, water cement ratio, aspect ratio was based on the literature reviews. After determining factors to be considered for mix design, a detailed plan for the experimental program (sample preparation and lists of tests) was developed to determine various properties as per Indian standards and conditions. 3.
2 Materials Mix This section introduces the properties of materials used in this research. All materials were obtained from local sources.Coarse Aggregate Aggregates which are used in the surface course have to withstand the high magnitude of load stresses and wear and tear due to abrasion.
Such aggregates should possess sufficiently high strength of resistance to crushing. The aggregates further need to be hard enough to resist the wear due to abrasive action of traffic. All of the coarse aggregate used in the study were sieved to obtain only single-sized aggregate. Well graded crushed aggregate passing through 20mm sieve and retaining on 10mm sieve.Fig 3.1- Coarse aggregate Sand- Passing through 4.
75mm sieve Coarse aggregate- 20mm and downsize.The fine aggregate passing through 4.75mm sieve is tested as per IS: 2386(part III) and specific gravity is fine aggregate is 2.52.
Fig 3.1- Sand Coconut fiber – Fibres are strong, light in weight. The addition of coconut fiber can reduce the thermal conductivity of the composite specimens.Fig.3.
1 – Coir Fiber Cement- Ordinary Portland cement of 43 grade is used. Portland cement can be defined as hydraulic cement that hardens by the interaction between its properties and that of water which forms a water resisting compound when it receives its final set. The raw materials used for manufacture of cement consist mainly of lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide. The relative proportions of these oxides composition are responsible for influencing the various properties of cement; in the addition to rate of cooling and fineness of grinding. Table 1 shows the chemical composition of cement.Table 3.1 Chemical composition limits of ordinary Portland cement.
S.No. Oxides Percentcontent1 Cao 60-67%2 Sio2 17-25%3 Al2 O3 3.0-8.0%4 Fe2O3 0.5-6.
0%5 MgO 0.1-4.0%6 ALKALIES(K2O,Na2O) 0.
4-1.3%7 SO3 1.3-3.0%Water- Water is an important ingredient for making the concrete as it actively participates in the chemical reaction with cement. Water helps to the cement to convert from powder form to liquid form and gaining the strength, Since it help to form the strength giving cement gel.
The quality and quantity of water selection is very carefully as per the requirement. Mixing water should not contain undesirable organic substances of inorganic constituent properties. In this project clean portable clean water was taken.CHAPTER 4EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME General To accomplish the objectives of the study, the experimental program was carried out on cubes, cylinders and beams. The details of the materials used for these specimens and testing procedure incorporated in the test program are presented in the subsequent sections.4.1.
Tests on coarse aggregate The coarse aggregate passing through 20mm size sieve and retaining on 10mm sieve is tested as per IS:2386-1963 and properties are listed below.The fine aggregate passing through 4.75mm sieve is tested as per IS: 2386(part III) and the properties are listed below. 4.1.
1: AGGREGATE IMPACT TESTPurposeThe purpose of conducting this test is indentifying the toughness of the taken aggregate sample, and decides its suitability in the construction work. The toughness is one of the qualities of the material, which indicate its capacity to bear the load or with stand sudden shock. The toughness of aggregate is very important in the case of road construction to bear the impact load which acting on the road surface. The aggregate is stronger when lower the impact value. So that the aggregate with lower AIV ( aggregate impact value ) is preferred for good quality of concrete.
Fig 4.1 – Aggregate Impact Testing MachineApparatus:Impact testing machineWeighting machineTemping rod2.36mm IS sieveProcedure:Take the aggregate sample consisting of standard aggregate passing through 12.
5mm sieve size and retained on 10mm sieve size.In three equal layers, aggregate are filled in the mould.Tamping the each layer with 23 blows or 25 times by temping rod.The net weight of aggregate in the mold is determined.Under the hammer the mold is placed and on the base of the machine it is fixed.
Raise the hammer to the height of 38cm above the surface of the aggregate, of about 14kg of weight.The blowing interval of hammer with 15 times on the surface of aggregate is not less one second between two blows.Removed the crushed aggregate sample from the sampling cup and ass it through the 2.36mm IS sieve size.Weight the materials which is passes from the 2.36mm sieve size.
Result:The impact value of give aggregate sample = 2.76%4.1.
2 AGGREGATE ABRASION VALUEPurposeApart from the testing of the aggregate with respect to its impact resistance of crushing value. The aggregate is tested to identifying the wear resistance of the aggregate for the construction of road pavement or wear houses. According to IS 2386 ( Part IV ), there are two methods for finding out the abrasion value of the given coarse aggregate sample, i.e. Daval and Loss Angeles abrasion testing machine.
The loss Angeles abrasion machine gives a batter and accurate result.Apparatus Loss Angeles MachineAbrasion Charge: Cast Iron or steel balls of 48mm diameter in size and up to 445gm in weight.6 to 12 steel balls are required.IS sieve 1.
7mmBalance of capacity of 5kg or 10kg.Tray Procedure:Take 5kg of aggregate sample.The aggregate sample should be conformed to any one of the standard grading i.e. A, B, C, and D.
Weighting the aggregate sample of 5kg as a W1 .Taking the 5 numbers of steel balls of 445gm and place it on the abrasion drum.The sample of aggregate are also placed on the abrasion drum, and fix the cover tightly.
Rotate the machine at a speed of 30-33 times revolution pr minuteThe total number of revolution for grade A, B, C and D are 500 revolution.After the revolution the machine is stopped and the aggregate is removed safely, and take the aggregate on the tray.All the aggregate are passes through the IS 1.7mm sieve.The material coarser than the 1.7mm sieve size is weighted as W2 The finer material less than 1.
7mm sieve size is known as abrasion valueThe abrasion value or wear losses is calculated from W1.- W2 Fig 4.2- Abrasion value Testing MachineResult The loss Angeles abrasion value = 11.4 %Table-properties of AggregateS/no Properties Value (%)1 Crushing value 14.862 Impact value 2.763 Abrasion vale 1144 Specific gravity 2.
755 Water absorption 1.24.2 Tests on cement The cement is tested as per IS: 431(part IV)-1988 and the properties are listed below4.2.
1 FINENESS TEST OF CEMENT By sieving on standard sieve the Fineness of cement is measured. The proportion the grain size of cement is larger than the specified mesh size in the proportion which is determined. APPARATUS:Standard balance with 800 gm of cementIS: 90micron sieveSieve shakerPEOCEDUREBreak down any air-set lumps in the cement sample with capacity.Taken the cement 800gm weight accurately and place it on IS standard sieve 90 micron.Continuously sieve the sample for 15minutes.Weight the residue after 15minutes of sieving RESULTThe percentage weight of total residue over the total sample recorded.% weight of residue =5.
5%LIMITS:The percentages residue should not be exceed 10%.PRECAUTIONSBefore sieving, The air set lumps of cement should be brokenSieving should be done by rotating the sieve and not by translation.Technical discussion: IS: 4031(Part 1):1996- According to the IS: 4031(Part 1):1996- Method of physical test for cement (Determination of fineness by dry sieving)The rate of gain of strength due to Fineness of cement has a great effect on the rate of hydration.The rate of evolution of heat is increased by the fineness of cement.
A great surface area for hydration is offered by the finer cement and hence the strength is developed at faster.If the fineness of cement is increased than the drying shrinkage of concrete is also increased and hence cracks in structures are create.The cost of grinding is increased due to excessive fineness requirement.Requires more water for hydration is required due to excessive fine cement, strength and durability are reduced.The properties of cement like gypsum requirement are affected by the fineness of cement, workability of fresh concrete & long term behavior of structure.Due to bleeding the Coarse cement particles settle down in concrete.PURPOSE OF & DICUSSION The purpose of this test is to find out the presence of quantity of coarse material in the cement.
During the mixing procedure of cement and water, A chemical reaction occurs in between water and cement, and these chemical reaction is known as hydration of cement. The reaction of hydration of cement develops the strength. the fine particles of cement offers more surface area for the hydration, at the same time the rate of heat of hydration also increases.
Fig 4.3 -IS: 90 micron sieve4.2.2 INITIAL SETTING TIME FOR CEMENTWe are required to calculate the initial setting time as per IS: 4031 (Part 5) – 1988.
APPARATUS:-Vicat apparatus according to IS: 5513 – 1976, Balance of permissible variation at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g, Gauging trowel according to IS: 10086 – 1982.Needle for initial setting time Stop watchINITIAL SETTING TIMETest block is placed under the needle of rod bearing. The needle are lowered at just contact to the surface of the cement paste and release quickly and allowing to penetrate the cement paste test block. Repeat the procedure till the needle fails to pierce the test block. Elapsing the time period between the time, were water is added to the cement and the time were the needle fails to pierce the test block by 5.0 ± 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould, is the initial setting time.
PROCEDURE:Take 300gm of cement in a pan.Prepare the paste of cement by adding 0.85 times the water required to give a standard consistency by the previous paste. Start the stop watch at the time of water added in the cement.
Keep the vicat mould on non porous plate and cement paste is filled in it.After the completely filling of cement paste, cement paste is leveled with the help of trowel gauge.The blocks and non porous plates were tested under the rod bearing the needle having 1sq.
mm cross section.The needle gently till in contact with the surface of test block at lowered.After the lowering the needle, it is allowed quickly release and penetrate in to the test block. Repeat the procedure until needle fails to the block for 32-35 mm and measured from top of the surface of the mould. Fig 4.
4- initial setting time test of cementRESULT:The initial setting time of cement of given sample = 45 minutes.4.2.
3: FINAL SETTING TIME FOR CEMENTWe are required to calculate the final setting time as per IS: 4031 (Part 5) – 1988. APPARATUS:-Vicat apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 – 1976, Balance, whose permissible variation at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g, Gauging trowel conforming to IS: 10086 – 1982.Needle for final setting time Stop watchCollar for final setting time FINAL SETTING TIMEThe needle is replaced by the one with an annular attachment. Applying the needle gently to the surface of the test block when The cement should be considered as finally set. The attachment fails to do due to the needle makes an impression therein. Elapsing the time period between the time, were water is added to the cement and the time were the needle makes an impression on the surface of the test block, while the attachment fails to do so, is the final setting time.PROCEDURE:Take 300gm of cement in a panPrepare the paste of cement by adding 0.
85 times the water required to give a standard consistency by the previous paste.Start the stop watch at the time of water added in the cement.Keep the vicat mould on non porous plate and cement paste is filled in it.After the completely filling of cement paste, cement paste is leveled with the help of trowel gauge.The blocks and non porous plates were tested under the rod bearing the needle of 1sq.
mm cross section having collar.The needle gently till in contact with the surface of test block at lowered.After the lowering the needle, it is allowed quickly release and penetrate in to the test block. Repeat the above procedure until the sign of collar does not appear in the cement concrete of the mould.RESULT:The final setting time of Cement of given sample = 165 minutes.Table-properties of CementS/no Properties Value1 Fineness test 5.5 %2 Initial Setting time 45 min3 Final Setting time 165 min4 Specific Gravity 3.155 Soundness test 3.
5 mm4.3 Preparation of coir • The Coconut fibre (Coir) is Collected from rope industry , • Average diameter of fiber measured from Vernier caliper is 0.0226cm • Average length of fiber measured is 19.43cm • According to fixed Aspect ratio is 75 and 125, fibers were cut to the length of 1.7cm and 2.8cm respectively. 4.
4. Concrete Mix Design The proportioning of ingredients of concrete is governed by the required performance of two states namely; the plastic state and the hardened state. If the plastic concrete is not workable, it cannot be properly placed and compacted. The property of workability, therefore, becomes important.The Mix Design for concrete was carried out with the guidelines from IS:10262- 2009 for M30 grade concrete with the water cement ratio of 0.5. 1) Water= 185 kg/m32) Cement= 375 kg/m33) w/c ratio= 0.54) Aggregates:? Coarse aggregate fraction= 0.
58? Fine aggregate fraction= 1-0.58=0.425) a) Volume of concrete= 1m3b) Volume of cement= (375/2.92)*(1/1000) = 0.
128m3c) Volume of water= (185/1)*(1/1000) = 0.185m3d) Volume of aggregates in all = 1- 0.128-0.185 = 0.687m3e) Coarse aggregate= 0.695*0.58*2.
75*1000 = 1095.765 kg/m3f) Fine aggregate= 0.695*0.42*2.52*1000 = 727.1208 kg/m3Proposition for 1 m3 Water Cement Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate185 Kg 375 Kg 727 Kg 1095.65 KgMix Proposition is-Cement: Fine Aggregate: Fine Aggregate (1:1.
94:2.92)4.5. TESTS ON FRESH CONCRETE Tests on fresh concrete were carried out determine the workability of normal concrete as well as CFRC as per IS:1199-1959. The properties of the tests are listed in the table 3.4Materials Used Cement: Ordinary Portland cement of 43-grade. Sand: Locally available river sand passing through 4.
75mm sieve. Aggregate: Well graded crushed aggregate passing through 20mm sieve and retaining on 10mm sieve. Water: potable water. 1st mix: Aspect Ratio (AR) -75 Mix proportion- 1:1.
94:2.92 Fibers added-1%, 2%, 3% by weight of cement 2nd mix: Aspect Ratio (AR) -125 Mix proportion- 1:1.94:2.92 Fibers added-1%, 2%, 3% by weight of cement 4.5.1: WORKABILITY TEST OF CONCRETE The workability or consistency of concrete is determined by the slump cone test. The concrete mix is prepared at the laboratory.
From batch to batch checking of uniform quality of concrete during the construction the slump test of concrete is carried out. The slump cone test is carried out as per the procedure which is mentioned in ASTM C143 Unites states, IS: 119-1959 in India.The value of slump cone of concrete is generally used to find out the workability of concrete and water cement ratio, but there are various properties such as properties of material, method of mixing, dosage of admixtures etc. which affects due to the concrete slump value. Factors which influence the slump cone test of Concrete:The properties of material like chemistry, temperature of cementations materials, particle size distribution, fineness value, moisture content. Size and texture of aggregate, combined grading, cleanliness of aggregates.
Dosage of chemical admixtures, its types, combination of chemicals, interaction, addition sequence and its effectiveness,Air content of concrete mix.Batching of concrete, mixing and transporting methods of concrete and other materials and equipment required,Temp. of the concrete,Concrete sampling, Techniques of slump cone and the equipment test condition,The amount of free water used in the preparation of concrete,Time of testing and time of mixing of concrete.Apparatus and Equipments Required:Mould for slump test having 20cm diameter at the bottom, 10cm diameter at the top and the height of the mould is 30cm.non porous base plate, measuring scale, The tamping rod is of steel having 60 cm long and 16mm in diameter. PROCEDURE FOR CONCRETE SLUMP TEST:The internal surface of the mould should be Cleaned and apply oil.
On the smooth horizontal surface non-porous base plate, the mould is place.Fill the mould with the concrete mix in approximately 4 equal layers which is prepared.Tamp the each layer with 25 times strokes of the rounded end of the tamping rod in a uniform manner over the cross section of the mould. The excess concrete is removed and level the surface with a trowel.Clean the mortar or leaked out the water between the base plate and the mould.Removed the mould from the concrete immediately and slowly in the vertical direction.Slump is measured as the difference between the height of the mould and that of height point of the mould being tested.NOTE:The above mentioned operation should be carried out at a place which is free from shock or vibration and within a period of 2 minutes after the sampling.
RESULT:Fig 4.5 – Measuring Slump of ConcreteThe Vertical settlement of concrete is measured and shall be recorded in terms of millimeters (mm) during the test.Slump for the given sample = 84 mmWhen the slump test is carried out, following are the shape of the concrete slump that can be observed:Fig 4.6 -Types of Slump Cone Test Results of ConcreteTrue Slump – True slump is that, which can be measured in the test. The measurement is taken between the top of the concrete and the top of the cone after the removal of the cone as shown in figure.Zero Slump – Zero slumps is indicate a very low water-cement ratio, which result in dry mixes. This type of concrete is generally used in the construction of road. Collapsed Slump – collapsed slump is indicating the water-cement ratio is too high, so due to this concrete mix is too wet or workability of mix is high, for which a slump cone test is not appropriate.
Shear Slump – The shear slump is indicate the incomplete result and released the concrete.Table 4.1 -Properties of fresh ConcreteS/no properties Plain Concrete Plain Concrete with 1% of Coconut fiber Plain Concrete with 2% of Coconut fiber Plain Concrete with 3% of Coconut fiber75AR 125AR 75AR 125AR 75AR 125AR1 Slump Value (mm) 84 59 56 42 38 29 242 Compaction Factor (%) 91.82 87.08 82.
96 84.30 80.23 81.90 79.013 Vee -Bee test (sec) 8 14 16 17 18 23 454 Flow Table Test (%) 80.13 60.00 58.
26 58.67 53.23 55.14 49.984.
5.2: Compaction Factor Test It is designed in such a way that it can be used only in laboratory but in some cases, it can be used for field concrete tests. The compacting factor test has been developed at the Road Research Laboratory in United Kingdom.
This test is one of the most accurate test performed in order to determine the workability of concrete.The apparatus of compaction factor test is shown below Table4.2- Dimension of the Test Apparatus Fig 4.7- Compaction Factor Test ApparatusThis test works on the principle of determining the degree of compaction achieved by a standard amount of work done by allowing the concrete to fall through a standard height. The degree of compaction, called the compacting factor is measured by the density ratio i.e., the ratio of the density actually achieved in the test to density of same concrete fully compacted.Procedure of Compacting Factor test:Prepare a concrete mix in the ratio of 1:2:4With the help of a trowel, fill the freshly prepared concrete in the top upper of the apparatus.
The concrete should be filled to the brim of the hopper and level it of with trowel.Now open the trap of the upper hopper, so that the concrete falls in the lower hopper.After all concrete falls from the upper hopper to lower one.
Then again open the trap of the lower hopper. Let the concrete falls on the cylinder.Now take the weight of the cylinder in which concrete had felled. Let this weight be “The weight of partially compacted concrete (W1)”.Empty the cylinder.
Now again, fill concrete in the cylinder in three layers with 25 blows for each layer using tamping rod. Fill concrete to the top of cylinder and scrape excess concrete above the brim.Now take the weight of the cylinder in which concrete we filled. Let this weight be “The weight of fully compacted concrete (W2)”.The compacting factor of concrete can be found out using the formula= (Weight of Partially Compacted Concrete W1)/(Weight of Partially Compacted Concrete W2)4. CASTING 1st a layer of coarse aggregates were spread on clean tray. Then the fibers were separated manually and spread. Over the fibers fine aggregates were spread and dry mixed for 2 minutes.
Then cement was added and dry mixed again. 50% of the water was added first and mixed properly. Then by adding remaining water the concrete was mixed. Then 21 cubes of 150*150*150mm , 21 beams of 100*100*500mm and 21 cylinders of 150mm dia*300mm height were cast for 7 days strength and were demoulded after 24 hours of casting and were subsequently cured in water bath for 3 days. Then 21 cubes of 150*150*150mm , 21 beams of 100*100*500mm and 21 cylinders of 150mm dia*300mm height were cast for 7 days strength and were demoulded after 24 hours of casting and were subsequently cured in water bath for 7 days.
Then 21 cubes of 150*150*150mm , 21 beams of 100*100*500mm and 21 cylinders of 150mm dia*300mm height were cast for 28 days strength and were demoulded after 24 hours of casting and were subsequently cured in water bath for 28 days. CHAPTER 5TESTING AND RESULTS5.1 Compressive Strength All the cubes were tested in a ‘Compressive Testing Machine’ to determine the compressive strength of the cubes. The procedure is as follows.
Compression test of cube specimen are made as soon as practicable after removal from curing pond. Place the specimen centrally on the location marks of the compression testing machine and load is applied continuously, uniformly and without shock. The rate loading is 2kN/Sec continuously.
The load is increased until the specimen fails and record maximum load carried by the each specimen during the test. Also note the type of failure and appearance of cracks.APPARATUS AND MATERIALSAs per IS Specification (IS 456:2000), ASTM Method C873CAN3-A23.2-M77, The following material and apparatus required-Mold – The cubical mould is made up of non-absorbent material, and substantial enough old their form during the molding of test specimens.
Standard cubical molds size is of 150 mm X 150mm X 150mm generally used. The molds shall be water tight and the base plate or bottom shall be at right angles to the right axis of the cylinder.Tamping Rod – a tamping rod have a round straight steel rod having 16 mm in diameter and 600 mm in length.
One end shall be in hemisphere of 16 mm in diameter.Sampling Equipment – scoop or shovel, trowel, containers, saran wrap, tape.Capping Compound – a mixture of granular materials and sulphur having a equal compressive Strength, equal to or greater than the anticipated strength of the specimen.Capping Device – a device, for applying a capping compound to the cube and surfaces in the form of plane surfaces at right angles to the axis of the cube.
Curing Equipment – a moist storage room or bath tub, capable of maintaining the specimens at a temperature within ± 1 degrees of 23oC and capable of maintaining a moist condition in which free water is maintained on the surfaces of the specimens.Testing Machine – the machine having of sufficient capacity to applying the continuous load, which will apply a load continuously without shock within a range of 0.140 to 0.350 MPa per second. The testing machine shall be equipped with two steel bearing blocks with hardened faces. One bearing block shall be spherically seated and the other rigidly mounted. The testing machine shall be accurate within a tolerance of ± 1.0 percent of the compressive strength of the specimen.
Fig 5.1-Concrete cube MouldPREPARATION OF CUBE SPECIMENSThe proportion and material for making these test specimens are from the same concrete used in the field.MIXINGThe concrete is mixed either by hand mixing or in a laboratory batch mixer.HAND MIXINGThe ingredients are mixed thoroughly the hand mixing. In the hand mixing all the ingredients are batched thorough manual.
The fine aggregate and coarse aggregate are mixed with cement until the coarse is uniformly distributed throughout the bath.Add water and mixed it until the concrete appears to be homogeneous and of the desired consistency. SAMPLINGClean and apply oil to the moulds.Fill the mould with concrete and leveled the top surface.
Smooth the top surface with the help of trowel.CURINGThe cube removed from the mould are moist for 24 hours and after this period the cube are removed from the water bath and kept submerged in clear fresh water. Fig 5.2- Compression Test Machine PROCEDUREWe have taken 9.24 kg (9240gm) of cement, 11.5 kg (1150gm) of standard sand and 22kg (2200gm) of granite stone in the proposition 1 : 1.
5 : 3 by weight in a pan.The 11.5kg of sample of sand should be properly cleaned.Mix the cement and sand in dry condition with a trowel for 1 minute and then added water as per the requirement.The quantity of water shall be ( P/4+3 ) of combined weight of cement and sand where, P =% of water required to produce a paste of standard consistency, and add water in the mixture and mix it well until the mixture if of uniform color.After the mixing of mortar, mortar placed in the cube mould and prod with the help of rod.Vibrator is used for the purpose of compaction, and the period of vibration shall be 2 minutes at the specified speed, i.e.
12000+ or 12000- vibration per minute.After the 24 hours remove the cube from the mould and submersed into the clean water till testing.Take out the cube from the water just before testing.Placed the molded cube in the testing machine that is universal testing machine (UTM), and start to applying load until the cube is break.Note down the breaking point of the cube, and this breaking point is known as compressive strength.The test should be conducted for 3 cubes at same procedure and take the compressive strength on 7days and 28 days. RESULT:Compressive strength at 7 days = 30.
33 N/mm2Compressive strength at 28 days = 39.43 N/mm2Table 5.1- Compressive Strength of CFRC at 7 days (N/mm2)Aspect Ratio % of Coconut Fiber0% 1% 2% 3%125 Aspect ratio 33.33 30.94 34.35 30.
7775 Aspect ratio 33.33 30.53 32.14 31.
703Table 5.2- Compressive Strength of CFRC at 28 days (N/mm2)Aspect Ratio % of Coconut Fiber0% 1% 2% 3%125 Aspect ratio 39.43 40.22 44.
65 41.175 Aspect ratio 39.43 39.8 41.9 40.5Compressive strength has also a decreasing trend with increasing fibre content in CFRC. But CFRC with 2% fiber content has higher compressive strength as compared to that of PC. In comparison to compressive strength of Plain Concrete, Compressive strength is increased up to 1% for 75 aspect ratio and 2% for 125 aspect ratio with 1% fibre.
Compressive strength is increased up to 6% for 75 aspect ratio and 13% for 125 aspect ratio with 2% fibre. Compressive strength is increased up to 3 % for 75 aspect ratio and 4% for 125 aspect ratio with 3 % fibre. As compared to 2% coconut fibre 1% and 3% coconut fibre has given the lesser compressive value. Higher fibre content in CFRC might have caused voids resulting in decreased compressive strength.
Fig 5.3- Representation of compression strength for 7days, 28 days and picture showing failure specimen Flexural Strength All the beams will be tested in ‘Universal Testing Machine’ under two point loading to obtain the Flexural strength of the beams. Flexural strength of beam specimens are made as soon as practicable after removal from curing pond. Mark the distance 50mm of supporting rollers on each side of the specimen and mark the distance 133.33mm of loading roller from the supporting rollers. Then 2 point loading is applied continuously, uniformly and without shock.
The rate loading is 180kg/Minute continuously. The load is increased until the specimen fails and record max load carried by the each specimen during the test. Also note the type of failure and appearance of cracks. The following formula were used depending upon distance of line of fracture(a) from nearest support.
Apparatus:Prism mouldCompression testing machineProcedure:The test specimens are stored at a 24oC to 30oC for 48 hours in water before testing.The cubes are immediately tested after the removal from water, and when it is tested, it is in wet condition.Before testing the dimensions of each cubs should be noted.Wipe and clean the supporting and loading roller of the bearing surface. Removed any loose sand and other material from the surface of the contact of the roller.The concrete cube is than placed in the machine in such a manner that, the load is applied to the upper most surface part of the concrete cube mould.Aligned carefully the axis of the loading device with the axis of specimen.
There is no packing is used in between the roller and the specimen concrete mould.Without any shock the load is applied to the concrete mould and at the increasing rate of applying load the load is applied.The rate of load is 4KN/min for 15cm mould and 18KN/min for 10cm mould.The load is applied until the mould is failed that is braked.Recorded the maximum load that is the breaking point of the mould.Result: The Flexural strength of the concrete at 7days = 3.01 N/mm2The Flexural strength of the concrete at 28days = 4.
2 N/mm2Table 5.3- Flexural Strength of CFRC at 7 days (N/mm2)Aspect Ratio % of Coconut Fiber0% 1% 2% 3%125 Aspect ratio 3.01 4.74 4.9 4.
275 Aspect ratio 3.01 4.28 4.74 4.32Table 5.4- Flexural Strength of CFRC at 28 days (N/mm2)Aspect Ratio % of Coconut Fiber0% 1% 2% 3%125 Aspect ratio 4.2 6.16 6.3 5.575 Aspect ratio 4.2 5.56 6.1 5.62i. Flexural Strength =Pl/bd2 When ‘a’>13.3cm ii. Flexural Strength =3Pa/bd2 When ‘a'<13.3cm and > 11cm. Where P= Average applied load, d= Depth of specimen, b= Breadth of specimen, a= Cracking distance from nearest support, l = Length of specimen. As compared to 2% coconut fibre 1% & 3% coconut fibre has given the lesser tensile value. Flexural strength is increased up to 32% for 75 aspect ratio & 47% for 125 aspect ratio with 1% fibre. Flexural strength is increased up to 45% for 75 aspect ratio & 50% for 125 aspect ratio with 2% fibre. Flexural strength is increased up to 34% for 75 aspect ratio & 31% for 125 aspect ratio with 3% fibre. As compared to 2% coconut fibre 1% & 3% coconut fibre has give the lesser Tensile value.Fig 5.4- Representation of Flexural strength for 7days, 28 days and pictures showing failure specimenCHAPTER 6CONCLUSIONBased on the objectives set in the present study and the experimental work carried out in the laboratory, the following conclusions are drawn. 6.1 Properties of fresh concrete: As the fiber content was increased, the mix became more cohesive. Workability decreased as the fiber content increased. 6.1.1 Slump test ? As compared to normal concrete, slump decreased 30% for 75 AR and 33% for 125AR for 1% fiber content. Similarly slump value decreased for 2% and 3% fiber content. 6.1.2 Compaction factor test ? As compared to normal concrete, compaction factor value decreased 5% for 75 AR and 10% for 125AR for 1% fiber content. Similarly workability decreased for 2% and 3% fiber content. 6.1.3 Vee-bee test ? As compared to normal concrete, time taken to change the shape from cone to cylinder increased 75% for 75 AR and 100% for 125AR for 1% fiber content. Similarly there was increase in time for 2% and 3% fiber content. 6.1.4 Flow table test ? As compared to normal concrete, flow was decreased 25% for 75AR and 27% for 125AR for 1% fiber content. ? There was decrease in flow for 2% and 3% fiber content. 6.2 Properties of hardened concrete: The compressive strength, Split tensile strength and Flexural strength has a increasing trend upto 2%. Later, strength decreased with the increase in fiber content. CFRC with 2% fiber content has higher compressive strength and Flexural strength as compared to that of PC. 6.2.1 Compressive strength ? Optimum results were found when 2% of coir by weight of cement fibers were used, there was 6% and 13% increase in compressive strength as compared to normal concrete for 75AR and 125 AR respectively. 6.2.2 Flexural strength ? 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