The purpose of this coursework t is to analyze the current state of the Mediterranean’s seas related to the exclusive economic zones. According to Barcelona Regional Convention (1976) and UNCLOS III (1982) and analyzing the issue from the side of the shipowner, we will see the situation in the Mediterranean regarding the EEZ (exclusive economic zones), and how it will affect us (from the side of shipowner) any change in the future.
The 30% of maritime transport is covered by the Mediterranean Sea, which is why it is under pressure from economic activities. The population in the Mediterranean is doubled each year leading to environmental degradation. In addition, the Mediterranean is also facing security challenges. Due to the fact that in some states the deviation of the seabed was quite large, with a small deviation from their shores and some states were reacting to the introduction of the EEZ. In our days, with a few exceptions, the coastal states of Mediterranean sea have not claimed EEZ (exclusive economic zones). However it is considered a high seas area. The particularity of the Mediterranean sea in maritime zoning is that many coastal states have not maintained maritime zones. ?he United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea created the EEZ and extends 200 nautical miles from its coast. Based on the EEZ, each country has specific rights and obligations regarding the use and research of marine resources. UNCLOS III is a convention setting out limitations on the rights to choose a flag, port, coast, and state. During this coursework we will investigate what is the situation in the Mediterranean Sea with regard to the EEZ? How important is it? How does this affect shipping now and in the future? Literature Review
For this research I was asked to analyze the issue from the side of a shipowner and to describe the situation of the Mediterranean sea concerning the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), mentioning the Barcelona Convention and UNCLOS III. Then on the basis of my opinion I will speak of how it will affect shipping in the future. My source is based on secondary data in order to answer the question I have been asked for. DATA ANALYSIS Strenghts Up to now 5 states have officially announced EEZ in the Mediterranean. Israel, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Cyprus. The EEZ includes a system of States’ rights and obligations. Coastal states have rights on natural resources and some other issues. The other states have rights to install underwater pipelines and cables, and freedom of navigation and overflight. The EEZ extends the rights of the coastal State and shrinks the rights of third countries. In addition, it has determined the outer boundary of the continental shelf extending beyond 200 nautical miles. the coastal State as regards the EEZ has sovereign rights to research, conserve and exploit natural resources and produce 200-nautical miles of energy from AZ. In addition, the coastal state has the right to use and install artificial islands for the purpose of marine research as well as the protection and conservation of marine life and the environment. . According the EEZ, each country may regulate areas that are banned or restricted in fishing and fishing areas and has full executive competence. weaknessesThe coastal state must not set safety belts over 500 meters and their area is publicized. In addition, the coastal State’s basic duty is not to prevent the use of international ships’ vessels. Each coastal State is entitled to exercise sovereign rights on foreign ships. (flag research, criminal trial, etc.) but must inform the country of the flag.The purpose of UNCLOS III is to exploit living resources. based on unclos, coastal states aim to better exploitation living resources between the EEZ. Nationals from other countries must comply with the conditions and conditions of the state. All these regulations should be in agreement with UNCLOS. For any scientific research on the continental shelf or the EEZ, it should be done in accordance with rules and laws that define the coastal state upon request. There is, however, another article obliging coastal states to facilitate and promote research on the marine environment. However the establishment of the EEZ from all areas of Mediterranean will create disputes between countries bordering on them. If Greece enters the EEZ, should be delimited by Albania, Italy, Libya, Egypt and Turkey. Turkey does not agree to the creation of an EEZ in the Aegean. An important example is that of the castellorizo. Based on the Castellorizo case in 1987, Greece did not discuss the demarcation of the EEZ with Turkey and did not grew the territorial waters more than 6 nautical miles. The chances of war by Turkey are the reason for all the above Opportunnitys Based on my own judgment the coastal states of the Mediterranean sea, should exploit the oil fields Machinery and underground pipelines should be used to pump oil, etc. Proper exploitation of resources will lead to the economic improvement of coastal states. Treats Conclusion