Abstract observing previous two years performance records of the

  Abstract

The
present study explored the effect of personality types on the academic
achievement of rural and urban secondary school students. The sample comprised
of 400 secondary school students (200 rural and 200 urban). The sample for the
study was selected randomly from the different schools of Srinagar (as urban
district) and Budgam (as rural district). The sample was selected in such a way
to ensure that every unit of population could get equal chances to be selected
in the sample. Multidimensional Personality Inventory developed by Manjurani
Aggarwal (1985) as the tool of the study for the present sample and academic
achievement was obtained by observing previous two years performance records of
the sample subjects. Result findings suggest significant difference between
rural and urban secondary school students on personality type test. Result findings also suggested urban secondary
school students have better academic achievement than rural secondary school
students.

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Keywords:
Personality
traits, Academic achievement, Rural/Urban Secondary school Students

Intoduction

Personality
is a dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems
that determine his unique adjustment to his environment (Allport). It refers to individuals unique and
relatively stable patterns of behavior, thoughts and feelings (Robert A. Baron,
2006, p.450). Human nature is changing so is the personality of a person.
Personality style is a combination of both genetic and environmental factors so
the personality style of a person varies changes with his changing experiences
and this is the law of nature and this changing nature has remarkable influence
on making the life of success or failure including that of students. Personality is acquired by the person as an
end result of his participation in social or group life. As a member of the
society or group he learns definite behavior systems and symbolic skills which
determine his ideas, attitudes and social values. These ideas, attitudes and
values which a person holds comprise his personality. Every personality is the
process of learning and acquisition.
Academic
achievement or Scholastic performance is the extent
to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or
long-term educational goals. The Scholastic or academic achievement has been
explained by the Good et al (1954) by the level of knowledge attained or
developed by student in school subject.Academic achievement is commonly
measured through examinations or continuous assessments conducted by the institution but
there is no general agreement on how it is best evaluated or which aspects are
most important — procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts. Academic achievement measures students comprehension and
abilities within the core subjects of education in curriculum. It measures the
overall competency of students in specific subject.

Objectives

1.     
To study and compare rural
and urban secondary school students on personality styles.

2.     
To study and compare
rural and urban secondary school students on academic achievement.

 

Hypothesis

The following hypotheses were
formulated for the present study:

1.     
Rural and Urban Secondary
School Students differ significantly on personality styles.

2.
Rural and urban Secondary School Students differ significantly on academic
achievement.

Sample

The sample for the study consisted
of 400 secondary school students in which 200 were rural secondary school
students 200 were urban higher secondary school students. The sample for the
present study was selected from district Srinagar (Urban) and district Budgam
(Rural), which were selected randomly from ten districts of Kashmir. The sample
for the study was selected randomly to ensure that every unit of the population
gets equal chance of being selected. The researcher ensured that prudence of
the researcher should not get involved in the choice of the sample from the
population.

 

The breakup of
the sample shall is as under:

Group

Rural
Students

Urban
students

  Total

 

Secondary
school students

 
           200

 
            200

      400

 

 

 

SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION
OF TOOLS

The tools for the present study
were selected in a approach to attain an optimum level of assurance by the
investigator for the objectives of the study. Since the study principally
contained two variables namely Personality Style and Academic Achievement.
Therefore, such tools were decided to be chosen as could validly and reliably
measure these variables. The investigator after screening a number of available
tests finally selected the following tools to collect the data.

1.     
Multidimensional
Personality Inventory developed by Manjurani Aggarwal (1985).

2.      Academic
Achievement of the sample subjects were assessed by checking the previous two
year academic performance record of the sample subjects.

 

ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA

Personality
styles: Multidimensional Personality Inventory was employed to measure
personality styles of children in educational activities. The
scale is valid and reliable measuring the variable at optimum level of
confidence.

 

Table 1.0: Showing the
overall levels of Personality styles of Secondary School Students

           

Personality    Styles

     N

%age

Introvert

       75

     18.75%

Ambivert

      295

     73.75%

Extrovert

      30

     7.5%

Total

     400

     100%

 

The perusal
of above table shows that out of 400 secondary school students 18.75% have
introvert personality style, 73.75% have ambivert personality style and 7.5%
have extrovert personality style.

 

 

                       

 

Fig. 1.0:
Showing the overall levels of Personality styles among Secondary School Students

 

 

Table 1.1:
Showing the levels of Personality styles of rural and urban Secondary School
students

 

   Personality
       Styles

     Rural
  (N)

     %age

     Urban
   (N)

      %age

   Introvert

     63

  31.5%

    57

  28.5%

    Ambivert

    115

  57.5%

    119

  59.5%

    Extrovert

     22

   11%

    24

   12%

      Total

     200

   100

   200

  100

 

The perusal of above table shows that out of 200 Rural secondary school
students 31.5% have introvert personality type, 57.5% have ambivert personality
type and 11% have extrovert personality type. Out of 200 urban secondary school
students 28.5% have introvert personality type, 59.5% have ambivert personality
type and 12% have Extrovert personality type.

 

                       

 

 

Fig. 1.1: Showing
the levels of Personality styles of rural and urban secondary school students.

 

 

Table 1.2:
Showing the mean comparison between rural and urban secondary school students
on Personality Styles (N=400).

           

   Group

         N
      (300)

     Mean

       S.D

  t-value

Level of
Significance

   Rural

    
    200

   
    50.04

  
    5.41

 
 
    3.7

 
significant at 0.01 level

   Urban

    
     200

   
    51.92

   
     5.04

 

A quick look at
the above table shows the mean comparison between rural and urban secondary sschool
students on Personality Styles. The
above table reveals there is significant difference between rural and
urban secondary school students on personality styles and the difference was
found to be significant at 0.01 level. As the mean difference favours urban
secondary school students have balanced personality styles than rural secondary
school students.

In the light of
above evidences, the hypothesis which reads as “Rural
and Urban Secondary School Students differ significantly on personality styles”
Stands accepted.

 

Table 1.3: Showing the
overall levels of Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students.

Levels

         N

           %age

Low

           39

           9.75

Average

           283

          70.75

High

           78

19.5

Total

            400

          100%

 

The perusal
of the above table shows that out of 400 secondary school students 19.5% have
high academic achievement, 70.75% have average academic achievement and 9.75%
have low academic achievement.

Table 1.4:
Showing the Academic Achievement of rural and urban Secondary School   Students.

 

Levels

    Rural

     %age

     Urban

    %age

Low

       27

     13.5%

         12

    6%

Average

      140

      70%

         143

   71.5%

High

       33

     16.5%

         45

   22.5%

Total

      200

     100%

         200

  100%

 

The above table
reveals that out of 200 Rural secondary students 13.5% have low academic
achievement, 70% have average academic achievement and 16.5% have high academic
achievement. The table also reveals that out of 200 urban secondary school
students 6% have low academic achievement, 71% have average academic
achievement and 22.5% have high academic achievement.

 

Table 1.5:
Showing the mean comparison between rural and urban secondary school students
on Academic achievement (N=300).

           

   Group

         N
      (400)

     Mean

       S.D

  t-value

Level of
Significance

   Rural

    
      200

   
    56.01

  
     8.03

 
 
    6.1

 
significant at 0.01 level

   Urban

     
      200

   
    62.02

   
     11.53

 

A quick look at
the above table shows the mean comparison between rural and urban secondary
school students on Academic Achievement.
The above table reveals there is significant difference between rural and
urban secondary school students on academic achievement and the difference was
found to be significant at 0.01 level. The observed difference
favours the urban higher secondary school students
which confirm that urban higher secondary school students have better academic achievement than the
rural higher secondary school
students.

In the light of
the above evidences, the hypothesis which reads as, “Rural and Urban
higher

Secondary
Students differ significantly on Academic Achievement.” stands
accepted.

MAJOR FINDINGS:

The following
findings have been concluded from the study:

1.      It was found that most of the secondary school
students have ambivert personality type. A high
level of percentage i.e. 59.5% in urban and 57.5% in rural Secondary school
students were found to have ambivert personality which means that majority of
secondary school students have very well balanced personality. Neither they were
too introvert nor extrovert.

2.      It was also found that only 31% rural students and 28.5% urban secondary school students
having introvert personality which means great number of young adolescent are
highly reserved, quiet and shy. They show least participation in social
activities,

3.      It
was also found that only 11% rural and 12 % urban secondary school students
have extrovert personality which means that very less percentage of young
adolescent are more social, expressive and are more flexible to adapt in any
environment.

4.      It
was found that most of secondary school students have average academic
achievement. A high level of percentage i.e.71.5% urban and 70% rural were
found to have average academic achievement.

5.      It
was also found that 19.3% rural and 20%  urban secondary school students have high
level of academic achievement and 13.5% rural and 6% urban secondary school
students were found to have low level of academic achievement.

6.      It
was found that urban secondary school students have well balance on personality
style than rural urban secondary school students.

7.     
Urban secondary school
students were found to have better academic achievement than rural secondary
school students.

References:

Baron, R. A., (2006). Psychology. New
Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Best
J.W. and Kahn, J.V., (2001). Research in Education (7th
Ed.). New Delhi:Prentice Hall of India.

Dandapani,
S., (2006). Advanced
Educational Psychology. New Delhi: Anmol
Publications.

DR.
A. S. Arul Lawrence and A. John Lawrence “Personality Type and Academic    Achievement 
of Secondary school Students ” Indian e-journal on teacher education
, Vol 2, Issue 3, July 2014.

  Subhashini,T.,
and Kalaimathi, H. D., (2013). Relationship between altruism and personality
type among higher secondary school students -a survey. Paripex – Indian Journal of Research, 2(7),
55-56.

Mangal.S.K., (2012). Advanced Educational Psychology
(2nd Ed.). PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi.

Trow, R. S. (2004). Academic
Achievement. In Dandapani (Ed.)- A Text Book of Advanced Educational Psychology (2nd Edition), New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers pp. 434.

 

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