“A Level Language • High Level Language Low

“A programing language is like a natural, human language in that it favor certain metaphor’s, images, and way of thinking”(Seymour papert)• A programming language is mean of communication between a user and computer.• It is a set of words and grammatical rules (syntax) for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks.• Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a computer and serve any purpose.GENERATIONS OF PROGRAMMING LANGIAGES• The first generation languages are low level languages that are machine language.

• The second generation languages are also low-level languages that generally consist of assembly languages.• The third generation languages are high level languages such as C.• The fourth generation languages arelanguages that consist of statements similar tostatements in a human language.

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Fourth generationlanguages are commonly used in databaseprogramming and scripts.• The fifth generation languages areprogramming languages that contain visual tools to help develop a program. A good example of a fifth generation language is Visual Basic.TYPES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES There are two types of programming languages• Low Level Language• High Level LanguageLow Level Language• Low level computer languages are either machine codes or are very close them.• A computer cannot understand and execute given to it in high level languages or in English.• It can only understand and execute instructions given in the form of machine language i.

e. binary.• A low level language does not need a compiler or interpreter to run the program, the processor run low level codes directly.• Deep knowledge of hardware is required to write program.TYPES OF LOW LEVEL LANGUAGEThere are two types of low level language• Machine language• Assembly languageMachine language• The set of symbolic instructions in binary form that is called machine language.

• Machine code is a system of instruction and data executed directly by a computer’s CPU ,the lowest level programming language that only be understood by computer.• It is pure binary.• Every processor or processor family has its own machine code instruction set.• Example: 10001000110011Assembly Language• Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture and operating system.

• In Assembly language, machine instructions are replaced with English like words, these English likes words are called “Ne-Monics”i.e. ADD, MOV,SUB.• They can be translated into machine code before CPU can process the instruction.

• A typical assembly language consists of 3 types of instruction statements that are used to define program operations:• Opcode mnemonics• Data definitions• Assembly directives• Program written in assembly language as easier to write and modify than machine language.• Assembly language use a translator called “assembler”, which translated assembly language to machine language.• Example:• Machine language :10110000 01100001• Assembly language:mov a1, #061h• Meaning:Move the hexadecimal value 61 (97 decimal) into the processor register named “a1”.

High Level Language• A high level language is a programming language.• It is several steps removed from the actual code run on a computer’s processor.• .High-level source code contains easy-to-read syntax that is later converted into a low-level languagewhich can be recognized and run by a specific CPU.• These languages are normally used to write application programs.• Every high level language have its rules and regulation to write a program, these rules and regulations are called “syntax”.• Each instruction must follow syntax of the language.

• High level language is easy for human to understand and develop, but for computer it is impossible to understand instructions directly, so a software called “compiler” .• Compiler is used to convert high level language to machine language. ExampleC (1971-72)Paradigm:imperative (procedural), StructureDesign Developed By: • C was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at Bell Labs.• Used to re-implement the UNIX operating system.• It has since become one of the most widely used programming languages of all time.• It was designed to be compiled low-level access to memory.

• It provide language constructs that map efficiently to machine instructions, and to require minimal run-time support.• Despite its low-level capabilities.Syntax: • C has a formal grammar specified by the C standard• C source files contain declarations and function definitions• Function definitions, in turn, contain declarations and statements.• Declarations either define new types using keywords is usually by writing the type followed by the variable name.

• Keywords such as char and int specify built-in types. Sections of code are enclosed in braces ({ and }, sometimes called “curly brackets”) to limit the scope of declarations and to act as a single statement for control structures.• Structured programming is supported by if else, do while, while, for loop.• Non-structured programming statement directly designed within a function.

Character set:The basic C source character set includes the following characters:• Lowercase and uppercase letters of ISO Basic Latin Alphabet: a–z A–Z.• Decimal digits: 0–9.• Graphic characters: ! ” # % ; ‘ ( ) * + , – . / : ; ? ^ _ { | } ~.• Whitespace characters: space, horizontal tab, vertical tab, form feed, newline t.Typing discipline: static, weak, manifest, nominalFilename extension: .

c, .hC++ (1972)Paradigm:Multi-paradigm, procedural, functional, object oriented, genericDesign Developed By:• In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on “C with Classes”, the predecessor to C++ at Bell Labs. • C++ programming language was initiallystandardized in 1998.• It was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained and large systems, with performance, efficiency and flexibility of use as its design highlights.• C++ has also been found useful in many other contexts, with key strengths being software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications.

Typing discipline:Static, nominative, partially inferred Implementation language C++ or CFilename extension: .C, .cc, .cpp, .cxx, .c++, .h, .hh, .

hpp, .hxx, .h++PASCAL(1970)Paradigm: ImperativeStructuredDesign Developed By:• Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970.

• As a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. • It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal.• Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language.• Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted.• Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970.• A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform.

• Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.Language Constructs:• Original form, is a purely procedural language• Includes the traditional array of ALGOL-like control structures with reserved words. • Pascal also has data structuring constructs not included in the original ALGOL 60 types,• Such constructs were in part inherited or inspired from Simula 67, ALGOL 68, Niklaus Wirth’s own ALGOL W and suggestions by C. A.

R. Hoare.• Pascal programs start with the program keyword with a list of external file descriptors.• Then follows the main block bracketed by the begin • end keywords.

Semicolons separate statements, and the full stop (i.e., a period) ends the whole program (or unit). Letter case is ignored in Pascal sourceTyping discipline:Static Strong SafeFilename extension: .

pp, .pas, .incBASIC (1964)Paradigm: Non-structured, later procedural, later object-orientedDesign Developed By:• An acronym for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code• family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use• In 1964, John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz designed the original BASIC language at Dartmouth College. • At the time, nearly all use of computers required writing custom software, which was something only scientists and mathematicians tended to learn.

• In addition to the language itself, Kemeny and Kurtz developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System (DTSS), which allowed multiple users to edit and run BASIC programs at the same time.• This general model became very popular on minicomputer systems• The emergence of early microcomputers in the mid-1970s led to the development of the original Microsoft BASIC in 1975.• Many early video games trace their history to one of these versions of BASIC.• These machines almost always had a BASIC installed by default, often in the machine’s firmware or sometimes on a ROM cartridge.• BASIC fell from use during the later 1980s as newer machines with far greater capabilities came to market and other programming languages (such as Pascal and C) became tenable. • In 1991, Microsoft released Visual Basic, combining a greatly updated version of BASIC with a visual forms builder.• This reignited use of the language and “VB” remains a major programming language to this day, in the form of VB.

net.JAVA (1995)Paradigm: Multi-paradigm: object-oriented (class-based), structured, imperative, generic, reflective, concurrentDesign Developed By:• Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle Corporation).• In 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform.• The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.• The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses.

• Sun relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License.• Others have also developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies.• The latest version is Java 11, released on September 25, 2018 which follows Java 10 after only six months in line with the new release schedule. Java 8 is still supported.• But there will be no more security updates for Java 9 Versions earlier than Java 8 are supported by companies on a commercial basis.Typing discipline:Static, strong, safe, nominative, manifestLicense: GNU General Public License, Java Community ProcessFilename extensions:.java, .class, .jar

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