A Comprehensive Survey of Face Databases for Constrained and Unconstrained Environments Siddheshwar S. Gangonda Prashant P. Patavardhan Kailash J. Karande Research Scholar, Dept. of E&TC Professor, Dept. of ECE Professor, Dept. of E&TCSKN Sinhgad COE, Pandharpur, KLS Gogte Institute of Technology, SKN Sinhgad COE, Pandharpur,Maharashtra, India. Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
Maharashtra, India. Abstract—Face recognition has witnessed a lot of attention due to its numerous applications in many fields like computer vision, security, pattern recognition and computer graphics, but still is a challenging and active research area. In this paper, we have presented a comprehensive survey of face databases for constrained and unconstrained Environments. Face databases are used for the face detection and recognition algorithm testing and they have been designed to evaluate the effectiveness of face recognition algorithms. The paper is focused mostly on novel databases that are freely available for the research purposes. Most of the popular face databases are briefly introduced and compared. Keywords- face recognition, face database, expression, occlusion.
I. INTRODUCTION Over the last few years research in face recognition has moved from 2D to 3D. The need for 3D face data has resulted in the need of 3D databases. In this paper, we first give an introduction of publicly available 2D and 3D face databases for constrained and unconstrained Environments.
The existence of many databases demands a quantitative comparison of these databases in order to compare more accurately the performances of the various algorithms available in literature 8,9,11,15,16. The development of algorithms robust to illumination, pose, facial expression, age, occlusion changes requires databases of sufficient size that include carefully controlled variations of these factors. Also, common databases are required to comparatively analyze algorithms.
Presently, there are many databases utilized for facial recognition that vary in lighting conditions, size, pose, expressions, the number of imaged subjects and occlusions. The earliest facial databases mostly consists of frontal images, such as the local data set acquired from 115 people at Brown University utilized in the early works in 1987. Nowadays, the facial databases were seen to capture the variations in pose, lighting, imaging angles, ethnicity, gender and facial expressions. Some of the most recent databases capture the variations in image sizes, compression, occlusions and are gathered from different sources such as social media and web 11, 12.
In this paper, we have presented a comprehensive survey of face databases for constrained and unconstrained environments. Section II describes the overview of various face databases. It focuses mostly on novel databases that are freely available for research purposes. Section III describes some of the recent face databases. Section IV compares the various popular face databases.
Finally, Section V concludes the paper. II. FACE DATABASES Over the past few decades, a large number of face databases have been designed to analyze the effectiveness of face recognition algorithms. The brief introduction of selected databases is as follows. In most cases the link to database download is provided. A. The AR database The AR database 13 is one of the very few databases which contain real occlusions and are open to the public.
It consists of more than 4,000 color images of 126 people faces (70 men and 56 women). These images suffer from different variations in facial expressions, lighting conditions and occlusions (i.e., sunglasses and scarves). They were captured under strictly controlled conditions.
No restrictions on wear (clothes, glasses, etc.), makeup, hair style, etc. were imposed to subjects. For each subject, 26 images in total were captured in two sessions (two weeks apart) 1. The limitations of the AR database are that it only contains two types of occlusions, i.
e., sunglasses and scarf, and the location of the occlusion is either on the upper face or lower face. This database can be downloaded from the link http://rvl1.ecn.purdue.
edu/~aleix/aleix face DB.html13. Fig.1 Sample images of two sessions from AR database 2.
B. The Extended Yale B database It consists of 2,414 frontal face images of 38 persons in 64 different lighting conditions. For every subject in a particular pose, an image with surrounding (background) illuminationwas also captured. The images are grouped into four subsets according to the lighting angle with respect to the camera axis. The Subset 1 and Subset 2 cover the angular range 0? to 25?, the Subset 3 covers 25? to 50?, the Subset 4 covers 50? to 77?, and the Subset 5 covers angles which are larger than 78?. In order to simulate various levels of contiguous occlusions, the most used scheme is to replace a randomly located square patch from each test image with a baboon image which has similar texture with the human face. The location of the occlusion is randomly chosen. The sizes of the synthetic occlusions vary in the range of 10% to 50% of the original image 2,14.
Fig.2 Sample images from the Extended Yale B database with randomly located occlusions: a) Subset 1, b) Subset 2. c) Subset 3, d) Subset 4 and e) Subset 5 2. C. The FRGC database The most popular 3D expression databases are the “Face Recognition Grand Challenge”(FRGC) databases. The Grand Challenge probably had a large impact on the advancement of face recognition algorithms. So it is also considered as the reference databases for validation of 3D face recognition algorithm.
The Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) database contains 8,014 images from 466 subjects in difference sessions. For each subject in each session, there are four controlled still images, two uncontrolled still images, and one 3D image. The still images contain variations such as lighting and expression changes, time-lapse, etc. The unconstrained images were captured in varying lighting conditions; e.g., hallways, or outdoors. Each set of unconstrained images contains two expressions, smiling and neutral. To simulate the randomly located occlusions, one can replace a randomly located square patch from each image with a black block.
The location of the occlusion is randomly chosen. The size of the black block varies in the range of 10% to 50% of the original image 2. This database can be downloaded from the link https://www.idiap.ch/software/bob. D.
The LFW database The Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW)8 database is a database of face photographs designed for studying the problem of unconstrained face recognition which contains 13,233 face images of 5,749 people collected from the Fig.4 Sample images from the LFW database: first and second row: six matched pairs from six subjects, third and forth row: six non-matched pairs from twelve subjects 2. Internet. These images are captured in uncontrollable environments and contain large variations in pose, expression, illumination, time-lapse and various types of occlusions.
The only constraint on these faces is that they were detected by the Viola-Jones face detector. Each face has been labelled with the name of the subject pictured. 1,680 of the subjects pictured have two or more distinct images in the database. The aim of face verification under the LFW database’s protocol is to determine if a pair of face images belongs to the same subject or not. The images are available as 250 by 250 pixel JPEG images. Most images are in color, although a few are grayscale only 4.
E. CAS-PEAL Database It consist of images from 66 to 1040 subjects (595 men, 445 women) in seven categories: pose, expression, accessory, time, Fig. 4 Pose variation in the CAS-PEAL database 2.
lighting, background, and distance. For the pose subset, nine cameras distributed in a semicircle around the subject were used. Images were recorded sequentially within a short time period (2 seconds) 2.
This database can be downloaded from the link http://www.jdl.ac.cn/peal/index.html. F. FERET This database collection was a collaborative effort between Dr.
Wechsler and Dr. Phillips. The images were collected in a semi-controlled condition. In order to maintain a degree of uniformity in the database, the same physical setup was utilized in each photography session. As the equipment had to be assembled again for each session, there was some smaller variation in images collected on dissimilar dates. It was collected in 15 sessions between August 1993 and July 1996.The database has 1564 sets of images for a total of 14,126 images that consists of 1199 individuals and 365 duplicate sets of images. A duplicate set is a second set of images of a person already in the database and was generally taken on a dissimilar day.
This database can be downloaded from the link http://www.nist.gov/humanid/feret/. The color FERET dataset can be downloaded from the link http://www.nist.
gov/humanid/colorferet/. Fig.5 pose variations images from FERET database 6. G.
Korean Face Database (KFDB) It consists of facial imagery of a large number of Korean subjects collected under carefully constrained conditions. In this, images with varying pose, lighting, and facial expressions were recorded. The people were imaged in the mid of an octagonal frame and the cameras were placed between 450 off frontal in both directions at 150 increments. Fig. 6 Pose variation in the Korean face database 2.
H. Yale Face Database B It was collected for the systematic testing of face recognition methods under large variations in lighting and pose. The people were imaged inside a geodesic dome with 64 computer-controlled xenon strobes. The images of 10 people were recorded under 64 lighting conditions in nine poses. This database can be downloaded from the link http://cvc.yale.edu/projects/yalefacesB/yalefacesB.
html. Fig. 7 Yale Face Database B images froM the 64 illumination conditions 6. I.
Yale Face Database It consists of 11 images of 15 people in a different conditions having with and without glasses, changes in facial expression and lighting variation 2. This database can be downloaded from the link http://cvc.yale.edu/projects/yalefaces/yalefaces.
html. J. CMU Pose, Illumination, and Expression (PIE) Database This database systematically samples a large number of pose and lighting conditions and different facial expressions. It has made an impact on algorithm development for face recognition across pose. It consists of 41,368 images taken from 68 people.
The RGB color images are 640×480 in size 3. This database can be downloaded from the link http://www.ri.cmu.edu/projects/project 418.
html. Fig. 8 Illumination variation images from PIE face database 3. K. SCface Database This database consists of static images of human faces.
Images were taken in unconstrained indoor conditions using five video surveillance cameras of different qualities. It has 4160 stable images of 130 people. Images from different quality cameras create the real-world conditions which helps in robust face recognition algorithms testing. It is freely available to research community 3. L. Georgia Tech Face Database It consists of images of 50 people which are stored in JPEG format. Most of the images were taken in two dissimilar sessions to consider the changes in lighting conditions, facial expression, and appearance.
Also, the faces were taken at dissimilar scales and directions. Each image is manually labeled to find the position of the face in the image. M. Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database This database consists of 213 images of 7 facial expressions (6 normal facial expressions + 1 neutral) in various poses by 10 Japanese female models. Each image has been rated on 6 emotion adjectives by 60 Japanese people 2. This database can be downloaded from the link http://www.mis.
Fig. 9 Expression variation images from JAFFE database 2.N. Indian Face Database This database consists of eleven different images of 40 different people. All the images are stored in JPEG format. The size of each image is 640×480 pixels, which are having 256 grey levels per pixel.
The images are arranged in two main categories – males and females. The different orientations of the face included are: looking front, looking left, looking right, looking up, looking up towards left, looking up towards right, looking down and the available emotions are: neutral, smile, laughter, sad/disgust 3.This database can be downloaded from the link http://www.cs.umass.edu/~vidit/facedatabase. Fig.
10 Pose variation images from Indian Face database 3. O. FEI Face Database It is a Brazilian face database that consists of a set of face images captured at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of FEI in Brazil. There are 14 images of all the 200 individuals, a total of 2800 images. P. The Bosphorus database It is a new 3D face database that has a rich set of expressions, systematic changes of poses and various types of occlusions.
It is very useful for the advancement and analysis of algorithms on face recognition under adverse environments, facial expression analysis and facial expression synthesis. Q. FaceScrub Database The database was collected from the images available on the Internet.
There is an automatic procedure that verifies that the image belongs to the right person. It contains the images of 530 people which is 107,818 in total. The images are provided together with the name and gender annotations. III. RECENT FACIAL DATABASES The early databases were focused on facial detection for subject identification, the more recent databases are tuned more towards capturing the changes in imaging modalities, facial expressions, and obscurities due to makeup.
Some of the latest facial databases are 7: A. Labelled Wikipedia Faces (LWF) It consists of mined images from more than 0.5 million biographic entries from the Wikipedia Living People entries and it has 8500 faces from 1500 subjects. YouTube Faces Database (YFD) has 3425 videos of 1595 dissimilar subjects (2.15 videos per subject) with video clips ranging from 48-6070 frames. This database was designed to provide a collection of videos and labels for subject identification from videos and benchmarking video pair-matching techniques. B. YouTube Makeup Dataset (YMD) It contains images from 151 subjects (Caucasian females) from YouTube makeup tutorials before and after precise to heavy makeup is applied.
4 shots are taken for each subject (2 shots before and 2 shots after makeup is applied). This database has constant lighting but it demonstrates the challenges in facial recognition due to changes in makeup. C. Indian Movie Face Database (IMFD) It contains 34512 images from 100 Indian actors collected from about 100 videos and cropped to include variations in pose, expression, lighting, resolution, occlusions and makeup. IV. COMPARISON OF FACE DATABASES The different face databases have been built for the analysis of face images when dealing with a single or a combination of these changes. The different types of face image databases are given in the Table1. Table 1.
Different types of face image databases 5 Face Database Image Type RGB/Gray Scale Image Size Types of conditions FERET Gray RGB 256 x 384 i, e, p, I/O, t The yale face B Gray Scale 640 x 480 i, p AR Faces RGB 576 x 768 i , o, t, e CMU-PIE RGB 640 x 486 i, e, p The yale face Gray Scale 320 x 243 i, e Asian face databaseRGB 640 x 480 p, e, i, o Indian face databaseRGB 640 x 480 e, p The different Image changes are shown by p: pose, o: occlusion, i: illumination, e: expression, t: time delay, I/O: indoor/outdoor conditions.The image size, image type and the other specifications describes about the complexity of face database which in turn shows the robustness of different algorithms of face recognition. The different face databases are created to evaluate the effect of changes on the several types of conditions of an image. AR Faces, FERET, CMU-PIE, Asian and Indian face database are the most widely used 2D face image databases. Each database provides a platform to access the particular challenges of uncontrolled conditions. For example, CMU-PIE is used for more illumination and poses changes. FERET gives a good testing platform for large probe and gallery sets. AR Faces gives the natural occluded face images.
Asian face database consists of 2D face images of female and male with pose, illumination, expression occlusion and expressions. The Indian face database comprises of face images with variation in expression and poses. V. CONCLUSION Face recognition in unconstrained situations is still a challenging research domain.
In this paper, we have presented a comprehensive survey of face databases for constrained and unconstrained environments. It focuses mostly on novel databases that are freely available for the research purposes. Most of the popular face databases are briefly introduced and compared. The purpose of this review paper is to assist the young budding researchers in the area of face recognition by compiling the most widely used face databases and the link to download them so as to motivate their further research.
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