? senior project. We offer our deep

?BEIRUT ARAB UNIVERSITYFACULTY OF ENGINEERINGDEPARTEMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING709 JAL EL DIB RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGPrepared by:Kassem Al HajjarAyman MansourMohamad BanboukMohammad KhawwamMostafa JaffalSupervised by:Prof. Dr. Yehia TemsahDr. Zaher Abou SalehSpring 2017/2018I- Acknowledgement:We would like to thank Beirut Arab University and its honourable faculty who have always provided us with brightening information and gave us the opportunity to gain such a beneficial senior project.We offer our deep thanks to the faculty of engineering in particular: Prof. Yehya Temsah Dr.

Zaher Abou SalehWho were the supervisors of our project and were with us in every step of our work during this semester.Thank you for being remarkable mentors and we are very grateful to have you as instructors.II- Abstract:This project is a structural analysis and design of a residential building located in JAL AL DIB, the building is consisted of 15 floors. Technically speaking the project comprises the following floors: 1 basement floors Ground floor 14 typical floors Roof Top roof The final analysis and design of building is done using a three dimensional (3D) structural model by the structural analysis and design software ETABS.Analysis and design of slabs is done using finite element software by SAFE software.III- Table of Content:I- Acknowledgement 3II- Abstract 4III- Table of Content 5IV- List of Figures 8V- List of Tables 10? CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 111.

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1 Description 111.2 Methodology of study 141.3 Design Criteria 151.

4 Architectural Drawings 171.5 Major constraints 21? CHAPTER 2: GRAVITY LOADS ON BUILDING 222.1 Material Self Weight 222.2 Superimposed Dead Load 222.3 Live Load 22? CHAPTER 3: LATERAL LOADS ON BUILDING 243.1 Wind Load: 243.

1.1 Wind Speed: 243.1.2 Wind exposure: 253.1.

3 Wind directionality effect: 253.1.4 Important factor 263.1.5 Gust Factor 263.

2 Earthquake Load: 273.2.1 Soil profile type 283.

2.2 Importance Factor (I) 283.2.3 Redundancy factor (R) 293.

2.4 Seismic coefficient of acceleration Ca 303.2.5 Seismic coefficient of velocity Cv 30? CHAPTER 4: DESIGN FORCES AND COMBINATIONS 31? CHAPTER 5: GRAVITY RESISTING SYSTEM 325.1 Examples of gravity load resisting floor systems 325.

2 Factors effecting the selection of gravity resisting systems 345.3 Preliminary slab properties 34? CHAPTER 6: LATERAL RESISTING SYSTEM 356.1 Braced Frames 356.2 Rigid Frames 356.3 Shear Wall System 36? CHAPTER 7: MODELING 377.

1 Modeling Using ETABS 377.2 Story Data 387.3 Stiffness Modifiers 38? CHAPTER 8: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 408.1 Shear Walls Analysis 408.2 Seismic Analysis 418.3 Wind Analysis 458.4 Column Design 48? CHAPTER 9: DESIGN OF COLUMNS 499.1 Types of Columns: 499.

2 Reinforcement Limitation: 499.3 Design methodology 499.4 Design of column C9 (all floors) 509.5 Reinforcement detailing for columns 51? CHAPTER 10: DESIGN OF SHEAR WALLS 5210.1 Functions of a shear wall 5210.2 Design of column C9 (all floors): 5210.3 Walls Reinforcement detailing: 53? CHAPTER 11: DESIGN OF CORE WALLS 5411.

1 Design of irregular shape core wall 5411.2 Core wall Reinforcement detailing: 56? CHAPTER 12: FLAT SLABS 5712.1 Overview 5712.2 Advantages and Disadvantages 5712.3 Minimum Thickness 5812.

4 Deflection 5812.5 Short term deflection 5912.6 Long term deflection 5912.7 Punching Shear 6012.8 Slab Moments 6112.9 Slab Reinforcement 6212.10 Slab Reinforcement Detailing’s 64? CHAPTER 13: RIBBED SLAB 6713.1 Advantages 6713.

2 Minimum Thickness 6713.3 Ribs Direction 6813.4 Deflection 6913.5 Design of Ribs 7013.6 Slab full detailing 7113.7 Design of Embedded Beams 72? CHAPTER 14: FOUNDATION 7414.

1 Raft Thickness 7414.2 Soil properties: 7514.3 Concrete Properties 7614.

1 Check for Soil Pressure 7614.4 Check Punching Shear 7714.4 Slab Reinforcement 7814.5 Raft Reinforcement Detailing’s 80? CHAPTER 15: STAIRS 8415.1 Dog Legged Stair Case 8415.2 Step 1: General arrangement 8515.3 Step 2: Design constants 8715.

4 Step 3: Determination of loading 8715.5 Step 5: Reinforcement Calculation 8915.6 Step 6: Detailing 90? CHAPTER 16: BASEMENT WALL 9116.

1 Soil Properties 9116.2 Lateral Earth Pressure (soil Load) 9116.3 Uniform live load 92? CHAPTER 17: BILL OF QUANTITIES 9517.

1 Flat Slab 9617.2 Ribbed Slab 9717.3 Conclusion 98? APPENDIX 99? REFERENCES 102IV- List of Figures: Figure 1: Project Location 11Figure 2: Perspective View 11Figure 3: Elevation View 12Figure 4: Boreholes’ Location Plan 15Figure 5: Basement Plan 16Figure 6: Ground Plan 17Figure 7: First Floor Plan 18Figure 8: Second to 13th Floor Plan 18Figure 9: 14th Floor Plan 19Figure 10: Roof Floor Plan 19Figure 11: Section Elevation View 20Figure 12: ETABS 3D Model 36Figure 13: BMD and deflected shape of a wall 39Figure 24 Interaction Diagram 47Figure 14: Axial loads on vertical elements 47Figure 16: S-concrete Load entry 49Figure 15: Column Reinforcement schedule 50Figure 16: Wall Reinforcement Schedule 52Figure 17: Basement floor core wall detailing 55Figure 19: Maximum permissible computed deflection 57Figure 20: Short Term Deflection 58Figure 21: Long Term Deflection 58Figure 22: Punching Shear 59Figure 23: X-Direction 60Figure 24: Y-Direction 60Figure 24: Additional Top Reinforcement X-direction 61Figure 25: Additional Bottom Reinforcement X-direction 61Figure 26: Additional Top Reinforcement Y-direction 62Figure 27: Additional Bottom Reinforcement Y-direction 62Figure 28: Top Reinforcement X-direction 63Figure 29: Bottom Reinforcement X-direction 63Figure 30: Top Reinforcement Y-direction 64Figure 31: Bottom Reinforcement Y-direction 64Figure 32: Additional Top Reinforcement X-direction 65Figure 33: Additional Top Reinforcement Y-direction 65Figure 34: Maximum Allowable Deflection Due to Long Term Deflection 68Figure 35: BMD for Ribs 69Figure 36: SFD for Ribs 69Figure 37: Slab Distribution of Hollow Blocks 70Figure 38: Embedded Beam Reinforcement 72Figure 39: Embedded Beam Reinforcement 72Figure 40: Soil Properties 74Figure 42: Concrete Properties 75Figure 43: Soil Pressure 75Figure 44: Punching Shear 76Figure 45: Additional Top Reinforcement X-direction 77Figure 46: Additional Bottom Reinforcement X-direction 77Figure 47: Additional Top Reinforcement Y-direction 78Figure 48: Additional Bottom Reinforcement Y-direction 78Figure 49: Top ; Bottom Reinforcement X-direction 79Figure 50: Top ; Bottom Reinforcement Y-direction 80Figure 51: Additional Top Reinforcement 81Figure 52: Additional Bottom Reinforcement 82Figure 53: Dog Leg Stairs 83Figure 54: Stairs General Arrangement 84Figure 55: Stairs Plan 85Figure 56: BMD for Stairs 86Figure 57: Detailing 89Figure 58: Wall 90Figure 59: Acting Loads 91Figure 60: SFD ; BMD 91Figure 61: Wall Design 92Figure 62: Wall Detailing 93V- List of Tables:Table 1 : Wind directionality effect 24Table 2 : Importance Factor 25Table 3 : Gust Factor 25Table 4 : Soil Profile 27Table 5 : Importance factor for seismic analysis 27Table 6 : Structural systems 28Table 7: Siesmic Coefficient Ca 29Table 8 : Siesmic Coefficient Cv 29Table 9 : Minimum thickness for one way slab 33Table 10 : Minimum thickness for two way slab 33Table 21 : Story Data 37Table 12: Stiffness modifiers 37Table 33 : Story Drift 43Table 45 : Building Sway 46Table 56: Advantages ; Disadvantages 56Table 67: Minimum Thickness 57Table 18: Minimum Thickness for One Way Slabs. 66Table 19:Maximum Allowable Deflection 68Table 20:Weight of steel 94Table 21:Unit Price 94Table 22:Steel in flat slab 95Table 23:Steel in ribs 96Table 24:Steel in beams 96Table 25:Steel for stirrups 96Table 26:Steel for shrinkage 97Table 27: ACI – 318 Appendix E 98? CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1.

1 Description16 Story residential Building in Jal Al Dib Figure 1: Project LocationThis Project includes the following building components:1 BasementGround Floor15 Floor RoofFigure 2: Perspective View Figure 3: Elevation ViewApartments: 2 apartments per floor in Block A 1 apartment per floor in block B. The basement and ground floor are used as car parking. Basement (parking) floor is connected to the Ground floor using ramp elements. 1st and typical floors till 14 are used as residential apartments over approximately half of basement area.1.

2 Methodology of study Determination of which slab type to use after considering the different span lengths. Determination of structural system used. Story data. Identification of loads and code of practice and standards. Introducing the structural system to the software. Check for story drift and sway. Designing the structural elements.

Design of foundation. Reinforcement detailing drawings. Cost management 1.3 Design Criteria Code Specifications: The design code is referred to the American Institute of Civil Engineering (ACI 318-05) which covers the proper design and construction of buildings of structural concrete including: specifications, inspection, materials, durability requirements, concrete quality, reinforcement details, analysis and design, strength and serviceability, flexural and axial loads, shear and torsion, pre-stressed concrete, and provisions of seismic design. Materials:1- Concrete: The minimum 28 days’ compressive strength on cylinder are: – Blinding concrete 25 MPa – Columns, walls 40 MPa – Ground slab, slabs & Beams 30 MPa(40-30)/40×100 = 33% which is smaller than 40% 2- Steel: Yield steel, ASTM Grade 60, Fy = 4200 kg/cm² = 420 Mpa Mild steel, ASTM Grade 40, Fy = 2800 kg/cm² = 280 Mpa Bar size : ?8, T12, T14, T16, T20, T25 Codes of practice and standards:The structure is to be designed to the requirements of the following standards: – ACI 318 – 14 – UBC 1997 – ASCE 7-10 Software used:- ETABS 16- SAFE 16- SAP2000- AutoCAD- Excel and Word Soil Investigation:5 Boreholes are drilled to depth 15 & 25 mThe recommended allowable bearing capacity is 3.

0 kg/cm2Subgrade modulus for soil K = 500 T/m3Angle of internal friction ? = 30°Soil profile type is SD Figure 4: Boreholes’ Location Plan1.4 Architectural Drawings Figure 5: Basement Plan Figure 6: Ground Plan Figure 7: First Floor Plan Figure 8: Second to 13th Floor Plan Figure 9: 14th Floor Plan Figure 10: Roof Floor Plan1.5 Major constraints There are no shear walls in X direction which may cause effect of lateral loads to be critical on that direction. Slab Areas are large, so expansion joints may be used. Differential settlement of foundation slab due to different load magnitude between north area (parking basement) and south area (rise of building) which may cause cracks. Settlement joint is needed. Figure 11: Section Elevation View? CHAPTER 2: GRAVITY LOADS ON BUILDINGThe major gravity loads on building structures are dead and live loads.Dead loads are fixed-position gravity loads (i.

e. long-term stationary forces).They consist of the weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the building including architectural, structural, and MEP items. Dead load also includes the weight of any fixed equipment.2.

1 Material Self WeightDead Loads have been calculated using the following assumed unit weights: Concrete = 2.5 T/m3 Earth (saturated) = 2.48 T/m3 Water = 1.0 T/m32.2 Superimposed Dead LoadHollow block (CMU) walls (including plaster): 100 mm thick 2.

2 KN/m2 – 200 mm thick 3.2 KN/m2 150 mm thick 2.7 KN/m2 – 250 mm thick 3.7 KN/m2Typical calculation of superimposed dead (without partition loads): Finishes 2 KN/m2 Services 1 KN/m2 Total 3 KN/m2 SIDL = 2 KN/m2 (parking) SIDL = 3 KN/m2 (residential floors) SIDL = 2 KN/m2 (roof)2.3 Live Load (IBC Code)Live loads are short duration forces which change in location and magnitude during the life of the structure.They include the weight of people, furniture and movable partitions.

They are based upon intended use or occupancy of the building (e.g. residential versus office). Parking = 3.5 KN/m2 Basic floor area = 2 KN/m2 Balconies = 3 KN/m2 Stairs – Corridors = 4.8 KN/m2 Roof = 1 KN/m2 Top of Roof = 10 KN/m2 (Water Tank Load)Live load has two components:(1) Sustained, which is less uncertain and acts over a long period (e.g.

furniture)(2) Transient, which is more uncertain and acts over a short period (e.g. people) ? CHAPTER 3: LATERAL LOADS ON BUILDINGThe major lateral loads on building structures are wind and earthquake loads.3.

1 Wind Load:Wind load on structures is affected by: Wind speed and gust effect Height and stiffness of building Cross-sectional shape of building Surrounding topography and terrain Presence of openings in the building envelopeP = Ce*Cq*qs*Iw P = design wind pressure. Ce = combined height, exposure and gust factor coefficient Cq = pressure coefficient for the structure or portion of structure under consideration Iw = Importance factor qs = wind stagnation pressure 3.1.1 Wind Speed:qs = 100 mph3.1.

2 Wind exposure:We choose our category as exposure C 3.1.3 Wind directionality effect:In our case, having a structure type is building Kd=0.85 Table 1 : Wind directionality effect3.1.

4 Important factor:Our structure corresponds to category II Table 2 : Importance Factor3.1.5 Gust Factor:Table 3 : Gust FactorOur building height is 55.5m =182ft ? By interpolation using table Gust factor =1.84 3.2 Earthquake Load:Earthquake load on structures is affected by several factors: Earthquake intensity Geotechnical data at building site Mass of the building Stiffness of the building Cross-sectional shape of building Height of the buildingV = (C_v*I)/(R*T) W Cv = Seismic coefficient of velocity I = Importance factor W = Total dead load plus sustained load T = Period of vibration R = Redundancy FactorLebanon Zone: Z = 0.

25 m/s23.2.1 Soil profile type:Our soil profile type is SD Table 4 : Soil Profile3.

2.2 Importance Factor (I):This factor is used to classify buildings according to use and importance Table 5 : Importance factor for seismic analysis3.2.3 Redundancy factor (R):R is a factor in accordance to the over-strength or the extra or serve strength in the structure system. It comes from the practice of designing every member in a group according to the forces in the most critical member of that group R = 5.5 for shear walls systemTable 6 : Structural systems3.

2.4 Seismic coefficient of acceleration Ca:According to the table Ca = 0.29 Table 7: Siesmic Coefficient Ca3.

2.5 Seismic coefficient of velocity Cv:According to the table Cv = 0.4 Table 8 : Siesmic Coefficient Cv? CHAPTER 4: DESIGN FORCES AND COMBINATIONSThe design forces were obtained from the numerical analysis of the three-dimensional models due to the following straining forces: Dead loads (DL): self-weight + super Imposed dead Live Loads (LL): LL1 + LL2 Seismic forces(E) of both horizontal (X-Y) and vertical (Z) directions The basic design load combinations as per ACI 318-14 code: 1.4DL 1.2DL + 1.6LL 1.2DL + 1LL + 1.0W 1.

2DL + 1LL – 1.0W 0.9DL + 1.0W 0.

9DL – 1.0W 1.2DL + 1.0LL + 1.0E 1.2DL + 1.

0LL – 1.0E 0.9DL + 1.0E 0.9DL – 1.0E”W” represents the Wind forces WX and WY”E” represents the seismic quadratic combinations: E = EQX + 0.

3 EQY + EQZOr E = 0.3 EQX + EQY + EQZEQX, EQY, and EQZ represent the seismic spectral response of the buildings due to earthquakes along X, Y, and Z directions respectively. These values are scaled with respect to the values obtained from the static analysis (equivalent seismic forces) as per the UBC97 specification (1631.5.4) with the condition of not being less than (1/R).? CHAPTER 5: GRAVITY RESISTING SYSTEMStructural behavior of gravity load resisting systems can be mainly classified as either 1-way or 2-way slab. 5.

1 Examples of gravity load resisting floor systems:1. Flat plate2. Flat slab (with drop panels and/or column capitals)3. Two-way slab4. One-way slab on beams5. One-way ribbed system6. Two-way waffle system7.

PT SlabFlat plate system. There are no beams between the columns. Instead, the floor is heavily reinforced in both directions. Edge beams may be used on the perimeter. Flat slab with drop panels.

This system consists of a flat plate with column capitals to provide shear resistance around the columns. Two-way slabs are floor panels supported along all four sides by drop beams. One-way slab on beams. The floor loads are transferred to parallel beams, which are then transferred to the columns. One-way ribbed slab. The ribs act like small beams between a thin slab. They are created with removable forms or with permanent hollow concrete masonry units. Two-way joist (or waffle) slab.

This floor has joists in both directions. It is the strongest and will have the least deflection. 5.2 Factors effecting the selection of gravity resisting systems:Several factors affect the selection of one structural floor system for gravity loads over another: Economy of construction Serviceability Load carrying ability Economy of material Architectural considerations 5.

3 Preliminary slab propertiesUsing ribbed slab(one way hollow block slab): from table of minimum thickness Longest span: Ln= 5.6 m ? hmin = L/21 = 26.6 cm Table 9 : Minimum thickness for one way slabUsing Flat plate (2 way slab): from table of minimum thickness Longest span: Ln= 5.6 m ? hmin = Ln/33 = 16.9 cm Table 10 : Minimum thickness for two way slabwe have two options: – 25 cm Ribbed Slab – 23 cm Flat SlabSo Try flat plate slab of thickness 23 cm? CHAPTER 6: LATERAL RESISTING SYSTEMThere are three main lateral load resisting structural systems for low and medium rise buildings.

1. Braced frames2. Rigid frames3. Shear wallsA combination of the above 3 systems may also be used in medium rise buildings.6.

1 Braced Frames Such structures consist of a frame strengthened with diagonal bracing members. The columns and beams carry the gravity load, while the bracing carries the lateral load. Braced frames are mostly used in steel buildings since the diagonal bracing has to resist tension. Bracing generally takes the form of steel rolled sections, circular bar sections, or tubes. 6.2 Rigid Frames Sometimes referred to as moment-resisting frames. They are composed of reinforced concrete portal frames, with the lateral load mainly resisted by flexure.

Rigid frames resist lateral loads through beams and columns. They tend to have large drift (lateral deflection). They are mainly used in low/medium-rise buildings (up to 20 stories). 6.3 Shear Wall System They act like deep cantilevered beams supported at the ground. They can resist both gravity and lateral loads.

Shear wall buildings are very stiff structures against lateral loads. They are often used on up to 30-40 stories. For high-rise buildings, the lateral load resisting system is complex, and may consist of one of the followings:1. Framed tube2. Trussed tube3. Tube-in-tube4.

Bundled tube ? CHAPTER 7: MODELING7.1 Modeling Using ETABS Figure 12: ETABS 3D Model7.2 Story Data Table 21 : Story Data7.3 Stiffness ModifiersThe effects of concrete cracking can be considered with the ACI318 (6.6.3.

1.1) reduced inertia for vertical and horizontal elements as follow: Table 12: Stiffness modifiersSLAB COLUMN WALL ? CHAPTER 8: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS8.1 Shear Walls Analysis Due to Earthquake SFD BMD Deformed Shape Un-Deformed Shape Figure 13: BMD and deflected shape of a wall8.2 Seismic Analysis Earthquake in x-direction The Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement: ?M = Cd*?S = 4.5*0.

004915 = 0.0193 ; 0.02 TABLE: Story DriftsStory Load Case/Combo Direction Drift 0.7*R*?S Roof EX 1 X 0.004674 0.017995 OKRoof EX 2 X 0.00457 0.017595 OKRoof EX 3 X 0.

004778 0.018395 OKRoof EY 1 Y 0.00134 0.005159 OKRoof EY 2 Y 0.001239 0.00477 OKRoof EY 3 Y 0.001441 0.005548 OK14th Floor EX 1 X 0.

004759 0.018322 OK14th Floor EX 2 X 0.004647 0.

017891 OK14th Floor EX 3 X 0.004872 0.018757 OK14th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001551 0.

005971 OK14th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001404 0.005405 OK14th Floor EY 3 Y 0.

001698 0.006537 OK13th Floor EX 1 X 0.004805 0.018499 OK13th Floor EX 2 X 0.004691 0.01806 OK13th Floor EX 3 X 0.004919 0.

018938 OK13th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001623 0.006249 OK13th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001456 0.005606 OK13th Floor EY 3 Y 0.00179 0.006892 OK12th Floor EX 1 X 0.

004883 0.0188 OK12th Floor EX 2 X 0.004768 0.018357 OK12th Floor EX 3 X 0.

004997 0.019238 OK12th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001634 0.

006291 OK12th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001465 0.00564 OK12th Floor EY 3 Y 0.001803 0.006942 OK11th Floor EX 1 X 0.

004955 0.019077 OK11th Floor EX 2 X 0.004841 0.

018638 OK11th Floor EX 3 X 0.005069 0.019516 OK11th Floor EY 1 Y 0.00164 0.006314 OK11th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001469 0.005656 OK11th Floor EY 3 Y 0.

001811 0.006972 OK10th Floor EX 1 X 0.005008 0.019281 OK10th Floor EX 2 X 0.004898 0.018857 OK10th Floor EX 3 X 0.005121 0.019716 OK10th Floor EY 1 Y 0.

001638 0.006306 OK10th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001465 0.00564 OK10th Floor EY 3 Y 0.00181 0.

006969 OK9th Floor EX 1 X 0.005028 0.019358 OK9th Floor EX 2 X 0.004951 0.019061 OK9th Floor EX 3 X 0.00514 0.

019789 OK9th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001623 0.006249 OK9th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001451 0.005586 OK9th Floor EY 3 Y 0.

001795 0.006911 OK8th Floor EX 1 X 0.005003 0.019262 OK8th Floor EX 2 X 0.

004958 0.019088 OK8th Floor EX 3 X 0.005112 0.019681 OK8th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001593 0.006133 OK8th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001423 0.

005479 OK8th Floor EY 3 Y 0.001763 0.006788 OK7th Floor EX 1 X 0.004921 0.018946 OK7th Floor EX 2 X 0.00491 0.

018904 OK7th Floor EX 3 X 0.005025 0.019346 OK7th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001543 0.005941 OK7th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001377 0.

005301 OK7th Floor EY 3 Y 0.001709 0.00658 OK6th Floor EX 1 X 0.004771 0.

018368 OK6th Floor EX 2 X 0.004792 0.018449 OK6th Floor EX 3 X 0.

004869 0.018746 OK6th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001471 0.005663 OK6th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001312 0.005051 OK6th Floor EY 3 Y 0.

001631 0.006279 OK5th Floor EX 1 X 0.00454 0.017479 OK5th Floor EX 2 X 0.

004592 0.017679 OK5th Floor EX 3 X 0.004631 0.

017829 OK5th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001375 0.005294 OK5th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001225 0.004716 OK5th Floor EY 3 Y 0.001524 0.005867 OK4th Floor EX 1 X 0.004217 0.

016235 OK4th Floor EX 2 X 0.004297 0.016543 OK4th Floor EX 3 X 0.004299 0.016551 OK4th Floor EY 1 Y 0.

00125 0.004813 OK4th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001113 0.004285 OK4th Floor EY 3 Y 0.

001387 0.00534 OK3rd Floor EX 1 X 0.003806 0.014653 OK3rd Floor EX 2 X 0.

00389 0.014977 OK3rd Floor EX 3 X 0.003858 0.014853 OK3rd Floor EY 1 Y 0.001094 0.004212 OK3rd Floor EY 2 X 0.000311 0.

001197 OK3rd Floor EY 2 Y 0.000973 0.003746 OK3rd Floor EY 3 Y 0.001215 0.004678 OK2nd Floor EX 1 X 0.

00328 0.012628 OK2nd Floor EX 2 X 0.003351 0.012901 OK2nd Floor EX 3 X 0.

003291 0.01267 OK2nd Floor EY 1 X 0.000329 0.

001267 OK2nd Floor EY 1 Y 0.000905 0.003484 OK2nd Floor EY 2 X 0.000264 0.

001016 OK2nd Floor EY 2 Y 0.000804 0.003095 OK2nd Floor EY 3 Y 0.001006 0.003873 OK1st Floor EX 1 X 0.002602 0.010018 OK1st Floor EX 2 X 0.002658 0.

010233 OK1st Floor EX 3 X 0.002584 0.009948 OK1st Floor EY 1 X 0.000252 0.00097 OK1st Floor EY 1 Y 0.000681 0.002622 OK1st Floor EY 2 X 0.

000204 0.000785 OK1st Floor EY 2 Y 0.000604 0.002325 OK1st Floor EY 3 X 0.0003 0.001155 OK1st Floor EY 3 Y 0.000757 0.

002914 OKGround Floor EX 1 X 0.001651 0.006356 OKGround Floor EX 2 X 0.001682 0.006476 OKGround Floor EX 3 X 0.001621 0.006241 OKGround Floor EY 1 X 0.000143 0.

000551 OKGround Floor EY 1 Y 0.000398 0.001532 OKGround Floor EY 2 X 0.

000116 0.000447 OKGround Floor EY 2 Y 0.000353 0.001359 OKGround Floor EY 3 X 0.00017 0.000655 OKGround Floor EY 3 Y 0.000444 0.

001709 OKBasement 1 EX 1 X 0.000482 0.001856 OKBasement 1 EX 2 X 0.000492 0.001894 OKBasement 1 EX 3 X 0.000472 0.

001817 OKBasement 1 EY 1 X 0.000018 6.93E-05 OKBasement 1 EY 1 Y 0.

000085 0.000327 OKBasement 1 EY 2 X 0.000029 0.000112 OKBasement 1 EY 2 Y 0.000091 0.00035 OKBasement 1 EY 3 X 0.

000014 5.39E-05 OKBasement 1 EY 3 Y 0.000087 0.

000335 OKTable 33 : Story Drift8.3 Wind Analysis Wind in the x-direction H = 52.5 m H/500 = 105 mm ; 76.6 mm TABLE: Joint DisplacementsStory Label Unique Name Load Case/Combo UX (mm) UY (mm)Roof 4 73 Wind 1 76.618 -0.515Roof 4 73 Wind 2 -6.328 17.596Roof 5 91 Wind 1 76.618 -0.524Roof 5 91 Wind 2 -6.328 15.788Roof 9 163 Wind 1 76.643 -0.535Roof 9 163 Wind 2 -1.545 13.817Roof 23 415 Wind 1 76.57 -0.444Roof 23 415 Wind 2 5.197 9.997Roof 24 433 Wind 1 76.57 -0.411Roof 24 433 Wind 2 5.197 7.65Roof 119 2453 Wind 1 76.625 -0.522Roof 119 2453 Wind 2 -4.909 16.278Roof 120 2452 Wind 1 76.625 -0.515Roof 120 2452 Wind 2 -4.909 17.596Roof 121 2485 Wind 1 76.642 -0.515Roof 121 2485 Wind 2 -1.858 17.596Roof 125 3063 Wind 1 76.623 -0.524Roof 125 3063 Wind 2 -5.324 15.788Roof 128 2381 Wind 1 76.645 -0.515Roof 128 2381 Wind 2 -1.25 17.596Roof 129 2380 Wind 1 76.651 -0.515Roof 129 2380 Wind 2 -0.113 17.596Roof 130 2413 Wind 1 76.651 -0.524Roof 130 2413 Wind 2 -0.113 15.788Roof 131 2431 Wind 1 76.645 -0.524Roof 131 2431 Wind 2 -1.256 15.788Roof 134 2615 Wind 1 76.659 -0.445Roof 134 2615 Wind 2 -1.06 10.097Roof 135 2614 Wind 1 76.615 -0.445Roof 135 2614 Wind 2 2.081 10.097Roof 136 2647 Wind 1 76.615 -0.414Roof 136 2647 Wind 2 2.081 7.924Roof 137 2669 Wind 1 76.634 -0.41Roof 137 2669 Wind 2 0.749 7.599Roof 138 2668 Wind 1 76.614 -0.41Roof 138 2668 Wind 2 2.144 7.599Roof 140 3085 Wind 1 76.634 -0.437Roof 140 3085 Wind 2 0.749 9.532Roof 142 2939 Wind 1 76.659 -0.431Roof 142 2939 Wind 2 -1.06 9.105Roof 146 3031 Wind 1 76.642 -0.524Roof 146 3031 Wind 2 -1.858 15.788Roof 149 2881 Wind 1 76.659 -0.44Roof 149 2881 Wind 2 -1.06 9.708Roof 151 2938 Wind 1 76.659 -0.416Roof 151 2938 Wind 2 -1.06 8.012Roof 160 2987 Wind 1 76.629 -0.535Roof 160 2987 Wind 2 -4.219 13.779Roof 162 3030 Wind 1 76.64 -0.524Roof 162 3030 Wind 2 -2.221 15.788Roof 164 3114 Wind 1 76.665 -0.415Roof 164 3114 Wind 2 -1.424 7.949Roof 165 3115 Wind 1 76.665 -0.451Roof 165 3115 Wind 2 -1.424 10.461Roof 166 3116 Wind 1 76.609 -0.451Roof 166 3116 Wind 2 2.445 10.461Roof 167 3117 Wind 1 76.609 -0.45Roof 167 3117 Wind 2 2.445 10.411Roof 168 3118 Wind 1 76.567 -0.45Roof 168 3118 Wind 2 5.411 10.411Roof 169 3119 Wind 1 76.567 -0.409Roof 169 3119 Wind 2 5.411 7.537Roof 170 3120 Wind 1 76.635 -0.409Roof 170 3120 Wind 2 0.687 7.537Roof 171 3121 Wind 1 76.635 -0.415Roof 171 3121 Wind 2 0.687 7.949Roof 172 3127 Wind 1 76.616 -0.513Roof 172 3127 Wind 2 -6.579 17.96Roof 173 3128 Wind 1 76.616 -0.526Roof 173 3128 Wind 2 -6.579 15.424Roof 175 3129 Wind 1 76.627 -0.526Roof 175 3129 Wind 2 -4.52 15.424Roof 176 3130 Wind 1 76.627 -0.537Roof 176 3130 Wind 2 -4.52 13.415Roof 177 3131 Wind 1 76.643 -0.537Roof 177 3131 Wind 2 -1.607 13.415Roof 178 3132 Wind 1 76.643 -0.535Roof 178 3132 Wind 2 -1.607 13.716Roof 179 3133 Wind 1 76.644 -0.535Roof 179 3133 Wind 2 -1.371 13.716Roof 774 6333 Wind 1 76.64 -0.518Roof 774 6333 Wind 2 -2.221 17.03Roof 88 526 Wind 1 76.634 -0.535Roof 88 526 Wind 2 -3.315 13.779 MAX 76.665 17.96 MIN -6.579 -0.537Table 45 : Building Sway? CHAPTER 9: DESIGN OF COLUMNSColumns are structural compressive elements subjected to transfer gravity loads and a part of lateral loads such as wind and earthquake from the upper levels to the lower ones and then the foundations. The majority of reinforced concrete columns are subjected to primary stresses caused by flexure, axial force, and shear. Secondary stresses associated with deformations are usually very small in most columns used in practice. 9.1 Types of Columns: There are three major types of reinforced concrete columns: Tied columns: they are members having rectangular, square or circular cross section that is reinforced with longitudinal main steel to resist bending that might exist on the column, and its tie should be individual with a corresponding spacing varying between 250 and 500mm. A spiral column: has a circular or square cross section, and in both cases, it has continuous spiral to hold the longitudinal bars in their position during concrete casting. A composite column: is consisted of reinforced concrete and I-Beam steel shape that reduces the effect of creep and shrinkage. It may be used as square or spiral column with a structural steel or I-Beam shape. 9.2 Reinforcement Limitation: The percentage of longitudinal reinforcement must be: 1%; ? ; 8% ACI code. For cross-sections larger than required for loading, minimum reinforcement may be computed for the reduced effective area Ag; (ACI 10.8.4). Note that the provided strength from reduced area and resulting Ast must be adequate for loading. ? = As / Ag Where, As = total area of longitudinal reinforcement Ag= gross area of section Figure 14: Axial loads on vertical elements9.3 Design methodologyThe design of the column will be held using S-concrete softwareStep 1: Loads are taken from ETAB for each floorStep 2: extract them to excel and modify the position of the forces and moments to be suitable for s concrete: P: axial force T: torsion Vz: secondary shear My: secondary moment Vy: primary shear Mz: primary momentStep 3: Units and code should be modified for Metric and ACI 2008. Figure 16: S-concrete Load entry9.4 Design of column C165x40 (all floors) Figure 17 Interaction DiagramFor column C165x40 (Basement Floor)9.5 Reinforcement detailing for columns Figure 15: Column Reinforcement schedule? CHAPTER 10: DESIGN OF SHEAR WALLSShear walls are vertical elements of the horizontal force resisting system. They are typically wood frame stud walls covered with a structural sheathing material like plywood. When the sheathing is properly fastened to the stud wall framing, the shear wall can resist forces directed along the length of the wall. When shear walls are designed and constructed properly, they will have the strength and stiffness to resist the horizontal forces. Shear walls should be located on each level of the structure including the crawl space. To form an effective box structure, equal length shear walls should be placed symmetrically on all four exterior walls of the building. Shear walls should be added to the building interior when the exterior walls cannot provide sufficient strength and stiffness or when the allowable span-width ratio for the floor or roof diaphragm is exceeded. 10.1 Functions of a shear wallShear walls must provide the necessary lateral strength to resist horizontal earthquake forces. When shear walls are strong enough, they will transfer these horizontal forces to the next element in the load path below them. These other components in the load path may be other shear walls, floors, foundation walls, slabs or footings.10.2 Design of Wall SW2 (all floors): 10.3 Walls Reinforcement detailing: Figure 16: Wall Reinforcement Schedule? CHAPTER 11: DESIGN OF CORE WALLSSome designers use the core walls as shear walls, however the core walls not all the times work as shear walls, like the elevator walls, or decorative walls which carry only small loads, the shear walls are a structurally bearing walls and used to resist the bending moments resulted from wind pressures and any lateral loads. A core wall is provided around staircases or lift wells. As core walls may be inside the building, they may not be as effective as shear walls provided at the edges. Moreover, core walls will have openings. However, core walls are 3-dimensional and may have more stability. Both of walls are used to carry the lateral force exerted on the structure due to wind, earthquake or any other lateral load. Core walls are created with combination of walls. They are arranged like a core and generally located at the geometric center of the building to void torsion. Also, core is used to install lifts and to accommodate services. In addition, we can say that core walls are combination of shear walls.11.1 Design of irregular shape core wall 11.2 Core wall Reinforcement detailing: Figure 17: Basement floor core wall detailing? CHAPTER 12: FLAT SLABS12.1 OverviewA type of reinforced concrete slab where loads are transferred directly to the columns without the use of beams.12.2 Advantages and DisadvantagesAdvantages DisadvantagesEasier reinforcement placement Span length is medium, it is not possible to have large spansEase of framework installation Deflection may be criticalLess construction time Table 56: Advantages ; Disadvantages Figure 18: Typical Floor Plan12.3 Minimum Thickness Table 67: Minimum ThicknessThe longest span in the slab is about 6 meters long. So according to the code the minimum thickness is Ln/33, which gives a minimum thickness of 19 cm. But in this case the deflection was very high and exceeded the allowable value so we chose a slab thickness of 23 cm 12.4 Deflection Figure 19: Maximum permissible computed deflection12.5 Short term deflection Figure 20: Short Term DeflectionThe allowable short-term deflection is Ln/360 which is 1.52 cm. So, the short-term deflection is safe.12.6 Long term deflectionFigure 21: Long Term DeflectionThe allowable deflection for Long term deflection is Ln/240 which is 2.5 cm. So, the Long-Term Deflection is safe.12.7 Punching Shear Figure 22: Punching ShearAll results ; 1, punching shear does not exceed the capacity which is ok.12.8 Slab Moments Figure 23: X-Direction Figure 24: Y-Direction12.9 Slab Reinforcement Figure 24: Additional Top Reinforcement X-direction Figure 25: Additional Bottom Reinforcement X-direction Figure 26: Additional Top Reinforcement Y-direction Figure 27: Additional Bottom Reinforcement Y-direction12.10 Slab Reinforcement Detailing’s Figure 28: Top Reinforcement X-direction Figure 29: Bottom Reinforcement X-direction Figure 30: Top Reinforcement Y-direction Figure 31: Bottom Reinforcement Y-direction Figure 32: Additional Top Reinforcement X-direction Figure 33: Additional Top Reinforcement Y-direction? CHAPTER 13: RIBBED SLAB13.1 Advantages Hollow block slabs are good isolators for the sound and temperature because of the voids that are found in block. This why it is preferred to be used in residential building. Good vibration resistance Reduced self-dead load due to voids. Which lead to the reduction in the weight of the total structure.13.2 Minimum Thickness Table 18: Minimum Thickness for One Way Slabs.For L = 5.2 m ? hmin = L/21 = 24.7 cmStructural analysis was performed using finite element software and the concrete design was performed using SAFE software.TRY ribbed slab of thickness 25 cm. 13.3 Ribs DirectionZone 1Zone 2According to the geometry of slab: In zone 2 ribs are parallel to x-direction, while in zone 1 ribs are parallel to y direction 13.4 Deflection Table 19:Maximum Allowable Deflection Figure 34: Maximum Allowable Deflection Due to Long Term DeflectionDeflection check, the max value due to long term = 1.5 cm < allowable = L/240 = 2.3cm13.5 Design of Ribs Figure 35: BMD for Ribs Figure 36: SFD for Ribs 13.6 Slab full detailing Figure 37: Slab Distribution of Hollow Blocks13.7 Design of Embedded Beams Figure 38: Embedded Beam Reinforcement Figure 39: Embedded Beam Reinforcement? CHAPTER 14: FOUNDATIONRaft foundation is our choice for this project which is a single combined footing for the whole building and will support the high columns and walls loads.In this case, piles where not necessary due to good soil bearing capacity.Basic information: Allowable net bearing capacity of soil is 300 KN/m2. Concrete compressive strength f’c is 30 MPA. Cover to reinforcement is 80 mm. Loads on raft are exported from Etabs software and imported to SafeAnalysis of raft foundation using SAFE 201614.1 Raft ThicknessThe thickness of the raft foundation is designed for punching shear capacity:We tried thickness 800 mm but it wasn’t enough as seen for the intermediate columns:So, we increased the thickness to 1300 mm and it was okay for punching shear:14.2 Soil properties:Bearing capacity 300 KN/m2Subgrade modulus = 120*bearing capacity = 120*300 = 36000 KN/m3 Figure 40: Soil Properties?14.3 Concrete PropertiesF’c = 30 MPaweight per unit volume = 25 KN/m3modulus of rupture = 0.625?f’c = 3.423 Figure 42: Concrete Properties14.1 Check for Soil Pressure Figure 43: Soil PressureMaximum value is -253.2 KN/m2 -300 (allowable bearing capacity of soil) ok So there is no need for piles14.4 Check Punching ShearAll results ?V_u)?_R O.K 15.6 Step 6: Detailing The following points are to be remembered in detailing: • The main reinforcement should be bent to follow the bottom profile of the stair. • Near the landing the reinforcement should be taken straight up and then bent in the compression zone of landing. • For tensile stress in the landing zone separate set of bars should be used as shown in the detailing. • All the bars of the tensile reinforcement should be taken into the supports and anchorage and development length requirement must be fulfilled. • Distribution bars should be used parallel to the width of the steps. Figure 57: Detailing? CHAPTER 16: BASEMENT WALLRetaining wall is a structure that provides vertical or nearly vertical support to a differential level of masses of soil. They are used to bound soils between two different elevations often in areas of terrain possessing undesirable slopes or in areas where the landscape needs to be shaped severely and engineered for more specific purposes like hillside farming or roadway overpasses. Retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to resist the lateral pressure of soil when there is a desired change in ground elevation that exceeds the angle of repose of the soil. A basement wall is thus one kind of retaining wall. The wall must resist the lateral pressures generated by loose soils or, in some cases, water pressures. In our project, there are 1 basement walls:16.1 Soil Properties ??From H=0 to H=3m ?=?30?^o ? = 19KN/m³, K? = 1-sin ? = 1-sin 30=0.516.2 Lateral Earth Pressure (soil Load) ??= K? ? H ??H=0 m ? ??=0 KN/m fig ##H=3 m ? ??= 28.5 KN/m Figure 58: Wall 16.3 Uniform live load Ko x w = 5kN/m where w from highway and traffic load w= 10 KN/mdealing with the retaining walls as continuous wall supported (pinned) at each slab and fixed down at the foundation level, the moments and reactions required for the design were calculated. Figure 59: Acting Loads Figure 60: SFD & BMDThis results in 2 moments, 1 positive and 1 negative providing that negative reinforcement in the direction of soil and positive reinforcement in the direction of building. For the ease of design, we used s-concrete Figure 61: Wall DesignFigure 62: Wall Detailing? CHAPTER 17: BILL OF QUANTITIESBar Weight (kg/m)T8 0.395T10 0.617T12 0.888T14 1.21T16 1.58T20 2.47Table 20:Weight of steelItem PriceSteel 800 $/tonConcrete 80 $/ m3Table 21:Unit Price?17.1 Flat SlabSteel:Mesh T12 @ 200mm ? In 1 m2, L = 5*1m*4 = 20 m/m2 Total Mesh Weight = 465 m2 * 20 m/m2 * 0.888 kg/m = 8258.4 kg = 8.25 tonsAdditional Steel:Bar Length (m) Weight (kg)T12 1351 1203.3Table 22:Steel in flat slabTotal Weight = 8.25 + 1.2 = 9.5 tonsSteel Price = 9.5 * 800$ = 7600 $Concrete:Total Area = 527 m2 Area of Voids = 62 m2 Net Area = 465 m2 Thickness = 23 cmVolume = 465 * 0.23 = 107 m3 Concrete Price = 107*80$ = 8560 $Total Price of Flat Slab = 16160 $?17.2 Ribbed SlabSteel:Ribs:Bar Length (m) Weight (kg)T12 1061 942T16 1061 1676Table 23:Steel in ribsWeight of Steel in Ribs = 2618 kg = 2.618 tonsBeams Area:Bar Length (m) Weight (kg)T12 855 753T14 879 1064T16 850 1342T20 445 1099Table 24:Steel in beamsWeight of Steel in Beams = 4258 kg = 4.258 tonsStirrups:Spacing of Stirrups: each 150 mm Number of Stirrups = 1840/ 0.15 = 12270 StirrupsLength of Stirrup = 2 * (15+25) = 0.8 mBar Length (m) Weight (kg)T8 2833 1119Table 25:Steel for stirrupsWeight of Steel for Stirrups = 1119 kg = 1.119 tonsShrinkage Mesh:Bar Length (m) Weight (kg)T8 2521 996Table 26:Steel for shrinkageWeight of Steel for Shrinkage = 996 kg = 0.996 tonsTotal Weight of Steel = 2.6 + 4.258 + 1.119 + 0.996 = 9 tonsSteel Price = 9 * 800$ = 7200 $Concrete:Ribbed Area:Volume = 292*(0.18*0.15+0.55*0.07)/0.55 = 35 m3 Beams Area:Net Area = 172 m2 Volume = 172 * 0.25 = 43 m3 Total Volume of Concrete = 43 m3 + 35 m3 = 78 m3Concrete Price = 78*80$ = 6240 $Hollow Blocks:# of Hollow Blocks = 2639 blockBlock Price = 2639*1$ = 2639 $Total Price of Ribbed Slab = 16079 $ Conclusion In conclusion, 23 cm flat slab system cost 16160$ while 25 cm ribbed slab costs 16079$ which is approximately the same. Our choice is for ribbed slab because ribbed slabs are good isolators for the sound and temperature because of the voids that are found in block. This why it is preferred to be used in residential building.? APPENDIX Table 27: ACI – 318 Appendix E List of Abbreviations/Acronyms AA = name for area A_g = gross area, equal to the total area ignoring any reinforcement A_s = area of steel reinforcement in concrete beam design ?A ‘?_s = area of steel compression reinforcement in concrete beam design A_st = area of steel reinforcement in concrete column design A_v = area of concrete shear stirrup reinforcement ACI = American Concrete Institute ASTM American Society for Testing and Material.Bb = width, often cross-sectional b_e = effective width of the flange of a concrete T beam cross section b_f = width of the flange b_w = width of the stem (web) of a concrete T beam cross section CCover = shorthand for clear cover C.C = center to centerDd = effective depth from the top of a reinforced concrete beam to the centroid of the tensile steel d´ = effective depth from the top of a reinforced concrete beam to the centroid of the compression steel d_b = bar diameter of a reinforcing bar DL = shorthand for dead load DRG = drawingEE = modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus EQ or E = shorthand for earthquake load E_c = modulus of elasticity of concrete E_s = modulus of elasticity of steel Ff = symbol for stress fc = compressive stress f’c = concrete design compressive stress f_pu = tensile strength of the prestressing reinforcement fs = stress in the steel reinforcement for concrete design ?f’?_s = compressive stress in the compression reinforcement for concrete beam design f_y = yield stress or strength Hh = cross-section depth H = shorthand for lateral pressure load h_nf = depth of a flange in a T section II = moment of inertiaI_transformed = moment of inertia of a multilateral section transformed to onePP_o = maximum axial force with no concurrent bending moment in a reinforced concrete column P_n = nominal column load capacity in concrete design P_u = factored column load calculated from load factors in concrete design R_n = concrete beam design ratio Ss = spacing of stirrups in reinforced concrete S = spacing of Rebar in reinforced concreteT t = name for thickness T = name for a tension force Kk = effective length factor for columns Ll_d = development length for reinforcing steel l_dh = development length for hooks l_n = clear span from face of support to face of support in concrete design L = name for length or span length, as is l LL = shorthand for live load MMn = nominal flexure strength with the steel reinforcement at the yield stress and concrete at the concrete design strength for reinforced concrete beam design Mu = maximum moment from factored loads for LRFD beam design UU = factored design value VV_c = shear force capacity in concrete ?_c = shear strength in concrete designVs = shear force capacity in steel shear stirrups Vu = shear at a distance of d away from the face of support for reinforced concrete beam design WwDL = load per unit length on a beam from dead load w_ll = load per unit length on a beam from live loadw_Dl = load per unit length on a beam from died loadw_f = load per unit length on a flight- stairw_L = load per unit length on a loading – stair W = shorthand for wind load Xx = horizontal distance Yy = vertical distance?_1 = coefficient for determining stress block height, a, based on concrete strength, fc? ? = elastic beam deflection ? = strain ? = resistance factor ?_c = resistance factor for compression ? = density or unit weight ? = radius of curvature in beam deflection relationships = reinforcement ratio in concrete beam design = As/bd ?_balanced = balanced reinforcement ratio in concrete beam design ? DIAMETER?? ?_c = unit weight of concrete UNIT kN kilonewtonN newton cm centimeterm metermm millimeter ? REFERENCES Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-2014) American Society of Civil Engineering (ASCE 7-16) Reinforced Concrete Design of Tall Buildings (Bungale S. Taranath) Principles of Foundation Engineering (7th Ed – Braja M. Das) Reinforced Concrete Mechanics & Design (6th Edition – James Mcgregor) Structural Modeling of Buildings (Dr. Yehia Temsah)

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