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?BEIRUT ARAB UNIVERSITYFACULTY OF ENGINEERINGDEPARTEMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING709 JAL EL DIB RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGPrepared by:Kassem Al HajjarAyman MansourMohamad BanboukMohammad KhawwamMostafa JaffalSupervised by:Prof. Dr. Yehia TemsahDr. Zaher Abou SalehSpring 2017/2018I- Acknowledgement:We would like to thank Beirut Arab University and its honourable faculty who have always provided us with brightening information and gave us the opportunity to gain such a beneficial senior project.We offer our deep thanks to the faculty of engineering in particular: Prof. Yehya Temsah Dr.

Zaher Abou SalehWho were the supervisors of our project and were with us in every step of our work during this semester.Thank you for being remarkable mentors and we are very grateful to have you as instructors.II- Abstract:This project is a structural analysis and design of a residential building located in JAL AL DIB, the building is consisted of 15 floors. Technically speaking the project comprises the following floors: 1 basement floors Ground floor 14 typical floors Roof Top roof The final analysis and design of building is done using a three dimensional (3D) structural model by the structural analysis and design software ETABS.Analysis and design of slabs is done using finite element software by SAFE software.III- Table of Content:I- Acknowledgement 3II- Abstract 4III- Table of Content 5IV- List of Figures 8V- List of Tables 10? CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 111.

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1 Description 111.2 Methodology of study 141.3 Design Criteria 151.

4 Architectural Drawings 171.5 Major constraints 21? CHAPTER 2: GRAVITY LOADS ON BUILDING 222.1 Material Self Weight 222.2 Superimposed Dead Load 222.3 Live Load 22? CHAPTER 3: LATERAL LOADS ON BUILDING 243.1 Wind Load: 243.

1.1 Wind Speed: 243.1.2 Wind exposure: 253.1.

3 Wind directionality effect: 253.1.4 Important factor 263.1.5 Gust Factor 263.

2 Earthquake Load: 273.2.1 Soil profile type 283.

2.2 Importance Factor (I) 283.2.3 Redundancy factor (R) 293.

2.4 Seismic coefficient of acceleration Ca 303.2.5 Seismic coefficient of velocity Cv 30? CHAPTER 4: DESIGN FORCES AND COMBINATIONS 31? CHAPTER 5: GRAVITY RESISTING SYSTEM 325.1 Examples of gravity load resisting floor systems 325.

2 Factors effecting the selection of gravity resisting systems 345.3 Preliminary slab properties 34? CHAPTER 6: LATERAL RESISTING SYSTEM 356.1 Braced Frames 356.2 Rigid Frames 356.3 Shear Wall System 36? CHAPTER 7: MODELING 377.

1 Modeling Using ETABS 377.2 Story Data 387.3 Stiffness Modifiers 38? CHAPTER 8: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 408.1 Shear Walls Analysis 408.2 Seismic Analysis 418.3 Wind Analysis 458.4 Column Design 48? CHAPTER 9: DESIGN OF COLUMNS 499.1 Types of Columns: 499.

2 Reinforcement Limitation: 499.3 Design methodology 499.4 Design of column C9 (all floors) 509.5 Reinforcement detailing for columns 51? CHAPTER 10: DESIGN OF SHEAR WALLS 5210.1 Functions of a shear wall 5210.2 Design of column C9 (all floors): 5210.3 Walls Reinforcement detailing: 53? CHAPTER 11: DESIGN OF CORE WALLS 5411.

1 Design of irregular shape core wall 5411.2 Core wall Reinforcement detailing: 56? CHAPTER 12: FLAT SLABS 5712.1 Overview 5712.2 Advantages and Disadvantages 5712.3 Minimum Thickness 5812.

4 Deflection 5812.5 Short term deflection 5912.6 Long term deflection 5912.7 Punching Shear 6012.8 Slab Moments 6112.9 Slab Reinforcement 6212.10 Slab Reinforcement Detailing’s 64? CHAPTER 13: RIBBED SLAB 6713.1 Advantages 6713.

2 Minimum Thickness 6713.3 Ribs Direction 6813.4 Deflection 6913.5 Design of Ribs 7013.6 Slab full detailing 7113.7 Design of Embedded Beams 72? CHAPTER 14: FOUNDATION 7414.

1 Raft Thickness 7414.2 Soil properties: 7514.3 Concrete Properties 7614.

1 Check for Soil Pressure 7614.4 Check Punching Shear 7714.4 Slab Reinforcement 7814.5 Raft Reinforcement Detailing’s 80? CHAPTER 15: STAIRS 8415.1 Dog Legged Stair Case 8415.2 Step 1: General arrangement 8515.3 Step 2: Design constants 8715.

4 Step 3: Determination of loading 8715.5 Step 5: Reinforcement Calculation 8915.6 Step 6: Detailing 90? CHAPTER 16: BASEMENT WALL 9116.

1 Soil Properties 9116.2 Lateral Earth Pressure (soil Load) 9116.3 Uniform live load 92? CHAPTER 17: BILL OF QUANTITIES 9517.

1 Description16 Story residential Building in Jal Al Dib Figure 1: Project LocationThis Project includes the following building components:1 BasementGround Floor15 Floor RoofFigure 2: Perspective View Figure 3: Elevation ViewApartments: 2 apartments per floor in Block A 1 apartment per floor in block B. The basement and ground floor are used as car parking. Basement (parking) floor is connected to the Ground floor using ramp elements. 1st and typical floors till 14 are used as residential apartments over approximately half of basement area.1.

2 Methodology of study Determination of which slab type to use after considering the different span lengths. Determination of structural system used. Story data. Identification of loads and code of practice and standards. Introducing the structural system to the software. Check for story drift and sway. Designing the structural elements.

Design of foundation. Reinforcement detailing drawings. Cost management 1.3 Design Criteria Code Specifications: The design code is referred to the American Institute of Civil Engineering (ACI 318-05) which covers the proper design and construction of buildings of structural concrete including: specifications, inspection, materials, durability requirements, concrete quality, reinforcement details, analysis and design, strength and serviceability, flexural and axial loads, shear and torsion, pre-stressed concrete, and provisions of seismic design. Materials:1- Concrete: The minimum 28 days’ compressive strength on cylinder are: – Blinding concrete 25 MPa – Columns, walls 40 MPa – Ground slab, slabs & Beams 30 MPa(40-30)/40×100 = 33% which is smaller than 40% 2- Steel: Yield steel, ASTM Grade 60, Fy = 4200 kg/cm² = 420 Mpa Mild steel, ASTM Grade 40, Fy = 2800 kg/cm² = 280 Mpa Bar size : ?8, T12, T14, T16, T20, T25 Codes of practice and standards:The structure is to be designed to the requirements of the following standards: – ACI 318 – 14 – UBC 1997 – ASCE 7-10 Software used:- ETABS 16- SAFE 16- SAP2000- AutoCAD- Excel and Word Soil Investigation:5 Boreholes are drilled to depth 15 & 25 mThe recommended allowable bearing capacity is 3.

0 kg/cm2Subgrade modulus for soil K = 500 T/m3Angle of internal friction ? = 30°Soil profile type is SD Figure 4: Boreholes’ Location Plan1.4 Architectural Drawings Figure 5: Basement Plan Figure 6: Ground Plan Figure 7: First Floor Plan Figure 8: Second to 13th Floor Plan Figure 9: 14th Floor Plan Figure 10: Roof Floor Plan1.5 Major constraints There are no shear walls in X direction which may cause effect of lateral loads to be critical on that direction. Slab Areas are large, so expansion joints may be used. Differential settlement of foundation slab due to different load magnitude between north area (parking basement) and south area (rise of building) which may cause cracks. Settlement joint is needed. Figure 11: Section Elevation View? CHAPTER 2: GRAVITY LOADS ON BUILDINGThe major gravity loads on building structures are dead and live loads.Dead loads are fixed-position gravity loads (i.

e. long-term stationary forces).They consist of the weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the building including architectural, structural, and MEP items. Dead load also includes the weight of any fixed equipment.2.

1 Material Self WeightDead Loads have been calculated using the following assumed unit weights: Concrete = 2.5 T/m3 Earth (saturated) = 2.48 T/m3 Water = 1.0 T/m32.2 Superimposed Dead LoadHollow block (CMU) walls (including plaster): 100 mm thick 2.

2 KN/m2 – 200 mm thick 3.2 KN/m2 150 mm thick 2.7 KN/m2 – 250 mm thick 3.7 KN/m2Typical calculation of superimposed dead (without partition loads): Finishes 2 KN/m2 Services 1 KN/m2 Total 3 KN/m2 SIDL = 2 KN/m2 (parking) SIDL = 3 KN/m2 (residential floors) SIDL = 2 KN/m2 (roof)2.3 Live Load (IBC Code)Live loads are short duration forces which change in location and magnitude during the life of the structure.They include the weight of people, furniture and movable partitions.

They are based upon intended use or occupancy of the building (e.g. residential versus office). Parking = 3.5 KN/m2 Basic floor area = 2 KN/m2 Balconies = 3 KN/m2 Stairs – Corridors = 4.8 KN/m2 Roof = 1 KN/m2 Top of Roof = 10 KN/m2 (Water Tank Load)Live load has two components:(1) Sustained, which is less uncertain and acts over a long period (e.g.

furniture)(2) Transient, which is more uncertain and acts over a short period (e.g. people) ? CHAPTER 3: LATERAL LOADS ON BUILDINGThe major lateral loads on building structures are wind and earthquake loads.3.

1 Wind Load:Wind load on structures is affected by: Wind speed and gust effect Height and stiffness of building Cross-sectional shape of building Surrounding topography and terrain Presence of openings in the building envelopeP = Ce*Cq*qs*Iw P = design wind pressure. Ce = combined height, exposure and gust factor coefficient Cq = pressure coefficient for the structure or portion of structure under consideration Iw = Importance factor qs = wind stagnation pressure 3.1.1 Wind Speed:qs = 100 mph3.1.

2 Wind exposure:We choose our category as exposure C 3.1.3 Wind directionality effect:In our case, having a structure type is building Kd=0.85 Table 1 : Wind directionality effect3.1.

4 Important factor:Our structure corresponds to category II Table 2 : Importance Factor3.1.5 Gust Factor:Table 3 : Gust FactorOur building height is 55.5m =182ft ? By interpolation using table Gust factor =1.84 3.2 Earthquake Load:Earthquake load on structures is affected by several factors: Earthquake intensity Geotechnical data at building site Mass of the building Stiffness of the building Cross-sectional shape of building Height of the buildingV = (C_v*I)/(R*T) W Cv = Seismic coefficient of velocity I = Importance factor W = Total dead load plus sustained load T = Period of vibration R = Redundancy FactorLebanon Zone: Z = 0.

25 m/s23.2.1 Soil profile type:Our soil profile type is SD Table 4 : Soil Profile3.

2.2 Importance Factor (I):This factor is used to classify buildings according to use and importance Table 5 : Importance factor for seismic analysis3.2.3 Redundancy factor (R):R is a factor in accordance to the over-strength or the extra or serve strength in the structure system. It comes from the practice of designing every member in a group according to the forces in the most critical member of that group R = 5.5 for shear walls systemTable 6 : Structural systems3.

2.4 Seismic coefficient of acceleration Ca:According to the table Ca = 0.29 Table 7: Siesmic Coefficient Ca3.

2.5 Seismic coefficient of velocity Cv:According to the table Cv = 0.4 Table 8 : Siesmic Coefficient Cv? CHAPTER 4: DESIGN FORCES AND COMBINATIONSThe design forces were obtained from the numerical analysis of the three-dimensional models due to the following straining forces: Dead loads (DL): self-weight + super Imposed dead Live Loads (LL): LL1 + LL2 Seismic forces(E) of both horizontal (X-Y) and vertical (Z) directions The basic design load combinations as per ACI 318-14 code: 1.4DL 1.2DL + 1.6LL 1.2DL + 1LL + 1.0W 1.

2DL + 1LL – 1.0W 0.9DL + 1.0W 0.

9DL – 1.0W 1.2DL + 1.0LL + 1.0E 1.2DL + 1.

0LL – 1.0E 0.9DL + 1.0E 0.9DL – 1.0E”W” represents the Wind forces WX and WY”E” represents the seismic quadratic combinations: E = EQX + 0.

3 EQY + EQZOr E = 0.3 EQX + EQY + EQZEQX, EQY, and EQZ represent the seismic spectral response of the buildings due to earthquakes along X, Y, and Z directions respectively. These values are scaled with respect to the values obtained from the static analysis (equivalent seismic forces) as per the UBC97 specification (1631.5.4) with the condition of not being less than (1/R).? CHAPTER 5: GRAVITY RESISTING SYSTEMStructural behavior of gravity load resisting systems can be mainly classified as either 1-way or 2-way slab. 5.

1 Examples of gravity load resisting floor systems:1. Flat plate2. Flat slab (with drop panels and/or column capitals)3. Two-way slab4. One-way slab on beams5. One-way ribbed system6. Two-way waffle system7.

PT SlabFlat plate system. There are no beams between the columns. Instead, the floor is heavily reinforced in both directions. Edge beams may be used on the perimeter. Flat slab with drop panels.

This system consists of a flat plate with column capitals to provide shear resistance around the columns. Two-way slabs are floor panels supported along all four sides by drop beams. One-way slab on beams. The floor loads are transferred to parallel beams, which are then transferred to the columns. One-way ribbed slab. The ribs act like small beams between a thin slab. They are created with removable forms or with permanent hollow concrete masonry units. Two-way joist (or waffle) slab.

This floor has joists in both directions. It is the strongest and will have the least deflection. 5.2 Factors effecting the selection of gravity resisting systems:Several factors affect the selection of one structural floor system for gravity loads over another: Economy of construction Serviceability Load carrying ability Economy of material Architectural considerations 5.

3 Preliminary slab propertiesUsing ribbed slab(one way hollow block slab): from table of minimum thickness Longest span: Ln= 5.6 m ? hmin = L/21 = 26.6 cm Table 9 : Minimum thickness for one way slabUsing Flat plate (2 way slab): from table of minimum thickness Longest span: Ln= 5.6 m ? hmin = Ln/33 = 16.9 cm Table 10 : Minimum thickness for two way slabwe have two options: – 25 cm Ribbed Slab – 23 cm Flat SlabSo Try flat plate slab of thickness 23 cm? CHAPTER 6: LATERAL RESISTING SYSTEMThere are three main lateral load resisting structural systems for low and medium rise buildings.

1. Braced frames2. Rigid frames3. Shear wallsA combination of the above 3 systems may also be used in medium rise buildings.6.

1 Braced Frames Such structures consist of a frame strengthened with diagonal bracing members. The columns and beams carry the gravity load, while the bracing carries the lateral load. Braced frames are mostly used in steel buildings since the diagonal bracing has to resist tension. Bracing generally takes the form of steel rolled sections, circular bar sections, or tubes. 6.2 Rigid Frames Sometimes referred to as moment-resisting frames. They are composed of reinforced concrete portal frames, with the lateral load mainly resisted by flexure.

Rigid frames resist lateral loads through beams and columns. They tend to have large drift (lateral deflection). They are mainly used in low/medium-rise buildings (up to 20 stories). 6.3 Shear Wall System They act like deep cantilevered beams supported at the ground. They can resist both gravity and lateral loads.

Shear wall buildings are very stiff structures against lateral loads. They are often used on up to 30-40 stories. For high-rise buildings, the lateral load resisting system is complex, and may consist of one of the followings:1. Framed tube2. Trussed tube3. Tube-in-tube4.

Bundled tube ? CHAPTER 7: MODELING7.1 Modeling Using ETABS Figure 12: ETABS 3D Model7.2 Story Data Table 21 : Story Data7.3 Stiffness ModifiersThe effects of concrete cracking can be considered with the ACI318 (6.6.3.

1.1) reduced inertia for vertical and horizontal elements as follow: Table 12: Stiffness modifiersSLAB COLUMN WALL ? CHAPTER 8: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS8.1 Shear Walls Analysis Due to Earthquake SFD BMD Deformed Shape Un-Deformed Shape Figure 13: BMD and deflected shape of a wall8.2 Seismic Analysis Earthquake in x-direction The Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement: ?M = Cd*?S = 4.5*0.

004915 = 0.0193 ; 0.02 TABLE: Story DriftsStory Load Case/Combo Direction Drift 0.7*R*?S Roof EX 1 X 0.004674 0.017995 OKRoof EX 2 X 0.00457 0.017595 OKRoof EX 3 X 0.

004778 0.018395 OKRoof EY 1 Y 0.00134 0.005159 OKRoof EY 2 Y 0.001239 0.00477 OKRoof EY 3 Y 0.001441 0.005548 OK14th Floor EX 1 X 0.

004759 0.018322 OK14th Floor EX 2 X 0.004647 0.

017891 OK14th Floor EX 3 X 0.004872 0.018757 OK14th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001551 0.

005971 OK14th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001404 0.005405 OK14th Floor EY 3 Y 0.

001698 0.006537 OK13th Floor EX 1 X 0.004805 0.018499 OK13th Floor EX 2 X 0.004691 0.01806 OK13th Floor EX 3 X 0.004919 0.

018938 OK13th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001623 0.006249 OK13th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001456 0.005606 OK13th Floor EY 3 Y 0.00179 0.006892 OK12th Floor EX 1 X 0.

004883 0.0188 OK12th Floor EX 2 X 0.004768 0.018357 OK12th Floor EX 3 X 0.

004997 0.019238 OK12th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001634 0.

006291 OK12th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001465 0.00564 OK12th Floor EY 3 Y 0.001803 0.006942 OK11th Floor EX 1 X 0.

004955 0.019077 OK11th Floor EX 2 X 0.004841 0.

018638 OK11th Floor EX 3 X 0.005069 0.019516 OK11th Floor EY 1 Y 0.00164 0.006314 OK11th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001469 0.005656 OK11th Floor EY 3 Y 0.

001811 0.006972 OK10th Floor EX 1 X 0.005008 0.019281 OK10th Floor EX 2 X 0.004898 0.018857 OK10th Floor EX 3 X 0.005121 0.019716 OK10th Floor EY 1 Y 0.

001638 0.006306 OK10th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001465 0.00564 OK10th Floor EY 3 Y 0.00181 0.

006969 OK9th Floor EX 1 X 0.005028 0.019358 OK9th Floor EX 2 X 0.004951 0.019061 OK9th Floor EX 3 X 0.00514 0.

019789 OK9th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001623 0.006249 OK9th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001451 0.005586 OK9th Floor EY 3 Y 0.

001795 0.006911 OK8th Floor EX 1 X 0.005003 0.019262 OK8th Floor EX 2 X 0.

004958 0.019088 OK8th Floor EX 3 X 0.005112 0.019681 OK8th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001593 0.006133 OK8th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001423 0.

005479 OK8th Floor EY 3 Y 0.001763 0.006788 OK7th Floor EX 1 X 0.004921 0.018946 OK7th Floor EX 2 X 0.00491 0.

018904 OK7th Floor EX 3 X 0.005025 0.019346 OK7th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001543 0.005941 OK7th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001377 0.

005301 OK7th Floor EY 3 Y 0.001709 0.00658 OK6th Floor EX 1 X 0.004771 0.

018368 OK6th Floor EX 2 X 0.004792 0.018449 OK6th Floor EX 3 X 0.

004869 0.018746 OK6th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001471 0.005663 OK6th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001312 0.005051 OK6th Floor EY 3 Y 0.

001631 0.006279 OK5th Floor EX 1 X 0.00454 0.017479 OK5th Floor EX 2 X 0.

004592 0.017679 OK5th Floor EX 3 X 0.004631 0.

017829 OK5th Floor EY 1 Y 0.001375 0.005294 OK5th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001225 0.004716 OK5th Floor EY 3 Y 0.001524 0.005867 OK4th Floor EX 1 X 0.004217 0.

016235 OK4th Floor EX 2 X 0.004297 0.016543 OK4th Floor EX 3 X 0.004299 0.016551 OK4th Floor EY 1 Y 0.

00125 0.004813 OK4th Floor EY 2 Y 0.001113 0.004285 OK4th Floor EY 3 Y 0.

001387 0.00534 OK3rd Floor EX 1 X 0.003806 0.014653 OK3rd Floor EX 2 X 0.

00389 0.014977 OK3rd Floor EX 3 X 0.003858 0.014853 OK3rd Floor EY 1 Y 0.001094 0.004212 OK3rd Floor EY 2 X 0.000311 0.

001197 OK3rd Floor EY 2 Y 0.000973 0.003746 OK3rd Floor EY 3 Y 0.001215 0.004678 OK2nd Floor EX 1 X 0.

00328 0.012628 OK2nd Floor EX 2 X 0.003351 0.012901 OK2nd Floor EX 3 X 0.

003291 0.01267 OK2nd Floor EY 1 X 0.000329 0.

001267 OK2nd Floor EY 1 Y 0.000905 0.003484 OK2nd Floor EY 2 X 0.000264 0.

001016 OK2nd Floor EY 2 Y 0.000804 0.003095 OK2nd Floor EY 3 Y 0.001006 0.003873 OK1st Floor EX 1 X 0.002602 0.010018 OK1st Floor EX 2 X 0.002658 0.

010233 OK1st Floor EX 3 X 0.002584 0.009948 OK1st Floor EY 1 X 0.000252 0.00097 OK1st Floor EY 1 Y 0.000681 0.002622 OK1st Floor EY 2 X 0.

000204 0.000785 OK1st Floor EY 2 Y 0.000604 0.002325 OK1st Floor EY 3 X 0.0003 0.001155 OK1st Floor EY 3 Y 0.000757 0.

002914 OKGround Floor EX 1 X 0.001651 0.006356 OKGround Floor EX 2 X 0.001682 0.006476 OKGround Floor EX 3 X 0.001621 0.006241 OKGround Floor EY 1 X 0.000143 0.

000551 OKGround Floor EY 1 Y 0.000398 0.001532 OKGround Floor EY 2 X 0.

000116 0.000447 OKGround Floor EY 2 Y 0.000353 0.001359 OKGround Floor EY 3 X 0.00017 0.000655 OKGround Floor EY 3 Y 0.000444 0.

001709 OKBasement 1 EX 1 X 0.000482 0.001856 OKBasement 1 EX 2 X 0.000492 0.001894 OKBasement 1 EX 3 X 0.000472 0.

001817 OKBasement 1 EY 1 X 0.000018 6.93E-05 OKBasement 1 EY 1 Y 0.

000085 0.000327 OKBasement 1 EY 2 X 0.000029 0.000112 OKBasement 1 EY 2 Y 0.000091 0.00035 OKBasement 1 EY 3 X 0.

000014 5.39E-05 OKBasement 1 EY 3 Y 0.000087 0.