?CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Research Background
Water is thought to be a dissolving agent and this implies that numerous substances will get added to water and stay fully or partially dissolved or from time to time even undissolved. Water pollution could be a result of changes in its quality and such changes will occur because of natural reasons or as a consequence of one or a lot of activities by humans. Such changes in quality will render water unsuitable for consumption and additionally for the other domestic or agricultural functions. Water is often polluted by varied factors which might be physical, chemical or maybe biological. The causes of water pollution predominantly embrace laundry of agrochemicals into water bodies, spillage of fuels and different chemicals, improper disposal of varied sorts of waste similarly as synthetic detergents used each domestically and industrially, natural processes like volcanic eruptions or biological processes, and so on. Physical factors like radiations even have an impact on water quality and aquatic life. Therefore, water pollution is indeed a really serious concern because it not solely has an impact on health and however can also have negative effects on varied industries and agriculture. It’s so extremely necessary to plot ways to reduce the level of water pollution that we tend to are presently facing.

The same problem was faced in Malacca River, to counter the problem River Trash Collector System (RTCS) was developed. The primary objective behind the RTCS receptacle is to gather the junk and garbage gliding around the Malacca stream and utilizing green innovation to create the pump control. Manual labor that requires a worker going through the river picking up the debris along the way, the cleaning process takes a long time to be completed due to the current cleaning system. So, it is very important for the existence of RTCS to counter the main problem that exists at the Malacca River and the trash floating on the river and stuck at the mangroves roots will be reduced.

To test the system, a test rig is made to be used to test the RTCS. Many researcher and manufacturers have widely use the test rig to measure a system operation of a structure in a situation. An artificial situation of water tidal can be produced to see how River Trash Collector System will operate when the water flows analysis is conducted to it by using the rig test. Moreover, the way RTCS works when it being launch in the real situation can be measured by the function of the water pump and RTCS itself. By then, the manufacturer or the researchers will estimate the water flow or strength and RTCS structures can be improvise based on the result based on the result.

1.1Problem Statement
Nowadays, the look for specific usage not such a lot of choices obtainable for the test rig. Usually, on the market, these test rigs don’t have the functionality needed for the present and future research, whereas the commercially obtainable rig is simply too expensive despite the fact that it doesn’t have the functionality required according to the need. Moreover, presently in Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, the instrumentation to conduct a test for water flows not obtainable such laboratory. Therefore, a test rig that may suits RTCS for the water flow has to design and develop to assist faculty or another student in providing the laboratory that special for water flow analysis.

Tidal testing rig (TTR) is necessary to be developed for an experiment of RTCS. Melaka river solely can recede and on throughout the late night. It’s additionally hard to do the experiment on the actual site. Therefore, time once happened the tidal water is unsuitable to do any test in a river that on late night. There’s can also be dangerous for people because those who respond to do the test doesn’t know what have inside the water. Then, TTR should do because people that need to do the test like RTCS will be controlled and observe the water based on their testing.

1.2Research Objectives
The objectives of this research are the following:
To generate a concept design of Tidal Testing Rig for topology optimization analysis.

To fabricate the finalized concept of Tidal Testing Rig.

To analyze the data obtained while comparing with the flow of tidal movement of Malacca River.

1.3Scope of Research
This analysis is to get test rig that planning to be used for water flow analysis for RTCS before its launches to original location which is Sungai Melaka. The test rig must be strong and might carry two medium size tank and one massive tank. Moreover, there’s a rack on top of the test rig for observers to check the water flow analysis being conduct that the structure should have the factor of safety too.

The priority of this project to target the fabrication of test rig for RTCS usefulness that helps this device endure water flow analysis. Besides that, understanding the study of structural design and analysis. This rig test also has to undergo optimize analysis using Solid Thinking. Lastly, report writing and documentation need to be prepared.

1.4Significance of Research
Research set concerning on the river Trash Collector System. A research of this RTCS could be a turning purpose that from the rate of contamination of water normal. Therefore, to deal with the matter of water contamination mostly in Melaka River that famous for the river cruise activity, the RTCS relies on eco-friendly technology concept that may help in minimizing the contamination. There have improvement characteristics that may help RTCS fully functional whenever it used.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0Introduction
This chapter reviews on Test Rig for the tidal source, River Trash Collector System Malacca River, a structure of rig, and software that use for design Test Rig. Besides that, this chapter brief more description of the importance of the testing rig.

2.1History of development of Testing Rig
ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arun”, “given” : “A P”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Senthil”, “given” : “A P”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Giriraj”, “given” : “B”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Faizur”, “given” : “A”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “05”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “16-26”, “title” : “Gear Test Rig – A Review”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=229fb098-3f48-4d67-b1a7-205ec1f45fc1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Arun, Senthil, Giriraj, & Faizur, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Arun, Senthil, Giriraj, & Faizur, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Arun, Senthil, Giriraj, & Faizur, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Arun, Senthil, Giriraj, ; Faizur, 2014) stated that a certain procedure and systematic schematic must be developed by various researchers based on the parameters. The researcher can target Testing Rig for RTCS like the material used fabricating and an area to place water tank, water pump, and RTCS itself also strongest structure for the test rig. Basically, RTCS could be a thought to reduce contamination within the water range. Figure 2.1 shows the simple constructor comprises of a prime mover (motor), loading device (brake, dynamometer, pump, of gear test rig and the prime mover and loading device to be mounted between the test gearboxes. Consist of an only necessary item, this gear test rig used to test gear under controlled condition required.

Figure 2.1: Simple construction of gear test rig
It expressed checking totally different parameters for the test rig is develop at a time rather than checking individual error will consume variant time for inspection. It’s additionally stated the task of inspection very easy that it will be performed among a couple of minutes by using the gear test rig like its arrangement. To boost plant potency and non-productive time this gear test rig will check the gear at least time that leads to the reduction. The purposeful inspection of the gear will be meted out that is incredibly fascinating in industrial use because of the gear test rig. The designed test rig offers exceptionally advantageous and economically viable means for making the real working condition for the gears to be tested. The test rig depends on the requirement of testing parameters and blunders which we need to check. Because of the utilization of the gear test rig, functional inspection of the gear can be completed which is very desirable for industrial use ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bagade”, “given” : “Ganesh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tawlarkar”, “given” : “Mandar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paralkar”, “given” : “Anand”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dabhade”, “given” : “Pramod”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1146-1155”, “title” : “Design and Development of Gear Test Rig”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8d35c8ba-72d1-4f67-87ed-87bcc5fda746” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bagade, Tawlarkar, Paralkar, & Dabhade, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bagade, Tawlarkar, Paralkar, & Dabhade, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bagade, Tawlarkar, Paralkar, & Dabhade, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bagade, Tawlarkar, Paralkar, & Dabhade, 2017).

While in 2016 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.prostr.2016.06.397”, “ISSN” : “2452-3216”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Meneghetti”, “given” : “G”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Terrin”, “given” : “A”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Giacometti”, “given” : “S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Procedia Structural Integrity”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “3185-3193”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “ScienceDirect ScienceDirect A twin disc test rig for contact fatigue characterization of gear materials modeling a high blade of an Giacometti turbine airplane gas turbine engine”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d46258d6-ef86-4a56-bc91-ab3fb3532c51” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Meneghetti, Terrin, & Giacometti, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Meneghetti, Terrin, & Giacometti, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Meneghetti, Terrin, & Giacometti, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Meneghetti, Terrin, & Giacometti, 2016) stated for the twin-disc test rig at one particular of the point along the tooth profile. It was used to reproduce the contact pressure and the sliding velocity of gears. Contact fatigue characterization of material is developed in the twin disk test rig to recreate working conditions of sun gears of a planetary gear set adopted in off-highway axles. Figure 2.2 shows the setup of the twin-disk rig and the schematic for the twin- disc rig represented.

Figure 2.2: Setup of the twin-disk rig

ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.proeng.2016.05.138”, “ISBN” : “0919021732114”, “ISSN” : “18777058”, “abstract” : “The paper discusses on the design and development of a test-rig for estimating the vibration characteristics of a beam. The salient features of the test rig, which makes it possible to conduct a set of experimental cases to determine the nature of vibration under different variations, and the test cases envisaged are discussed. Using the test-rig developed, the main objective is to analyse the transverse vibrations of flexible rectangular beams of aluminium alloy and mild steel for different cross sections and to study the importance of excitation on vibration response. Comparative study is performed based on the effect of variations in the characteristics of the beam on frequency and amplitude of vibration for different end conditions. An effort is made to estimate the relation between exciting centrifugal force due to rotating eccentric mass and amplitude of vibration for various cases under consideration.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nikhil”, “given” : “T.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chandrahas”, “given” : “T.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chaitanya”, “given” : “C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sagar”, “given” : “I.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sabareesh”, “given” : “G. R.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Procedia Engineering”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “312-320”, “title” : “Design and Development of a Test-Rig for Determining Vibration Characteristics of a Beam”, “type” : “paper-conference”, “volume” : “144” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d38be8a2-0c43-4950-b775-7dd0ebf94df2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nikhil, Chandrahas, Chaitanya, Sagar, & Sabareesh, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nikhil, Chandrahas, Chaitanya, Sagar, & Sabareesh, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nikhil, Chandrahas, Chaitanya, Sagar, & Sabareesh, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Nikhil, Chandrahas, Chaitanya, Sagar, & Sabareesh, 2016) also, make a vibration testing rig as to determine the nature of vibration under different variations, and the test cases envisaged by conduct a set of experimental cases for salient features of the test rig. Air compressors, automotive engines, turbines and machine tools, where the system tends to vibrate at the frequency of the exciting force is the most vibrational phenomena existing in nature are forced vibrations. Hence, the several of characteristics and parameters response of the beam can be developed on the test rig. Figure 2.3 presents the test-rig was intended for an aluminum beam with cantilever condition. Measurements of the beam were figured by thinking about both static loads because of the weight of motor assembly and beam. The test-rig created enables to perform a wide range transverse vibration experiments with the minimum amount of gathering time and the most extreme flexibility.

Figure 2.3: Vibration test-rig
From these three examples of the testing rig, it was shown that it is very necessary to develop a test rig as for experiment to be done. Or else, it would be had for the researcher to conducted an investigate certain issues.

2.2Malacca River
ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hua”, “given” : “Ang Kean”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “111-116”, “title” : “Law Enforcement and Water Resources of the Malacca River A Case Study of Public Perception”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4b00596d-7bca-4b2b-bc12-446d87338213” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hua, 2015b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hua, 2015b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Hua, 2015b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hua, 2015b) Malacca state may be a historical touristy based mostly economy and has been recognized by UNESCO as a world heritage site. This analysis declared to determine the effectiveness of law enforcement of water resources within the Malacca River. To guard the atmosphere particularly towards water resources in Malacca River is established by this analysis. Water is one among the important resources among the air, soil, solar power, metals, minerals, and so on, that act to guard the world against overheating through the evaporation method, generate food sources, serve as transportation, and help the expansion of animals and plants. Referring to the Table 2.1, the law and control will be versus with water contamination in Malacca River to assess the huge between two factors through connection investigation.

Table 2.1: Respondent’s perception of the effectiveness of law and regulation towards water resources in Malacca River.

2.2.1Pollution in Malacca River
This research study showed the water resources policy developed by the government toward Malacca River has received a positive reaction from Malacca national. To living creatures, all need is fresh water. the assorted activities like drinking, bathing, washing, and supply varied advantages to living beings for activities and advantages like habitats, shelter, and breeding is used freshwater. The analysis is close to indicating the effectiveness of the application of policy study relating to water resources within the Malacca river, that is focused on quantitative technique through the form. The form has been divided into 2 elements. For the part A includes a demographic profile, and part B includes a policy study of water resources within the Malacca River ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hua”, “given” : “Ang Kean”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July 2008”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “15-20”, “title” : “An Indication of Policy Study towards Water Resource in Malacca State : A Case Study of Malacca River , Malaysia”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f3c6904d-2513-474b-9dc7-1631480ec853” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hua, 2015a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hua, 2015a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Hua, 2015a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hua, 2015a).

Table 2.2: The analysis perceptions of Malacca citizen towards water resources condition in Malacca River.

Table 2.3: Correlation analysis of policies with the water resources condition in Malacca River.

2.2.2Sustainable Development in Water Resources
ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hua”, “given” : “Ang Kean”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ping”, “given” : “Owi Wei”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-5”, “title” : “Sustainable Development in Water Resources . Case Study : A Review of Malacca River”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a192b979-978b-4193-b9cb-b37a07712cc0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hua & Ping, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hua & Ping, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hua ; Ping, 2016) stated that water resources are the entire vary of natural waters which are potentially helpful to human beings, and might exist in liquid, vapor, or solid forms. The many factors became obstacles to property development, namely natural environmental activities and human activities are shown on the result. The main functions to use sustainable development in water resources are to keep up the assessment and come up with of water resources, increase efficiency in water use, water quality control, legislation relative to water resources, education and coaching, analysis and development, and etc. (Da Cunha, 1989). The success of sustainable development in water resource depends on factors that contribute to pollution within the Malacca River, therefore these factors ought to be addressed due to incessantly making problems and issues. The factors will be divided into natural environmental activities and speedy land use development for human activities.

Figure 2.4: Malacca River across Alor Gajah and Melaka Tengah (Ang Kean Hua, et.al 2015).

Figure 2.5: Activities along the Malacca River.

2.3Structure of Test Rig
Design A

Figure 2.6: Design A
Table 2.4: Characteristic of Design A

Functions Flow-visualisation studies.

Giving an insight into the physics of the flow.

Advantages Easy to reach by bare hand.

Easy for maintenance process.

Easy to put together.

Disadvantages Takes too much space.

Complex design.
Cost –
Design B

Figure 2.7: Design B
Table 2.5: Characteristic of Design B
Functions Have two axes of rotation that allow for maximum solar panel power production. The panels can be rotated on both horizontal and verticals axis.

The average maximum daily energy production from solar power is about 1.3 kWh, but depending on location and conditions, may occasionally exceed 1.5 kWh.

Advantages Have support part that can hold the solar panel.

Good finishing on the solar panel.

Can rotate it to certain of degree.

Disadvantages Expensive
Need a suitable place to place this solar panel
Need the skill to assemble.

Cost RM 57371.09
Design C

Figure 2.8: Design C
Table 2.6: Characteristic of Design C

Functions Measuring the performance of the water pump.

Advantages Easy to reach.

Have space for people to be on top of the ring.

Can move around.

Disadvantages Need more than one person to handle it.

Cost –
Design D

Figure 2.9: Design D
Table 2.7: Characteristic of Design D

Functions Measuring the performance of submersible pump test rig.

Advantages Good quality.

Low maintenance.

Easy to operate.

Disadvantages Limited space for maintenance work.

Cost –
2.4Initial Design
Initial framework design of the testing rig as in Figure 2.10. It consists of 1 main tank and two smaller tanks. The most tank is full of water and also the in water trash collector can deploy within it. Whereas the two small tank act as a manageable tank. However, the rig should be ready to face up to the force initiated into it. Total force exerted onto the rig is 26,000N. The precise force that exerted onto the rig was in Table 2.8 because the initial weight of the rig is 7122.1 kg victimization solid material by steel AISI 1015.

Figure 2.10 Initial Framework Design
Table 2.8: Force onto the Rig
Part Force (N) Explanation
1 3000 As observer platform. Can support up to 300kg persons.

2 19000 Main tank
3 4000 2 units of drum placed.

2.5Conclusion
From this chapter, this project review on the test Rig conceptual specification for this devices. Others are regarding theoretical associated with River Trash Collector System, regarding water in Melaka river and test rig that appropriate for it. There includes a few articles and journals that describes a case study on this literature review to allow additional clarification of basic ideas of a test rig for RTCS.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0Introduction
This chapter overviews the procedures that used in this study. The analysis methodology involves assembling connected concepts and data from the defined ways. This chapter can justify the explanation for the use of specific procedures or technique used to recognize, choose and determine the data involved to understand the analysis problem within the testing rig. Moreover, there has additional detail info concerning research framework, SolidWorks software Application, the proposed design for TTR, fabrication and finally Gantt chart.

3.1Research Framework
In order to finish the project according to the duration given, research direction is created. Research direction is as shown below:
37973029210 NO

YES
0 NO

YES

center9525Study Topic
00

Study Topic

center26987500
242125549466500

center366331500center3114675Fabricated
00Fabricated
center273431000center181356000center90868500center459041500center4057015Analysis of TTR
00Analysis of TTR
center2186940Analysis of Design (Optimize)
00Analysis of Design (Optimize)
center1276350Design Proposed
00Design Proposed
center351790Literature Review
00Literature Review

center2169795Finish
00Finish

Chart 3.1: Flowchart Research Framework

3.2Solid Works
Regarding the design, SolidWorks could be a code used to construct 3D solid models for product design application of test rig. SolidWorks is included four main function that is solid modeling, computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) computer program that runs on Microsoft Windows. Besides, SolidWorks could be a solid modeler that build use of a constant quantity features based mostly approach to make models and assemblies. This SolidWorks software existing a design with high productivity as a result of it provides varied material information and technical communication so as to design test rig for RTCS simply and authorize with standards.

Moreover, SolidWorks software makes higher mix features once drawing the part assemble then along. SolidWorks could be a mechanical design automation software package used to build elements, assemblies, and drawings that take advantage of the acquainted Microsoft Windows graphical user interface. SolidWorks is a simple to find out design and analysis tool, (SolidWorks SimulationXpress, SolidWorks Motion, SolidWorks Flow Simulation, etc.) that makes it potential for designers to quickly sketch 2d and 3D ideas, produce 3D elements and assemblies and detail 2d drawings. In SolidWorks, you produce 2d and 3D sketches, 3D parts, 3D assemblies and 2d drawings.

3.2.1Design Intent
The SolidWorks definition of design intent is that the method during which the model is developed to just accept future changes. Models behave otherwise once design changes occur. Design for modification. Utilize geometry for symmetry, reuse common features and reuse common parts.

Build change into the following areas:
3.2.1.1Sketch
Build design intent during a sketch because the profile is made. A profile is decided from the chosen Sketch Entity.

Figure 3.2: Example of the sketch

Feature
Build design intent into a feature by addressing symmetry, feature choice, and also the order of feature creation.

Figure 3.3: Example of features
Part
Utilize symmetry, feature order and reusing common features to create design intent into the part.

Figure 3.4: Example of part
Assembly
Utilizing symmetry, reusing common parts associated using the Mate relation between parts builds the design intent into an assembly.

Figure 3.5: Example of assembly
Drawing
Utilize dimensions, tolerance and notes in parts and assemblies to create the design intent into the Drawing.

Figure 3.6: Example of the sketch

3.3Proposed Design for TTR
After 3 iterations from solid design inspire analysis using topology optimization the result is recorded as figure 3.7. A body framework for TTR was analyzed by implementing topology optimization from Solid Thinking Inspire. Thus, a simplified and optimized TTR was developed. The overall frame composite structure is summarized to a modest design that meets all the necessary condition in fabricating the rig.

Figure 3.7: The Final Design of TTR
Table 3.1: Comparison of Mass Data after Optimization
Parameters Before After
Total weight, kg 7122.1 1242.1
Displacement, m 4.71 x e-42.87 x e-3Factor of Safety 30.6 6.4
Von Mises Stress, MPa 9.33 x e64.48 x e7Tension, MPa 8.15 x e63.12 x e7
3.4Fabrication
In this part, the TTR will fabricate and there are a few processes that need to be done to fabricating the TTR.

3.4.1Welding
Welding may be a fabricate technique to use to attach between two material typically metals or thermoplastic. The method joining materials using different parts and totally different technic. Furthermore, sometimes to create a join that stronger than the base material must melt the base metal and add a filter material to the mix to make a molten pool material. Pressured applied with the warmth or by itself to produce the weld.

Therefore, welding will certainly help with fabricating method to create the structure of test rig part long lasting and sturdy. The proper way to fastening, area to weld appropriate form of welding to be used got to be suitable for the material that about to be used for this prototype.

Figure 3.8: Example of welding HYPERLINK “http://www.emporiagazette.com/latest_news_and_features/article_7d5f1cde-99eb-5d08-8679-d0ebcd02ca47.html” http://www.emporiagazette.com/latest_news_and_features/article_7d5f1cde-99eb-5d08-8679-d0ebcd02ca47.html
3.4.2Piping
Pipes are on the market in several types and sizes. They’ll be divided into 3 main categories: metallic pipes, cement pipes, and plastic pipes. Metallic pipes embody steel pipes, galvanized iron pipes, and forged iron pipes. Cement pipes include concrete cement pipes and amphibole cement pipes. Plastic pipes include plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes PVC remains for polyvinyl chloride. The diverse kinds of plastic pipe utilized for water supply, PVC has a wide assortment of pipes utilizes, from waste pipe to water mains. It is most regularly utilized for water system funneling, home, and building supply piping. PVC is additionally extremely normal in pool and spa frameworks. PVC is frequently white yet it can likewise come in different colors. You can frequently tell what it is utilized for by the colors and check on the pipe.

Therefore, piping will certainly facilitate with fabricating method to create the structure of test rig component will flow the water smoothly. the proper way to do the piping, the material for piping to be used have to be compelled to be suitable for the material that progressing to be used for this prototype.

Figure 3.9: Example of piping HYPERLINK “http://pihapublic.powercreations.com.au/what_we_do/process_pipe_work.phtml” http://pihapublic.powercreations.com.au/what_we_do/process_pipe_work.phtml
3.4.3Sensor
A position detector is any device that enables position measure. It’ll either be associate absolute position sensor or a relative one. Position sensors are usually either linear or angular. Positioning Sensors are finding their technique into a lot of handhelds, medical and industrial devices daily. Knowing the position and orientation of a tool or tool is important for any trendy control system to work accurately.

3.5Gantt Chart
PROJECT PLANNING
List down the main activity for the project proposal. State the time frame needed for each activity.

2018 2018
Project Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Confirmation of project title BP BRIEFING MIDTERM BREAK
STUDY WEEK FINAL SEMESTER EXAMINATION SEMESTER BREAK MIDTERM BREAK

K STUDY WEEK Brainstorming idea with supervisor Find relevant information and submit a proposal Research and design project prototype Develop project report:
i. Introduction
ii. Literature Review
iii. Methodology
iv. References Presentation PSM 1 Submission of a final report of PSM 1
Designing the concept design Finalized the concept design Preparation of raw material and machine used Machining process Assembly process Finishing process Presentation PSM 2 Submission of a final report of PSM 2
3.6Conclusion
In this chapter, all the strategy used had summarized and it’ll be utilized in this research. Next chapter is going to be explained in brief the result and discussion of idea design of the test rig for RTCS.