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6.2.2 Engine Cooling
The burning fuel within the cylinders produces intense heat, most of which is expelled through the exhaust system. Much of the remaining heat, however, must be removed, or at least dissipated, to prevent the engine from overheating. Otherwise, the extremely high engine temperatures can lead to loss of power, excessive oil consumption, detonation, and serious engine damage.
Vital to the internal cooling of the engine is the oil system. This will be discussed in the following chapter (Engine Lubrication). Most small aircraft are air cooled, and in this section we will explore the various methods air is used for cooling the engine’s external surface.

Openings in front of the engine cowling allow for air to flow freely through the engine compartment. Baffles direct this air over fins attached to the engine cylinders, and other parts of the engine, where the air absorbs the engine heat. Expulsion of the hot air takes place through one or more openings in the lower, aft portion of the engine cowling. This circulation, or movement of excessive heat constantly dissipated by the hot running engine is how air cooling works. Simple, yet effective. Operating the engine in an excessive temperature range can cause loss of power, excessive oil consumption, and detonation. It could also lead to serious permanent damage, such as scoring the cylinder walls, damaging the pistons and rings, and burning and warping the valves. Monitoring the engine temperature instruments and keeping indications within limits, or ‘in the green,’ helps avoid high operating temperatures.
To summarise, the outside air enters the engine compartment through an inlet behind the propeller hub. Baffles direct this flow to the hottest parts of the engine, typically the cylinders, which have fins as to increase the area exposed to the airflow.
It is important to understand that the air cooling system is less effective at lower airspeeds, such as ground operations, take-offs, go-arounds. Conversely, high-speed descents can shock cool the engine, subjecting it to abrupt temperature fluctuations.
Cowl flaps are hinged covers that fit over the opening through which the hot air is expelled. If the engine temperature is low, the cowl flaps can be closed, thereby restricting the flow of expelled hot air and increasing engine temperature. If the engine temperature is high, the cowl flaps can be opened to permit a greater flow of air through the system, thereby decreasing the engine temperature.
Most aircraft are equipped with a cylinder-head temperature (CHT) gauge that indicates a direct and immediate cylinder temperature change. This instrument is calibrated in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit and is usually colour coded with a green arc to indicate the normal operating range. A red line on the instrument indicates maximum allowable cylinder head temperature.
179747052274500To avoid excessive CHT indications, the pilot should immediately increase airspeed, enrich the fuel-air mixture, and/or reduce power. On aircraft equipped with cowl flaps, use the cowl flap positions to help reduce temperatures.

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6.4. Practice Professionally2,9,10
6.4.1. Healthcare Professionals shall consistently demonstrate openness, honesty and ethical in their professional practice.
6.4.2. Healthcare Professionals shall always act promptly to put matters right, if that is possible to ensure patient safety.
6.4.3. When care plan does not go as intended, Healthcare Professionals have a responsibility to be open and honest in their communication with the patient/legal guardian.
6.4.4. Healthcare Professionals shall maintain appropriate boundaries and not abuse their professional position to establish or pursue a physical or other inappropriate relationship with anybody under their care. This includes those close to the patient/client such as their caregivers, guardian or spouse or anyone under their supervision such as a student Healthcare Professionals or colleagues.
6.4.5. Healthcare Professionals shall avoid expressing personal beliefs including political, spiritual, religious or moral beliefs to patients/legal guardian or their caregivers in ways that exploit their vulnerability or that are likely to cause them distress.
6.4.6. Shall work collaboratively within health care teams, and respect the skills, expertise and contributions of colleagues.
6.4.7. When working as a member of a team, they shall communicate effectively and disseminate knowledge, skill and expertise as required for the benefit and safety of patients.
6.4.8. Shall support colleagues who appropriately and professionally notify circumstances of unsafe and unethical practices.
6.4.9. Healthcare Professionals shall understand their duty to support the community to deal in a sound manner with the reality of disease condition and its consequences.
6.4.10. Should give priority to the investigation and treatment of patients solely on the basis of clinical need.
6.4.11. Should respect the patient’s right to informed consent and to seeking a second opinion regarding the care they receive.
6.4.12. Where there is a suspicion or issue of child abuse or any other form of abuse or medicolegal case, Healthcare Professionals shall report such suspicions and to comply with Qatari regulatory requirements.
6.4.13. Should ensure that professional status is not used in the promotion of commercial products or services and that the status of being a Healthcare Professionals is not used for personal gain or any form of rewards / incentives that are not part of the stipulated conditions of his/her employment. Should not be taking advantage of privileged position for personal gain.
6.4.14. Should have a responsibility to conduct themselves according to the Qatar laws and regulations as well as Islamic principals in what they do, and in their interaction with patients receiving care as well as with families, communities and other members of the health care team.

6.5. Privacy ; Confidentiality2
6.5.1. Healthcare Professionals shall ensure patient medical/personal information is kept private and confidential (subject to disclosures necessary for medical care and administration) ; be viewed merely by the direct caregiver or authorized persons. Upon patient request family member or nominate a support person to be allowed during examination and discussion of their case.
6.5.2. To ensure all required steps are taken to protect unauthorized access, use or accidental disclosure of your patient’s information.
6.5.3. Shall respect the patient’s wish regarding the disclosure of information to family members and others.
6.5.4. Healthcare Professionals shall always maintain privacy ; respect during physical examination ; treatment.
6.5.5. Healthcare Professionals shall disclose any information regarding patients only with informed consent or as required by a court of law or appropriate constitutional authority.
6.5.6. To ensure use of social media/other online platforms is consistent with the ethical and statutory obligations to protect patient information confidentiality and privacy.
6.5.7. Healthcare Professionals shall consistently maintain confidentiality of information about colleagues ; the organization.

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6.6. Ensure Safety
6.6.1. Healthcare professionals must practice in a safe manner; do not use any sedatives or other substances that may alter a capacity to practice safely at all times. In a situation where their health threatens their capacity to practice safely and competently, they have a responsibility to seek assistance to address their health needs.
6.6.2. Shall conform to the national legislation in relation to self-prescribing. They should not treat themselves, other than in the way that any other member of the community would undertake self-treatment.
6.6.3. Healthcare professionals shall protect patients, community, peer group and themselves by being immunized against communicable diseases.
6.6.4. Healthcare professionals should ensure they follow
6.6.4.1. If he/she knows or suspects that they have a health condition that could adversely affect their judgment or performance or could harm he/she shall consult a suitably qualified health professional.
6.6.4.2. He/she will follow the health-professional’s advice about investigations, treatment and changes to practice if necessary. They will not rely on their own assessment of the risk they possess to patients and colleagues.
6.6.4.3. Shall act to identify and minimize the risk to themselves and patients. They shall work with other members of the team to promote a healthcare environment that is conducive to safe, therapeutic and ethical practice.
6.6.5. Shall maintain personal safety and that of colleagues where necessary when caring for patients. If a patient poses a risk to the health or safety of the health professional, necessary steps to be taken to protect themselves before investigating or providing treatment. However, he/she shall not refuse to treat a patient who poses such a risk.
6.6.6. Healthcare Professionals observes/find the environment that could compromise standard of practice they shall report the to a supervisor, appropriate committee or if need to regulatory authority.
6.6.7. To ensure safety in an emergency, in or outside the work setting, he/she has a duty to provide care within the scope of practice.

6.7. Informed Consent2
6.7.1. Healthcare professionals shall obtain informed consent before they provide patients with treatment or care.
6.7.2. Healthcare Professionals must provide care in life threatening / emergency situations where treatment is necessary to preserve life without patient consent if they are unable to give it, provided the professional has the ability to demonstrate they are acting in the patient’s best interest.
6.7.3. Healthcare Professionals shall ensure patients participate in decisions about their care and treatment, including the right to refuse treatment (to the extent permitted by regulations). The patient’s consent or refusal must be documented in the patient’s medical record.
6.7.4. Healthcare Professionals to ensure that all patients receive precise and honest information about their condition and therefore make informed decisions about their own health care.
6.7.5. When obtaining informed consent, Healthcare Professionals shall ensure followings:
6.7.5.1. Given by a competent patient / legal guardian / appropriate source
6.7.5.2. Given voluntarily,
6.7.5.3. Patient is informed about risk, benefits, alternative, likelihood of success, possible complication and treatment plan in a language which patient is able to comprehend and
6.7.5.4. Shall document all discussions regarding consent in the patient/client care record.

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6.2 Descriptive Data Analysis
This section discusses the general demographic descriptions, demographic features of the respondents, on the basis of the implementation of the four building block shop floor management tools, the two improvement practices and the improvement outcomes.
6.2.1 Demographic description
Table 6.8 shows the sample distribution of survey participants’ qualifications. 77.2%, of the participants reported that they did not attend university; followed by 21.4 % who held a bachelor degree; and a small 1.4% had a masters degree or above. All employees, irrespective of their qualifications were encouraged to contribute in individual improvement suggestions scheme and also to participate in group improvement activities.

Qualification Frequency Percentage (%)
Secondary/college or below 407 77
Bachelor Degree 113 38.3
Masters Degree or above 7 1.3
Total 527 100
Table 6.8 Sample distribution on participants’ qualification

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In the context of the position held in the company, Table 6.9 indicates that the line supervisor to shop floor worker was 1:10.2 (54 line supervisors to 446 shop floor operators). Thus, there was no considerable difference between the proportions of respondents in the ratio of line supervisors to shop floor operators and the data obtained from the joint ventures official documents for all employees (about 1:8). Additionally, Table 6.9 also exhibits that majority of the respondents (77%) were shop floor operatives, 12.9% were line supervisors and 3.2% managers. It obviously marks that Improvement activities were not dominated by the top and middle management. This is in consonancet with the ideas of Caffyn (1999), Bodek (2002), Bessant and Caffyn (1997) who opined that the employees’ total involvement was one of the critical enablers for implementing continuous improvement.

Work title Frequency Percentage (%)
Shop floor worker 415 86
Line supervisor 52 12
Manager 16 2
Total 371 100
Table 6.9 Sample distribution on participants’ work title

Work improvement experience were classified into four groups, as shown in Table
6.10 and Table 6.11. Table 6.10 shows that the majority of the respondents (72.3% = 50.4% + 13.2%+ 5.7%) had more than five years of experience working in the same organisation. 15.2% had more than ten years of experience and a further 5.7% had more than 15 years of experience. Table 6.11 depicts that 100 out of 385 respondents (25.0%) had less than five years of experience of implementing continuous improvement activities. However, the rest of the respondents (74.1% = 50.7% + 20.5% + 2.9%) had at least five years’ experience. 87 out of 527respondents (22.4% = 20. % + 2.2%) had more than ten years’ experience.

Years in the organisation Frequency Percentage (%)
Less than 5 years 220 33
Between 5 to 10 years 287 53.4
Between 10 to 15 years 52 10.2
More than 15 years 21 5.7
Total 371 100
Table 6.10 Sample distribution on participants’ working experience

Years of continuous improvement activities Frequency Percentage (%)
Less than 5 years 200 28.0
Between 5 to10 years 178 51.7
Between 10 to 15 years 85 18.3
More than 15 years 9 2
Total 502 100
Table 6.11 Sample distribution on participants’ improvement experience

Table 6.12 depicts that more than half of the respondents had participated in QCCs (51.3%). Based on the previous findings (Inoue, 1985; Lillrank and Kano, 1989; Harrington, 2006), the large number of the QCC improvement practices was most probably due to the source of the survey sample that was made from the organisations whose improvements were mainly made on a department-wide/company-wide basis for long- term changes. Nevertheless, the results also depict a similar proportion of participants (49.9%) had participated in both QCCs and Teians.

Improvement focuses Frequency Percentage (%)
QCC 270 50.7
Teians 80 12.4
About the same 152 30.9
Total 502 100
Table 6.12 Sample distribution on participants’ improvement focuses

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