.(In the name of allah who is rahman and rehim)
{Grammer of DEPARTUER book }
Unit(1)
1.where: Where is a (WH) word to ask information about place.
Ex: where she lives.
Ex: where should I kill her.
Unit(3)
2.demonstratives: When, this ,that ,these ,those, are used befor to be verbs
They are called demonstratives.
Ex:this is my class.
Unit(4)
3. possessive adjective: A possessive adjective shows ownership or possession. It tells us that
something belongs to a person or thing.
Ex: That is your cat.
Ex:this is my dog.
Unit(6)
4.There is / There are:
They are used to show exist or not exists of some thing.
Ex:there are students, and there is a car.
5.some and any:
Some:
First: Some is used in affirmative sentences.
Ex: Mustafa bought some cars last week.
Second:some is also used for request in interrogative sentences.
Ex: D o you have some coffee?
Any:
First:any is used in negative sentences.
Ex: Arfan didn?t buy any thing.
Second:any is used in interrogative sentences.
Ex: is used in interrogative sentences.

6.Preposition:
Preposition is a word which is used to show the relationship
between two persons or things.
Ex: I am in the garden.
Ex: The book is near the table.

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Unit(7)
7.Could:
Could is a modal auxiliary verb which is used in the past form
of can but it is used in the present, past and future tenses.
Ex: He could teach English.
Unit(8)
8.Who:
Who is a (WH) word which is used to ask information about person.
Ex: who is he? He is ahmad.
Unit(9)
9.Apostrophe: ( )
1. In the genitive case.
Ex: Najeeb?s book.
Ex: Mohammad?s father.

2. To show a contraction.
Ex: He has studied the book = He?s studied the book.

10.Whose:
The (WH) word whose is used to belong some thing to some one.
EX: whose pens are these?
Ex: whose huose is this?

Unit (10)
11.Countable and uncountable nouns:

1.Countable: nouns are those nouns that can be counted.
Ex: Apple, cup, human etc…

2.Uncountable:Uncountable nouns are those nouns that can?t be counted.
Ex: water, suger, gas etc…

12.much and many:
1.much: is used with uncountable nouns.
Ex: He doesn?t eat much rice.

2.many: many is used with countable nouns.
Ex: I have many friends.
Unit(11)
13.Would + like
Would+like is used to express a wish.
Ex: I would like to see you after.

Unit(12)
14.imperatives sentences:
Imperatives sentences: these sentences express command or request.
Ex: please come in, go out side.

15.objective pronouns:
They perform an action as object of sentence.
Ex: me,you,them,him,her,us,it.
Unit(14)
16.Can:
can is modal auxiliary verb which shows ability.
Ex: can you speak english.
Ex: can you drive the car.

Unit(16)
17.To have verbs:
To have verbs are those which are used to show possession or
ownership in the sentences.
Ex: You have three sons.
Unit(18)
19.possessive pronouns
Possessive pronouns are those which are used instead of noun and show possession or ownership.
Ex: That house is mine.
Ex: This book is yours.

Unit(19)
20.may:
“May” shows a present probability.
Ex: If you open windo , you may catch cold.
Ex: May I have a glass of water.

Unit(21)
21.”Present continuous tense”
Present continuous tense is used to show an activty is in progress at the moment of speaking
is Called present continuous tense.
Structure: Subject + H.V + V1- ing +object/ Complement.
Helping verbs: is,am,are.
Ex: He is playing football.
Ex: He is eating food.

Unit(24)
22.Too/Either
Too: it is used to join two positive sentences.
Ex: he is my classmate, and he is too.
Either: it is used to join two negative sentences.
not Ex:ahmad is my student, and wahid is either.

Possessive pronoun
Mine
Your
His
Hers
Ours
Theirs

Unit(25)
23.Preposition of place
Some preposition tell you about place or position they are called preposition of place.
Ex: they are in the class.
Ex: ahmad is at school.
Ex: the book is on the table.

24.Why
why is a (WH) word which is used in question to ask the reson for some thing.
Ex: why do you come late?

25.Because
Is used to express the reson.
Ex: I am playing cricket because Iike it.

Unit(26)
26.Ordinal numbers
Ordinal number which shows the order of some things in a list is called ordinal numbers.
Ex: first,second, third,fourth,fifth,sixth,seventh,eightth,ninth,tenth.

27.Cardinal number
A number such as 1,2,3,that shows the quantity of somethings is called cardinal number.
Ex: Shabeer has four brothers.
Unit(27)
28.Going to
Going to is used to express already decided actions is called going to.
Ex: I am going to sleep.
Ex: she is going to football.
Unit(29)
29.Simple present tense
Simple present tense is used to express daily, activites habits, and general facts,
Is called simple present tense.
Structure:. Subject + V1 +object/ Complement.
Helping verbs: Do:I,we,they,you.
Does:He,she,it.
Adding: s,or,es,sh,ch,o,s,z,x.
Ex: milk is white-facts.
Ex: ahmad teaches Englis.

Unit(35)
30Adverb
Adverb is a word which modifies adjective, verb or anther adverb.
Ex: ahmad is very good student.

31.Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs of frequency are used that how often we do activity.
Ex: always(100%),usually(80%),often(50%),sometimes(40%)
Occasionally(30%),rarley(5%),never(0%).
Ex: I always offer the preyer 5 times.
Ex:I usually go to bed at 9.00 p.m
Ex: I often play cricket with my friends in the evening.
Ex: I sometimes drink milk in my breakfast.
Ex: I occasionally walk in the morning.
Ex: I rarley swim in the pool.
Ex: I never smoke cigars.

Unit(38)
32.Adverbs of manner
Those adverbs which describe to say eomething is done are called adverbs of manner.
Ex: ahmad sings well.
Ex: they play football badly.
Ex: he drives carefully.

Unit(39)
33.Simple future tense
It is used to show an action which takes place in the coming time.
Structure: subject+will+v1+object/complment
Helping verb: will.
Ex: I will teach you tomorrow.

Unit(42)
33.Simple past tense
Simple past tense is used to show an action which started in the past,
Completed in the past in a specipic or know time.
Structure: subject+v2+object/complment.
From of the verb: 2nd from of the verb.
Helping verb: did.
Ex: she went to kabul.
Ex: we cooked food.
Ex: ahmad washed clothes.
Note: in positive sentence we do not use helping verb,
and we use second form the verb in anther sentences we use helping verb,
but we use first form the verb.

Unit(56)
34.Past continuous tense
Past continuous tense is used to shows an action which
was going on at some exact time in the past.
Structure: Sub + Was /Were + V- ing + Comp.
Helping verbs: Was / Were.
Ex: He was eating food.
Ex: Was he eating food ?
Ex: He was not/wasn?t eating food.
Ex: Was he not eating food ?

Uint(58)
35.Have to
This strcucture is used for present obligation.
Ex: I have to sleep early.
Ex: I have to do my home work.

Unit(61)
36.Present perfect tense
It is used to show an action which started in the past completed in the past,
In unknown time.
Helping verb: have/has
Form of the verb: 3rd
Structure: subject+have/has+v3+object/complement.
Ex: I have seen your car.
Ex: I have seen ahmad.

Unit(63)
37.just/already
Just:is used for a recent action which happened befor a short time.
I have just done my home work.
Already: is used to say that something is in the present or past
but not the future.
Ex: I have already done my home work.

Unit(64)
38.Too/Enough
Too: is used befor much, many and an adjective and has negative meaning.
Ex: there is too much noise in that class.
Ex: there are too many student.
Enough: is an adverb which is used after adjective or adverb,
And is sometimes as adjective, is used before nouns.
Ex: I have enough money to buy a car.

Unit(65)
39.yet
Is used in perfect tenses at the end of negative and qution sentenses.
Ex: have you seen ahmad yet.
Ex: no I haven’t seen him yet.

Unit(68)
40.Comperative degree of an adjective
It is the second and higher degree of an adjective and used to compare two persons,
two places, and two things.
Note: comparetive degree has two rules.
1strule. If an adjective is one syllable we add (er) at the end,
of an adjective in comparetive degree.
Ex: tall=taller/small=smaller.
2ndrule. If an adjective is more than one syllable we add(more) or (less),
in the begining of an adjective in comparative degree.
Ex: beautiful=more beautiful.
Ex: car is more expensive than bicycle.

Unit(69)
41.Had to
This structure is used for past obligation
Ex: I had to write a lot.
Ex: we had to run fast.
Unit(70)
42.Superlative degree of an adjective
It is the third and highest degree of an adjective use to compare,one person,one place,and one thing,
with a group of people,places and things.
Note: superlative degree has two rules.
1ndrule: if an adjective is one syllable we add (est) at the end.
Ex: ahmad is the tallest boy in our class.
2ndrule: if an adjective is more than one syllable we add (most) or (least) at the begining.
Ex: kabul is the most dangerous city in afghanistan.
Ex: javid is the smallest boy in our group.

Unit(72)
43.indefinite pronouns: Indefinite pronouns are used instead of noun and denote some
unknownperson, place or thing
(Indefinite pronouns)

.
Unit(75)
44.for/since
For:is used to show the duration of time.
Ex: I have tought for three years.
Since:is used to show the point or exact time of an action.
Ex: I have tought since 2007.
Note: they are used with perfect tenses.

Unit(76)
45.during
It is a preposition used befor a noun to show when something happens.
Ex: I go to kabul during my vocation.

“Scribe: mojeeb rahman khawreen”
1. One 14. Every one
2. Few 15. Every body
3. No 16.Every thing
4. All 17. Some
5. None 18. Any one
6. Somebody 19. Any where
7. Some one 20. No where
8. No one 21. Every where
9. Anybody 22. Some where
10. Nobody 23. Others
11. Something 24.any
12. Any thing 25. Many
13. No thing 26. Much

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