) As worker in the trawler or fisherman or boy: This is the best available option for the villagers. The employed fisher boy gets 4000 rupees monthly salary from the trawler owner. In Balramgadi port almost 507 trawlers are working and numbers of persons are working as fisher boys mainly from the nearby villages of Chandipur, Parikhi, Majhisahi, Srikona and Pongta.

b) As worker in the ice plant: Many of the workers work in the ice plants. Ice is required for preserving the fishes. The trawlers collect the ice from the ice cutter plant before leaving for
fishing. The workers are engaged in the work against a fixed wage. In the four months that fishing is stopped, the workers either migrate or go for any other job.

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c) Dry fish production: This is a most popular job in the region. In Balramgadi region almost all the villagers are engaged in production of dry fish. Various fishes are collected either from ‘Bheries’ or from marine fishing and left on bamboo benches or hung from a bamboo made row or platform until they get sun dried. These sun dried fishes are profitable. Different fish species

like lote or Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus), Bhetki (Lates calcarifer), Bhola (Johnius belengeri), Parse ( Liza parsia), prawn, and many others are sundried, packed and marketed. All these fishes are sold at a rate of 150 rupees/kg on an average. These sundried fishes are mainly sold at the local markets or other block markets. The most important feature is the participation of women in the field. The village women are fully involved from dressing to the end product. A numbers of stages are followed from the collection to the production of the final product. After collecting the fish the workers are advised to dress up the fish. For dressing up one tub of fish (approximately 7 kg) the women labourers get 15 rupees and in one week they can dress up 20 tubs of fish. Hence, they can earn almost 300 rupees weekly. The participation of women in this field is quite significant. (Singh.A,et al,2013). As per the Technical Bulletin-25(2013) entitled ‘Socio-economic Status of Coastal Fisherwomen Involved in Fisheries Post-harvest’, women work participation in the fisheries sector is as follows “In fisheries, the post-harvest sector provides maximum employment to women. Every 5 kg of fish produced provided employment for 2 persons – one in active fishing and one in postharvest sector. About 5 lakh women are employed in pre and post-harvest operations in the marine fisheries sector alone in the total work force of 12 1akh persons. The involvement of fisherwomen in the fishery related activities provides additional income to their family. But the income they are getting is not always the same as compared to the wages that men get for the same work’. Among the marine products, dry fish is most profitable. The relatively poor villagers also prepare dry fish for their consumption and primary sale. Generally they collect small fishes and shrimps and dry them on the metalled road for a number of days. Usually two types of dried fishes are produced. These are normal dried fish and salted dried fish. Normal dried fish are more common. The harbour environment and windblown sands lower the quality of the fish.

d) Fish vending: Normally fish vending is also a profitable business. The FLC or the Fish Landing Centers are the hub of this business. After catching fish from the nearest marine location a group of fishermen collect the fish in the FLC. The local businessmen come to the spot for auction. According to the auction they buy fish and sell to the local market. A number of farmers directly sell the fish.

Table 6.39: Name of the FH, FLC ; Jetty with yearly average catch and common species
Name of the
FH/ FLC/
Jetty Location Yearly average catch(inMT) Common species abundance in normal catch
Chandipur FLC Balramgadi 9950.00 Sciaenid, Ribbon fish, Other clupeids, Catfish, Other mackerels, Flat fish Prawn, pomfret, Misc. species
Bahabalpur (jetty) Bahabalpur 7640.00 Sciaenid, Hilsa shad, Other shad, Clupeids, Catfish, pomfret, Misc. fishes.
Khandia FLC Khandia 1065.00 Do
Mahisali FLC Mahisali 1575.00 Do
Talsari Jetty Talsari 1945.00 Hilsa shad, Other shad Bombay duck, Silver Pomfret, Misc.
Kirtania Jetty Kirtania 1542.00 -do-
Kasia FLC Jambhirai 1610.00 Catfish, Mugil, Ribbonfish, Hilsa, Other shad, Clupeids, sciaenid,Misc.
Kankadapal FLC Choumukh 1596.00 do
Choumukha FLC Dagara 1520.00 Catfish, Mugil, Ribbon fish, Hilsa, Others shad, Clupeids, Sciaenid,Misc.
Panchubisa Jetty Barajdeuli 1485.00 Trichuridae, Mugil, Catfish, Hilsa, Other shad, Scienies, Shrimps, Thrisocles, Anchovies
Jamuea FLC Talapada 1830.00 Do
Gadeisagar FLC Villa 1120.00 Do
Source: Data on harbours/ jetty/ fish landing centres of Orissa,DOF, Government of Odisha, http://www.odishafisheries.com/File/DATA%20ON%20HARBOURS-FLC-ORISSA.pdf

e) Value added products: With marine fishing, value added products like fish cutlets, fish fingers, pickles may be produced and supplied to earn significant amount of money as in Udaypur and Talsari coasts. The different fresh fish, crabs are bought by the local fishermen and their wives. Then the fish are prepared and sold according to the requirements of tourists. The fish and their products are sold even in Digha (West Bengal), the nearest tourist spot with substantial number of tourists.

6.2.1.1 Total gathering of fish: Balasore district has enormous potential for marine fishing. Bahabalpur, Talasari and Chandipur are important fish landing centers and produce significant quantity of fishes. The district has almost 80250 MT productions potential and at current level 35287.38 MT or 43.97% of marine fish has been exploited. In the district two main catching seasons are present – a) August to October b) November to February. Normally the following fish are caught:
Summer (March – June): Hilsa, polynemids, sciaenids, catfish, shark, pomfret, other clupeids,
Ribbon fish
Winter (October – February): Shrimp, clupeids, black pomfret, seer, silver belly, Bombay duck, ribbon fish, cat fish, scianeids, perches, mugil etc.

Rainy season: Hilsa, pomfret, shark, soles (Behuria, 1992)

6.2.1.2 Available Infrastructure for marine fishing: The development and progress of marine fishing depend on the available infrastructural facility. Large scale marine fishing requires jetties, trawlers, motorised crafts, preservation utensils, cold storages, ice plants, etc. to provide quality products. According to the Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA ; BFDA, in 2010, Balasore district had 12 fish landing centers and jetties present for marine fishing operation. Now there are only five jetties and seven FLC or fish landing centers in the district. Chandipur and Bahabalpur are two significant places with infrastructural facility. On the survey date 14th April 2012, almost 251 trawlers were available in the Balramgadi or Budhabalanga confluence within which 77 were operating. The uses of motorised and country craft are maximum in all the coastal blocks (Figs.6.13 ; 14) (Table 6.37)

Table:6.40 Fish landing centers and number of boats in fishing operation
Block place Type No. of Boats in operation
Trawler Gillnetter Motorised
craft BLC Country craft Total
Balasore
Chandipur Jetty 407 0 65 0 30 502
Bahabalpur Jetty 149 187 137 0 64 537
Masaahisali FLC 0 0 35 0 0 35
Khandia FLC 0 0 25 0 0 25
Soro Panchubisa Jetty 0 0 70 0 18 88
Bahanaga Gadei sagar FLC 0 0 21 0 40 61
Remuna Jammuca FLC 0 0 83 0 20 103
Baliapal
Hanskara FLC 0 0 74 0 153 227
Choumukh FLC 0 0 37 0 73 110
Kankadapal FLC 0 0 30 0 130 160
Bhograi
Talsari Jetty 0 4 158 0 79 241
Kirtania Jetty 0 0 79 0 45 124
Total 556 191 814 0 652 2213
Source: Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA ; BFDA, Balasore 2010

Among the fish landing centers Bahabalpur and Chandipur have maximum number of total boats in operation whereas Khandia and Masaahisali have minimum number of boats operating. In the Balasore District Gazetteer, 360 mechanized boats and 2500 traditional boats (1992) were operating and the major landing bases were Dharma, Chandamani, Kasafal, and Talasari. During that time an ice plant with cold storage facilities was constructed at Chandipur and also a concrete ‘T’ jetty with approach road, diesel outlet and drinking water facility was constructed. This was also facilitated with landing base for mechanized and traditional vessels. Constructed road and its linkage with Orissa trunk road provide the facility to export the fishes in different parts of India especially in the East and North-East. Three main fisherman co-operative societies were established at three main fishing points. Except these, 27 other co-operative societies were also operating(Behuria,1992).

Table 6.41: Name of the co-operative societies operating in Balasore and their strength
Name of the co-operative society Location Number of fishermen engaged Gillnetters
Rajlaxmi Fisherman co-operative society Chandipur, Balasore 200 40
Kirtania Fisherman co-operative society Kirtania, Bhograi 115 23
Source: Balasore District Gazetteer, 1992.

Numbers of cold storages are operating in these places to provide preservation. In Balasore almost 2920 fisherman cooperatives were existing in 2010 to provide economic stability to the fishermen. Different road making projects up to the fish landing centers are being taken up. Fisheries Department has taken a significant role in developing the infrastructure of the places related with fishing. The fishery related infrastructure of the villages provided by the Marine Fisheries Census 2010, shows that there were 4 boat yards, 08 cold storages,1 freezing plant and 1 processing plant.

Table6.42: Name ; Production Capacity of the main Ice plants operating in Balasore district 2005
Sl no Name of the Ice plants Production Capacity Sl no Name of the Ice plants Production Capacity
1 Padmabati Ice Plant Balasore 10 MT Proof Road, Digiria 10 MT 5 Mahalaxmi ICE Plant 10 MT Patrapada, Balasore, Orissa 10 MT
2 Saragan Ice Plant 12 MT M/s. S.K. Saffig, Sarnan Mahamad, Saragan, Balasore, Orissa. 12 MT 6 Subarna ICE Plant, 15 MT Naupalgadi, Chandipur Balasore, Orissa. 15 MT
3 Arnapurna ICE Plant, 10 MT Bardhanpur, Balasore Orissa.
10 MT 7 Singh Bhabani ICE Plant, 10 MT Sinduri, Balasore, Orissa. 10 MT
4 Sibagauri ICE Plant, 9 MT Gudupahi, Balasore, Orissa
9MT 8 Sankar ICE Plant ; Processing 10 MT Industries, Naupalgadi, 10 MT
Source: Annexure- XXIII, Diagnostic Study of Fishery Cluster, Gudupahi, Orissa. (2005), http://odishafisheries.com/oriya/File/Report%20on%20Gudupahi%20Fishery%20Cluster-dec04.pdf

Marketing and relation with economy: Marine fishing and the related income are dependent upon the marketing strategies. Large numbers of intermediates are involved in marketing. Like the other coastal districts of Orissa, Balasore also experiences the same marketing problems. According to the fishermen and dry fish makers sometimes there are three to five intermediaries so they get a minimum rate for their hard work. Actually Balasore district holds a quite impressive status in fishing. As maximum of the fishes are exported outside so the demand exceeds supply, resulting in increase of price. During 1996 to 1999 the monthly price of Balasore district higher than the other coastal districts engaged in marine fishing. The scenario has changed a lot as the production has reduced but different mechanized methods have been introduced. During 1980-81 to 1994-95 the district contributed 34.01 percent of the total marine
fish production. The rise of annual price indices for big sea fish was almost 15.48 % within 1980-81 to 1994-95 that was more than the average of the state. (Naik, 2001)

6.2.2 Inland fishing: Inland fishing is the most common form of activity followed by the villagers. The low lying depressions are suitable for the development of inland or fresh water fishing. Except Nilagiri and Oupada C.D Blocks, the entire district of Balasore is plain and low-lying, so almost every house-hold has a small pond (Behuria,1992). Without any scientific culture, at least 260 kg per acre per annum production can be expected and it ranges up to 600 kg per acre per annum if it is done following scientific methods . The total area excluding the rivers / canals is almost 6258.29 ha. Three basic types of tanks are used for fishing purpose – Gram Panchayat (GP) tank, Revenue tank and private tank (Fig.6.15). Balasore block had maximum area used for fishing under GP tanks while Baliapal had lowest. The use of revenue tank was lowest in Bhograi block and highest in Nilagiri block. The private tank area was highest in Balasore block and lowest in Nilagiri block. CV has been calculated to find out the variability of each inland water resource potential. This reveals that maximum variability is found for private tank i.e. 81.61% and GP tank has minimum variability i.e. 49.68%. Other two potentials i.e. Revenue tank has 76.81% of variability and river canals have 77.32 % variability representing significant inconsistency. The production pattern also shows modified variability. On an average, 1706.99 quintal production potential has been recorded in the district and the CV

Table6.43: Potential Resources available in the district for Fresh Water Pisciculture (Area in ha)
Blocks GP Tank % share
Revenue
Tank % Private
Tank % share River/
Canals % share Total
Bahanaga 218.00 37.58 10.00 1.72 252.07 43.46 100 17.24 580.07
Balasore 252.53 13.29 32.13 1.69 1180.65 62.13 435.00 22.89 1900.31
Baliapal 50.02 13.20 33.20 8.76 195.63 51.64 100.00 26.40 378.85
Basta 83.56 14.02 18.70 3.14 243.64 40.89 250.00 41.95 595.9
Bhograi 87.85 7.48 3.56 0.30 782.55 66.66 300.00 25.55 1173.96
Jaleswar 103.36 13.77 26.15 3.48 371.15 49.44 250.00 33.30 750.66
Khaira 140.01 18.31 30.52 3.99 294.15 38.47 300.00 39.23 764.68
Nilagiri 124.21 20.67 80.70 13.43 145.91 24.29 250.00 41.61 600.82
Oupada 68.92 24.28 23.25 8.19 191.74 67.54 – 0.00 283.91
Remuna 135.27 30.15 6.09 1.36 277.23 61.80 30.000 6.69 448.59
Simulia 129.29 35.60 34.96 9.63 178.89 49.26 20.00 5.51 363.14
Soro 70.95 12.85 16.38 2.97 364.72 66.07 100.00 18.11 552.05
Total 1463.97 17.73 315.64 3.82 4478.68 54.23 2000 24.22 8258.29
Mean 122.00 20.10 26.30 4.89 373.19 51.80 177.92 23.21 699.41
STDV 60.61 9.77 20.20 4.10 304.57 13.53 137.57 14.30 445.38
CV(in %) 49.68 48.62 76.81 83.80 81.61 26.12 77.32 61.64 63.68
Source: Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA ; BFDA, Balasore 2010 ; compiled by author

is 45.60%. Balasore block shows maximum potential from GP tank and Baliapal block produces lowest. With regard to estimated potential from revenue tanks, Nilagiri block shows maximum value and Bhograi block has lowest potential. Production available from private tank is significantly high as each block gets almost 75.32% share of their fresh water fish on an average. Balasore holds first position in private tank fish production potential among all blocks and Nilagiri block holds last position in 2009-10. The fish production from various fresh water sources was maximum in Balasore i.e. 18.9%, but all other block has share less than 10% of the districts total production and among them Nilagiri holds least percentage i.e. 4.8%. So from a normal view the coastal blocks show maximum potential for fresh water pisiculture because of its extensive flat topography, number of surface water bodies and mild drought effects, required suitability. The blocks having coastal attachment like Bahanaga, Balasore, Baliapal, Bhograi, and Remuna share 54.27 % of total resource potential available in the district for fresh water pisciculture whereas the hilly blocks like Nilagiri. Oupada, Khaira share is only 19.98%. The rugged topographical condition and physiographical drought condition in these blocks play vital roles in reducing the potential. To develop inland fishing the most significant step of the Government was the establishment of the FFDA or Fish Farmers Development Agency in 1997-98.
Table 6.44: Estimated Annual Fish production (Qtls.) from Fresh Water sources (2009-10)
Blocks GP Tank % share Revenue
Tank % share Private
Tank % share River/
Canals % share Total
Bahanaga 3270.0 27.05 150.00 1.24 8483.2 70.18 184.0 1.52 12087.20
Balasore 3030.36 12.88 321.30 1.37 19316.34 82.08 865.0 3.68 23533.00
Baliapal 750.30 8.58 498.00 5.69 7343.5 83.95 156.0 1.78 8747.800
Basta 1253.4 11.48 280.50 2.57 8873.3 81.24 515.0 4.72 10922.20
Bhograi 1317.75 11.61 53.40 0.47 9736.05 85.79 242.0 2.13 11349.20
Jaleswar 1757.12 16.69 444.55 4.22 7971.53 75.71 355.50 3.38 10528.70
Khaira 1820.13 25.09 427.28 5.89 4951.29 68.26 55.00 0.76 7253.700
Nilagiri 1614.73 27.46 1049.10 17.84 3196.37 54.36 20.00 0.34 5880.200
Oupada 895.96 13.83 302.25 4.67 5269.49 81.35 10.00 0.15 6477.700
Remuna 2029.05 24.06 91.35 1.08 6128.1 72.66 186.00 2.21 8434.500
Simulia 1680.77 24.69 454.48 6.68 4433.25 65.11 240.00 3.53 6808.500
Soro 1064.25 8.95 245.70 2.07 9890.05 83.14 695.00 5.84 11895.00
Total 20483.82 16.53 4317.91 3.48 95592.47 77.14 3523.5 2.84 123917.7
Mean 1706.99 17.70 359.83 4.48 7966.04 75.32 293.63 2.50 10326.48
STDV 778.46 7.39 260.94 4.71 4179.07 9.48 269.81 1.76 4708.66
CV (in %) 45.60 41.79 72.52 105.13 52.46 12.59 91.89 70.43 45.60
Source: Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA ; BFDA, Balasore 2010

There were some main objectives of the Agency as mentioned in the District Gazetteer- i) to cover available water area under modern pisciculture practice ii) to make available institutional finance to the fish farmers with necessary subsidy from the agency. iii) to prepare plan and estimate for renovation and excavation of tanks and to supervise the work through the technical staff. iv) to impart technical know-how to the fish farmers through the extension agency set up in each blocks. v) To train the fish farmers for scientific management of the culturable water area and also to train interested entrepreneurs on induced breeding of the Indian major carps (Catla, Rohi and Mrigal) and exotic carps (Silver carps, Grass carp and Cy. Carpio) (Behuria,1992)
‘Digha Fish farm’ in Balasore town was established in 1991-92 to supply good quality seeds to the farmers. The fish seed was supplied to the farmer at 50 rupees for 1000 fries excluding the packaging and transport costs(Behuria,1992 ) . During field survey it was noticed that the GP ponds are given in lease to the villager who wants to go for business for 1 year or in few cases for three years. In Jaleswar, Bahanaga, Soro, Simulia, Basta and Balasore blocks those villagers who are engaged in inland fishing and have taken lease from the Government can make profit up to 40000 rupees or more per season. In general the GP ponds are given lease against 2000 rupees per year. In Nilagiri Oupada and Bhograi blocks very limited numbers of ponds are leased out. This business is quite profitable and can be a better survival strategy. But it suffers for number of short comings. The most important of them is the political cause. The villagers don’t get the opportunity to have the lease as political preference exists. For taking lease of a pond the payment has to be given in advance to the Gram Panchayat. The GP pond suffers from lack of maintenance. From twenty seven surveyed villages 22 nos. or 81.48 % of the villages have only one Government pond for fishing purpose and rest 18.52% of the villages have two Government ponds given in yearly lease for fishing purpose. The average production varies from 1.5 quintal to 5.5 quintal per average size pond. About 25.93% villages have average estimated production of 2 to 4 quintal fish, 18.52% villages have more than 4 quintal production and 7.41% villages have only less than 2 quintal of production (Primary survey 2011-15). In general, major carps are cultivated. Except these, walking catfish, Indian torrent fish, Orange-fin labeo, Banded gourami, Corsula mrigal, yellow tail catfish, barred spiny eel, puntius sp., tilapia, are some of the common inland fresh water fish.In maximum cases the business is done after taking lease of the Gram panchayat ponds. If the pond is one’s own then the production is mainly consumed and a selected percentage of the product is marketed. Actually pisiculture is not well developed in the district. The interested persons are engaged in this business but the infrastructure or fish nurseries are really very nominal respective to the requirement. There are no government nurseries except for Balasore block. But private nurseries are available in Balasore, Basta, Remuna, Simulia and Soro. In total, nineteen private nurseries are present in the district covering an area of 16.98 hectare (Appendix 6.8). If proper infrastructure and subsidy are given to the farmers then they can switch to profitable option like fishing.

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