ETHIOPIAN CIVIL SERVICE UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF FINANCE, MANGMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC & SOCIAL SECURITY MANAGEMENT
CONTRIBUTION OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN IMPROVING THE WELFARE OF ORPHAN AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN IN DESSIE TOWN
TARIQUA WORKU WELDEMARIAM
(ID. NO. ECSU1601031)
PROFESSOR DURGA PRASAD
ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA
TABLE OF CONTENTSContents Pages
TOC o “1-3” h z u TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc515401090 h iACRONOMY AND ABBRIVATIONS PAGEREF _Toc515401091 h iiiLIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc515401092 h ivLIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc515401093 h vCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc515401094 h 1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc515401095 h 11.1Background of the study PAGEREF _Toc515401096 h 11.2Statement of the problem PAGEREF _Toc515401097 h 41.3Research questions PAGEREF _Toc515401098 h 51.4Objectives of the study PAGEREF _Toc515401099 h 5CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc515401100 h 10LETRATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc515401101 h 102.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc515401102 h 102.2 Concept of non-governmental organization PAGEREF _Toc515401103 h 102.3Characteristics of non-governmental organization PAGEREF _Toc515401104 h 112.4Types of non-governmental organizations PAGEREF _Toc515401105 h 112.5Key operational areas of non-governmental organizations PAGEREF _Toc515401106 h 122.6Contributions of NGOs PAGEREF _Toc515401107 h 132.7NGOs in Ethiopia: An overview PAGEREF _Toc515401108 h 162.8Overview of child poverty PAGEREF _Toc515401109 h 172.9Concept of orphan children PAGEREF _Toc515401110 h 182.10 Meaning of vulnerability PAGEREF _Toc515401111 h 212.12Orphan and vulnerable children phenomenon PAGEREF _Toc515401112 h 232.13Concepts of social protection and child protection PAGEREF _Toc515401113 h 242.14Welfare of orphan children PAGEREF _Toc515401114 h 272.15Social protection in Ethiopia PAGEREF _Toc515401115 h 282.16Magnitude of orphan and vulnerable children in Ethiopia and Amhara region PAGEREF _Toc515401116 h 302.17Conceptual framework of the study PAGEREF _Toc515401117 h 31Source: PAGEREF _Toc515401118 h 32CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc515401119 h 33RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc515401120 h 333.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc515401121 h 333.3Research methods PAGEREF _Toc515401122 h 333.4Population of the study PAGEREF _Toc515401123 h 353.5Inclusion criteria of participants PAGEREF _Toc515401124 h 363.6Data analysis methods PAGEREF _Toc515401125 h 363.7Ethical Consideration PAGEREF _Toc515401126 h 37CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc515401127 h 38RESERACH ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS PAGEREF _Toc515401128 h 384.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc515401129 h 384.2Characteristics of respondents PAGEREF _Toc515401130 h 384.2.1Gender distribution of respondents PAGEREF _Toc515401131 h 394.2.2Age distribution of respondents PAGEREF _Toc515401132 h 394.2.3Educational level of respondents PAGEREF _Toc515401133 h 404.2. 4 Family condition of OVC PAGEREF _Toc515401134 h 414.3Current situation of Orphan and Vulnerable Children in Dessie town PAGEREF _Toc515401135 h 434.3.3Current problems of OVC PAGEREF _Toc515401136 h 454.3.4Respondents’ perception regarding the responsible body to support OVC PAGEREF _Toc515401137 h 464.4Contributions of NGOs to the welfare of OVC in Dessie town PAGEREF _Toc515401138 h 484.5Effectiveness of selected NGOs in improving the welfare of OVC PAGEREF _Toc515401139 h 514.5.3OVC’s status of food Security PAGEREF _Toc515401140 h 534.5.4Psychological status of OVC PAGEREF _Toc515401141 h 544.5.6Status of OVC’s legal condition PAGEREF _Toc515401142 h 564.5.7Socio-economic status PAGEREF _Toc515401143 h 57REFERENCE PAGEREF _Toc515401144 h 58
ACRONOMY AND ABBRIVATIONSAIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
ANRS Amahra National Regional State.
BLOSABureau of Labor and Social Affair.
BOFEDBureau of Finance and Economic Development.
CBO Community Based Organization.
EECMY –NCES-DASS Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekneyesus norh central Ethopian synod Development social service commission.
EOCC-FAO Ethiopia Orthodox Church Child and Family Affairs Organization
FBOFund Based Organization.
FHAPCOOFederal HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office.
HIVHuman Immunodeficiency Virus.
INGOInternational Non-Government Organization.
MoHMinistry of Health.
MoWA Ministry of Women Affairs.
OVCOrphan Vulnerable Children.
PEFERPresedent’s Emergencey plan for AIDS relief.
SSASub Saharan Africa.
UNICEF United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund.
WCAOWomen and child affairs 0ffice.
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Conceptual framework of the study…………………………………………….33
Figure 4.1: Gender distribution of respondents……………………………………………..40
Figure 4.2: Educational status of respondents………………………………………………41
Figure 4.3: Reasons of OVC why they became orphan children………………………..…44
Figure 4.4: Do you think the number of OVCs is increasing in Dessie town?………………45
Figure 4.5: The perception of the local community towards OVC…………………………46
Figure 4.6: The current problems of OVC……………………………………………….…..47
Figure 4.7: From which of the following organizations you have got support?…………….49
Figure 4.8: Extent of NGOs contribution…………………………………………………………….52
LIST OF TABLESTable 4.1: Age distribution of respondents……………………………………………………… 40
Table 4.2: Family condition of OVC……………………………………………..……………… 42
Table 4.3: Age of respondents when they lose their parents………………………………………43
Table 4.4: Causes for increasing the number of OVC according to beneficiaries ……………………. 45
Table 4.5: Respondents’ perception about the responsible body to support OVC……………..….. 48
Table 4.6: Type of support OVC expect from NGOs……………………………………………… 50
Table 4.7: Types of support that OVC currently obtaining from NGOs …………………….…….51
Table 4.8: Health status OVC before getting support from NGOs………………………………..53
Table 4.9: How often do OVC miss from school or work due to illness………………………54
Table 4.10: Times OVC slept hungry within last 4 weeks……………………………………..54
Table 4.11: Days OVC went whole day without food in last 4 weeks…………………………55
Table 4.12: Improvement in food consumption………………………………………………..55
Table 4.13: Psychological change observed on OVC……………………………….………….56
Table 4.14: Housing condition of OVC………………………………………………….……..57
Table 4.15: Is there anyone who will give legal issue support if you are in need…………….58
Table 4.16: Sources of OVC livelihood………………………………………………………..58
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONThe aim of the study is to assess the contributions of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) for improving the welfare of Orphan and Vulnerable Children (OVC) in Dessie town. The chapter introduces the research agenda; states the research questions and objectives; addresses the scope of the study; defines pertinent concepts in the research; presents the ethical consideration of the study; and the organization of the thesis.
1.1Background of the studyDisease, conflict and violence, natural disaster, and severe economic strife leave millions of the world’s youngest people without parents or caregivers. United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and global partners define the term ‘orphan’ as, “a child less than 18 years of age who has lost one or both parents to any cause of death”. This definition contrasts with the concept of orphan in many industrialized countries, where a child must have lost both parents to qualify as an orphan. UNICEF and numerous international organizations adopted the broader definition ‘orphan’ in the mid-1990s as the AIDS pandemic began leading to the death of millions of parents worldwide, leaving an ever increasing number of children growing up without one or more parent. So the terminology of a ‘single orphan’ – the loss of one parent – and a ‘double orphan’ – the loss of both parents – was born to convey this growing crisis (UNICEF, 2017).
According to the above definition, there were nearly 140 million orphans globally in 2015, including 61 million in Asia, 52 million in Africa, 10 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 7.3 million in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. This large figure represents not only children who have lost both parents, but also those who have lost a father but have a surviving mother or have lost their mother but have a surviving father. Out of 140 million children that are classified as orphans, 15.1 million have lost both parents. Evidence clearly shows that the vast majority of orphans are living with a surviving parent, grandparent, or other family member. 95 percent of all orphans are over the age of five (UNICEF, 2017).
Africa’s orphaned and vulnerable generations was estimated as 15.7 million in 2010, which is 30 percent of the total 52 million anticipated orphans from all causes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This figure reflects orphans who lost at least one parent due to AIDS. Even where HIV prevalence stabilizes or begins to decline, the number of orphans will continue to grow or at least remain high for years, reflecting the time lag between HIV infection and death. According to MOWA (2010), Ethiopia is estimated to have 5,459,139 orphans of whom 855,720 are orphans due to HIV/AIDS. This is one of the largest populations of OVC in Africa.
Given the context of Ethiopia, all OVC are directly or indirectly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS and other health, socioeconomic, psychological and legal problems. This vulnerability may be linked to extreme poverty, hunger, and armed conflict and child labor practices, among other threats. All of these issues may be fuel up by HIV/AIDS. The majority of children orphaned as a result of HIV/AIDS is in Amhara (39%), SNNPR (14.1%) and Oromia (4%). The remaining causes of orphan hood and vulnerability are due to food insecurity, poverty, conflict, natural disasters, malaria, and other infectious diseases (Pepfar, 2012 cited in Afwerk, 2013).
Due to urbanization, traditional community structures for child protection have been decimated resulting in social problems, such as the street children phenomenon. Traditional family and community mechanisms to support orphans have been under considerable financial strain resulting in more children facing difficulties accessing health care, education and other basic amenitiesThe state has now taken a centre stage in the issues of child protection replacing the traditional child protection systems such as the family and the community .State intervention has been in the form of public assistance, food hand outs and school fees.
Mushunje (2006) observed that in Zimbabwe, many families are finding it hard to protect their children because of limited access to resources. This is due to the fact that the urban economy has not been able to absorb those in need of gainful formal employment (Masuka.t et.al 2012)
The role of NGOs in reducing poverty is not a new issue. Especially since the post-World War II, NGOs involvement in poverty reduction has become a mainstream. They have been engaged in relief, emergency or longer-term development work or the mixture of all three. Although the evidence on NGOs’ performance in poverty alleviation is mixed, up to now, it is generally assumed that they have institutional capacity to reduce poverty. As part of their commitment to realize the targets of the MDGs in 2015, NGOs had greater opportunity to increase their roles in reducing poverty particularly in developing countries (Suharko, 2007)
According to the report of UNICEF (2006), in Ethiopia, orphans and other vulnerable children face a number of challenges, including finding money for school fees, food, clothing and access to basic health care. Their desperation make them more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. In today’s world the role of NGOs is becoming a high-profile agenda which influence political, economic and social policies of almost all counties of the world and is highly related to the well-being of the poor and vulnerable groups of the society. It is undeniable fact that NGOs are said to have a pivotal role in alleviating the plight of vulnerable groups, reducing poverty and strengthening democracy. The existence of NGOs in Ethiopia is not a new phenomenon rather it has long history in the form of self-help system. Despite this, there is little written information on these systems. As Sisay (2002) explains, the emergence of modern and formal NGOs is of recent phenomenon. About 60 percent of the urban dwellers live under extreme poverty, poor sanitation, and lack of education and high prevalence of HIV/AIDS (CHAD-ET, 2009). Due to this and other factors, the number of children who become orphan vulnerable children has been increasing from day to day.
Dessie town is a city in Amhara Regional State located 400 km from Addis Ababa, capital city of Ethiopia. According to Amhara Regional State and Save the Children Norway study conducted in 2008, Dessie city is an old town in East Amhara which is surrounded by drought-prone woredas. Historically, Dessie had been a recipient of people, who are displaced due to war from Assab and Tigray. The death of parents due to sever war during the then time (before 1991), is believed to be a contributing factor to increase the number of OVC in the city. The largest OVC population in the region is found in Bahir Dar (18.2%) followed by Dessie (13.3%) and Gondar (10.4%) (Amhara BoLSA, 2008 cited in Yewondwossen, 2014:14-15).
As noted by Yewondwossen (2014:1), the Ethiopian government recognize the problem of orphan and vulnerable children and take various steps to prevent vulnerability of children’s and to facilitate and provide care and support to children and their care takers. In this respect, in 2010, the Ethiopian government developed a standard of Care Service Delivery Guideline to guide GOs, NGOs, CBOs, and PSTA’s to standardize the Care and support services provided to OVCs.
However, as a result of the complexity of solving the problems of orphans, it is difficult to resolve such problems only by the government. The challenge of orphans and vulnerable children requires a concerted community effort and should not be left to individual, struggling, households (Germann et al., 2008 cited in Yeshewahareg, 2015:2). Hence, the involvement of NGOs, among others, is very important. Therefore, this study explores the contributions of NGOs in improving the welfare of OVC in Dessie town.
1.2Statement of the problem
Based on the estimation of UNICEF, there are more than 100 million children, who are living on streets of cities all over the world (Hailu, 2006). According to Heymann et al. (2007), there are about 12 million orphans in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a direct consequence of HIV/AIDS pandemic. As orphans have traditionally been absorbed by their extended family networks, many households are struggling to meet the needs of orphans in their care (Hamza, 2011). A recent study by Save the Children UK (2009) shows that within Ethiopia there are 5.5 million children, which is almost 6 percent of the total population and 12 percent of child population, are categorized as OVC. Over 83 percent of OVCs are living in rural areas of Ethiopia. Despite the fact that the Ethiopian economy has experienced strong and broad based growth over the past two decades, average 10.8 percent per year (World Bank, 2016), the problems of children, youth and women are not addressed well yet. On the contrary, the magnitude of orphan children is increasing.
A study undertaken by Amhara National Regional State of Labor and Social Affairs (2008) noted that the number of OVC is not only alarmingly increasing, but also thousands of them are living in severe socioeconomic problems. Moreover, there are visible indicators for the infringement of the rights of children, such as child commercial sex workers, out of school children and child beggars. All these are prevalent in major urban areas of the region.
The study conducted in 40 towns of Amhara region indicated that there are about 62,820 OVC, which is more than 11 percent of the total children of the study towns. The entire number of OVC existed in each study town is affected by variance in the size of population and socioeconomic dynamism of towns. Because of the large population and high socioeconomic interactions, major towns have not only large size of children at risk, but also the size of some categories, such as street kids and female child commercial sex workers is high as compared to medium and small towns in the area.
In Dessie town, the number of orphans was estimated to be 4,422 in the 2007 National census (Amhara Region Labor and Social Affairs Bureau, 2007 as cited in Hamza, 2011). On the other hand, ANRS BoFED (2008) estimated the number OVC in Dessie town to be 6,409, which is higher than other cities adjacent to Dessie. OVC and their families faced problems, such as school dropout, low educational performance, economic and food insecurity, lack of adequate clothing, social isolation and emotional hardships.
Although a number of researchers try to uncover regarding the contributions of NGOs to the development of nations, the research conducted about the contributions of NGOs to the welfare of OVC is very scanty. Therefore, this study attempts to fill in this gap focusing on Dessie town.
As explained under sub-section 1.2, there is lack of empirical studies explaining the contributions of NGOs in improving the welfare of OVC. Hence, to fill this gap, the study answered the following research questions:
What is the current situation of Orphan and Vulnerable Children in Dessie town?
What are the contributions of NGOs in improving the welfare of Orphan and Vulnerable Children in the study area?
How effective were NGOs in improving the welfare of Orphan and Vulnerable Children in Dessie town?
1.4Objectives of the studyThe study addresses dual objectives: general and specific objectives.
The objective of the study is to assess the contributions of NGOs in improving the welfare of OVC in Dessie town.
In line with the above general objective, the specific objectives of the study are to:
Assess the current situation of Orphan and Vulnerable Children in Dessie town.
Investigate the contributions of NGOs in improving the welfare of Orphan and Vulnerable Children in the study area.
Examine how effective NGOs were in improving the welfare of OVC in Dessie town through the provision of educational, health, psychosocial, safety and security, legal, food and nutrition, and socio-economic services supports.
1.5Significance of the study
The researcher believes that this study would be useful for the government of Ethiopia, NGOs working in the areas of children (OVC in particular), Amhara National Regional State, Dessie city administration, and academicians. More specifically, the study will have the following importance:
Government of Ethiopia and NGOs to understand the current gaps that exists in their work towards addressing the needs of OVC.
The beneficiaries of NGOs or OVC will get awareness about their rights.
Public policy makers could get inputs to improve or change the existing laws and policies of OVC.
The findings of this study could be used as a reference for other researchers who are interested to undertake further studies on OVC.
1.6Scope of the study
A number of institutions and sectors are trying to address the problems of OVC in Ethiopia. Government institutions, NGOs, CBOs and the private sector are among those bodies that are involving in the areas of children and related issues. However, this study limits itself in assessing the contributions of NGOs in improving the welfare of OVC in Dessie town.
1.7 Definition of key words and concepts
Defining key words and concepts related to this study is very important to create common understanding with the readers of this thesis. The key words and concepts are child, orphan, vulnerable child, care giver, and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs). The definitions are presented as follows.
Child. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child defined child as “every human being below the age of eighteen years”. A child is primarily defined by age, with the most common agreement being 18 years, which is the legal age in many sub-Saharan African countries. As defined in the convention on the rights of the child and ratified by the Ethiopian government on December1991, a child is any human being below the ages of 18 years (Yewondwossen, 2014:8). Ultimately, age dentitions were felt to depend on the period of dependence of the child on the parents or caretakers of the household. The period of dependence could be extended considerably by many situations, including unemployment, extended studies, physical or mental handicap, or severe illness. Such individuals would not be considered as children, but would remain dependent and remain part of the load on the house (Skinner et.al, 2004).
Orphan. Orphan is defined as a child who is less than 18 years old and who has lost one or both parents, regardless of the cause of the loss (Yewondwossen, 2014:8). UNICEF, UNAIDS and USAID joint report defines an orphan as a child in ages between 0 and 17 years whose mother (maternal orphans) or father (paternal orphans) or both (double orphans) are dead. The concept of “social orphans” is sometimes used to describe children whose parents might be alive but are no longer fulfilling any of their parental duties (e.g., drug addicts who are separated from their children with little chance of reunion, parents who are sick or abusive or who, for other reasons, have abandoned or largely neglect their children). In line with the above definitions, this study used the term ‘orphan’ as per the meaning given by the Ethiopian Federal Standard Guide Line for OVC service delivery (2010), which states that “an orphan is a child who is less than 18 years old and who has lost one or both parents, regardless of the cause of the loss.”
Vulnerable child is a child under the age of 18 years and currently at high risk of lacking adequate care and protection. As noted by Yewondwossen (2014:9), a vulnerable child is a child who is less than 18 years of age and whose survival, care, protection or development might have been jeopardized due to a particular condition, and who is found in a situation that precludes. the fulfilment of his or her rights.
Care giver. A caregiver is the person who plays the key caring role for OVC. The person should be able to provide all aspects of care and be responsible for the child under his/her care. The roles for caretakers are seen as being to protect the rights of the children in their care as far as they are able; provision of basic requirements of life and development, such as shelter, food, education, clothing and health care; provision of environment for psychosocial development and to support, moral, cultural and religious instruction, as well as basic hygiene; being responsible if anything happens to a child and being there to attend to the child; and ensuring that the conditions exist for adequate emotional development.
Non-governmental organization. Non-government organization (NGO) is non-profit, citizen-based group that works independently of the regime. NGOs, sometimes called civil societies, are formed in community, national levels to serve specific social or political purpose, and are more cooperative, rather than commercial, in nature. Example of NGOs includes those that protect human rights, and advocate for improved health or promote political participation. Two liberal groups of NGOs are identified by the World bank. These are operational NGOS, which concentrate on development tasks; and advocacy NGOs, which are formed to promote particular causes. Certain NGOs may fall under both classes simultaneously.
Welfare. There are different definitions to the term ‘welfare’. According to Investopedia Welfare is a government program which provides financial aid to individuals or groups who cannot support themselves. Welfare programs are funded by taxpayers and allow people to cope with financial stress during rough periods of their lives. In most cases, people who use welfare will receive a biweekly or monthly payment. The goals of welfare vary, as it looks to promote the pursuance of work, education or, in some instances, a better standard of living.
Effective service: According to OVC protection service standard (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Standard Service Delivery Guide for OVC, 2010), the services provided by any agency is said to be effective when shelters are safe, warm and dry with access to water and sanitation i.e. latrines; when household assets (economic and social) are built to withstand shocks and household income source is sustained and diversified; when OVC have timely access to legal assistance
1.8Organization of the study
This research has five chapters. Chapter one is the introduction. In this chapter, the statement of the problem, the research questions, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, definitions of key terms and concepts and the structure of the thesis are presented in detail. Chapter two discusses varies literature regarding the area of the research. Both theoretical and empirical literature reviews are made and presented in chapter two. The methodology employed in the study is discussed in chapter three which includes the research design, research methods, sample design, data collection methods, and data presentation and analysis methods. Chapter four dealt with data presentation, analysis and interpretation. Finally, the fifth chapter contains summary of major findings, conclusions and recommendations. Relevant references cited in the thesis and different appendices are shown at the end of the thesis.
CHAPTER TWOLETRATURE REVIEW2.1Introduction
This chapter is devoted to present relevant literature regarding the concept of NGOs, characteristics of NGOs, types of NGOs, key operational areas of NGOs, contributions of NGOs, NGOs in Ethiopia (an overview), overview of child poverty, concept of orphan children, meaning of vulnerability, causes and challenges of OVC, and OVC phenomenon, among others. The researcher has consulted books, relevant articles, journals and completed researches to supplement the primary data.
2.2 Concept of non-governmental organization
The term “NGO” first came into use after World War II when the United Nations applied it to private organizations that helped heal the ravages of the war — millions of displaced people, orphans and high unemployment. But the concept of citizens organizing around issues goes back much further. Some scholars identify the first international NGO as Antislavery International, established in 1839.
Today, the UN recognizes an estimated 40,000 international NGOs, with millions more operating within countries. The term ‘NGO’ tends to be used in both a broad and a narrower sense. In its widest sense, such as that used by the UK Public Law Project (Sunkin et al. 1993: 108) NGOs are ‘privately constituted organizations – be they companies, professional, trade and voluntary organizations, or charities – that may or may not make a profit’.
In other words, within this legal definition, all non-state organizations, whether they are businesses or third sector, can be seen as forms of NGO. For Charnovitz(1997:185), “NGOs are groups of individuals organized for the myriad of reasons that engage human imagination and aspiration”. Yet these kinds of definitions, while technically logical, are probably far too. A more common-sense definition focuses instead on the idea that NGOs are organizations broad for people interested in NGOs and development. Concerned with the promotion of social, political or economic change – an agenda that is usually associated with the concept of ‘development’. This gives emphasis to the idea that an NGO is an agency that is primarily engaged in work relating to the areas of development or humanitarian work at local, national and international levels.
A usefully concise definition is provided by Vakil (1997: 2060). This scholar states that NGOs are ‘self-governing, private, not-for-profit organizations that are geared to improving the quality of life for disadvantaged people’.
There are many different kinds of NGOs. Some are large, multinational organizations while others are small, village-based groups. Some target particular issues or sectors, such as women, youth, environment, human rights, education or health. Others address multiple issues and sectors. Whatever their area or scope, all NGOs exist to make people’s lives better or solve a social problem. Most NGOs are founded by people who are passionate about their communities or causes (Devied & Nazneen, 2009).
2.3Characteristics of non-governmental organizationIt is a nearly impossible task to enumerate the various NGO characteristics when it comes to their aims, strategies, resources, target groups, tools, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. In the non-state sphere, NGOs are characterized by their non-pro?t motivation and conversely, the private sector is fuelled by pro?t. In reality, these spheres are not always easy to distinguish (Ulleberg, 2009:12). However, NGOs have certain special characteristics that distinguish them from other types of organization, such as the private sector. Their main characteristics are clearly stated in their establishment and operational laws. Although it is difficult to draw an accurately representative prototype of NGOs, there are some common essential characteristics exhibited by all NGOs to a convincing degree (Barkdull & Dicke, as cited in Aweke, 2010). NGOs have six defining characteristics. These are: institutionalized, organization, private, non-profit, self-governing, voluntary and public benefit. As noted by Mohan (2000:77), some of the characteristics of NGOs are flexibility, lack of bureaucracy and closeness to target groups.
2.4Types of non-governmental organizationsThere are several kinds of NGOs. The following are defined according to the typology used by the World Bank.
2.4.1 Operational NGOs
Their primary purpose is the design and implementation of development-related projects. One categorization that is frequently used is the division into relief-oriented or development-oriented organizations; they can also be classified according to whether they stress service delivery or participation; or whether they are religious and secular; and whether they are more public or private-oriented. Operational NGOs can be community-based, national or international.
2.4.2 Advocacy NGOs
Their primary purpose is to defend or promote a specific cause. As opposed to operational project management, these organizations typically try to raise awareness, acceptance, and knowledge by lobbying, press work and activist events. Three stages or generations of NGO evolution have been identified by Korten’s (1990). Three Generations of Voluntary Development Action. First, the typical development NGO focuses on relief and welfare and delivers relief services directly to beneficiaries. Examples are the distribution of food, shelter or health services.
The NGO notices immediate needs and responds to them. NGOs in the second generation are oriented towards small-scale, self-reliant local development. At this evolutionary stage, NGOs build the capacities of local communities to meet their needs through ‘self-reliant local action’. Korten calls the third generation ‘sustainable systems development’. At this stage, NGOs try to advance changes in policies and institutions at a local, national and international level; they move away from their operational service providing role towards a catalytic role. The NGO is starting to develop from a relief NGO to a development NGO.
Key operational areas of non-governmental organizationsNGOs exist for a variety of purposes, usually to further the political or social goals of their members. Examples include improving the state of the natural environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. However, there are a huge number of such organizations and their goals cover a broad range of political and philosophical positions. This can also easily be applied to private schools and athletic organizations.
It is widely accepted fact that NGOs complement the development needs of any country and play a significant role in the process of democratization, Generally, the parameters of the roles of NGOs are certainly, broad ,ranging from care and welfare to change and development (Clark, 1994 cited in CRDA, 2005:11). From the experience of most countries in the world, NGOs are active in many areas. Some of these are agriculture and agrarian form, care and welfare programs of different dimension, education, culture and human resource development, the provision of preventive and curative health service, advocacy and lobbying as well as other (HORN CONSULT, 2003). NGOs in Ethiopia in general and in Amahra Regional State are also playing similar role as in other countries.
2.6Contributions of NGOs
As development actors, NGOs have become the main service providers in countries where the government is unable to full its traditional role. For instance, in the education sector, many NGOs have moved beyond ‘gap-?lling’ initiatives into capacity building activities. NGOs activities are increasingly diverse. They may play their role in the provision of services to the poor, on capacity building to the people and government institutions; enabling the poor and marginalized people to have voice; addressing humanitarian needs in emergencies; act as watchdogs on governments and corporations. Due to their critical role in service delivery and implementation, NGOs have long been recognized as “partners” of government.
While NGOs in most democratic states have considerable agency to hold their governments accountable for policy implementation and also to participate in policy decision-making processes, the role of NGOs in authoritative states, such as China is much more contentious (Harwin ; Barron, 2007). Nevertheless, the influence of INGOs and NGOs in China’s social service sector is almost impossible to ignore. Since early 2000, foreign foundations, INGOs and aid agencies have contributed millions of dollars annually to support a variety of causes (Spires, 2012), ranging from human rights, social service provision, environmental protection, political activism, to capacity-building for local NGOs. While a number of these NGOs and INGOs are legally registered in China, the vast majority of both INGOs and NGOs operate without a legal status, or without any regulatory oversight in practice (Deng, 2010; High, 2013; Hsia and White III, 2002 cited in Cheryl & Lucy, 2016).
Ulleberg (2010) noted that the main role of NGOs has been in education provision. Their ‘gap-filling’ role and independence from government has allowed them to implement innovative approaches that can serve as models for government and the public education system. In this sense, NGOs should continue doing what they already do best in order to become a useful laboratory for government. Mainstreaming such successful innovations in cooperation with government thus becomes a capacity development process par excellence; going beyond the individual and community level, this type of scaling up can become part of education sector reform, involving all levels and actors, and incorporating NGOs as policy-partners and advisors. NGOs can become “acknowledged innovators in the public interest, with a constant eye on adoption by bigger and more powerful actors and on enhancing the capacity of claimants” (Fowler, 2000:600). Fowler encourages this view, advising NGOs to “pursue roles of social entrepreneurs and civic innovators, rather than users and distributors of subsidy” (2000: 595).
A second way of scaling up is to take on capacity development activities at various levels. The possibilities for making an impact are numerous within a decentralized education system and do not have to be limited to a school focus. Partnerships can be developed, or formalized, with both local and central authorities. NGOs can participate as a policy partner at all levels, bringing knowledge and clarity to education policy formulation and implementation.
At the community level, engaging with the authorities can strengthen local education governance as well as local civil society. The latter might be interpreted as more of an indirect than a direct role in capacity development, but is important because it can generate greater civil society input at the level of government.
The findings of the study conducted in Uganda Buhara sub-city indicated that a combination of strategies would improve the work of NGOs towards poverty reduction. One strategy may not be successful in isolation but a combination of several strategies would lead to NGOs success in their struggle to reduce poverty.
According to Melaku (2010), in Ethiopia the contributions of NGOs are giving service for OVC. The OVC in the town are getting some good and basic services, such as food, education and health support. OVC are prevented from street life and some of them have got job opportunity. This researcher also observed that some OVC could join higher education or university due to the support of NGOs. Others became drivers after involving in trainings by the help of NGOs. Even most of the beneficiaries believed that they couldn’t learn at all without the support of NGOs and some improved their livelihood condition.
As ‘non-governmental’ organizations, NGOs are conditioned by, and gain much of their legitimacy from, their relationships with government, and by the nature of the state once a historical view of NGOs taken by donors was unrealistic in part because it did not situate NGOs within the wider context of their long-term evolution and complex histories, which suggested that NGO relations with governments may take many different forms and go through many different phases and fluctuations. As Charnovitz (1997:185) has pointed out, in recent years, the social protection sector has witnessed an increase in the number of international actors taking part in both provision and knowledge production. These include the major UN agencies, the Bretton Woods Institutions (led by the WB), the main bilateral donors (including the European Member States and the European Commission), and a number of influential NGOs and INGOs. McCord (2013) discusses this contested arena in greater detail and emphasizes that INGOs have been highly influential in mobilizing resource flows in favor of social policy, both internationally and within donor countries.
Significant areas of contestation persist among the key actors in the field, particularly between the UN and WB with regard to addressing inequality and redistribution, universal versus residual (targeted) approaches, risk and resilience and the concept of graduation, as well as institutional priorities and design preferences. McCord (2013) emphasizes that the dispute affects the global social protection sector in several ways.
Most obviously, it affects the generation of knowledge in the sector, ‘resulting in an unwittingly ideologically-oriented debate’. But, beyond this, it also affects the provision of social protection, resulting in a situation where key actors are engaged in supporting a plethora of alternative social protection interventions, rather than complementary ones. Greater donor harmonization has therefore become an urgent priority in order to strengthen the development of systematic provision and increase the coherence of programming.
NGOs in Ethiopia: An overviewAlthough a relative better political environment had been created with the coming of EPRDF, many NGOs have not yet shifted their policy objective towards advocacy. Majority of local NGOs are still either relief or development oriented regarding their policy objectives. They are fear of taking up policy advocacy, rule of law, human rights, criticism and opposition to state policies and practices. This is partly explained by the fact that many NGOs restored to opportunism or subservience to the government. That is, they make political calculations deemed necessary to ensure survival. In other words, most NGOs pretend not to engage in sensitive issues that may antagonize with the government. In simple terms, they rather conform to center of power and prefer to maintain personal and institutional interests (Kassahun, 2002:124).
However, after 1991 a few local NGOs emerged and centered their objective on promoting the respect for the rule of law, protecting and monitoring human rights and enhancing civil awareness through various strategies. The Ethiopian Human Rights Council(EHRCO), Ethiopian Women Lawyers Association (EWLA), Society for the Advancement of Human Rights Education (EAHRE) are some the examples ,which entertain such objectives (Melaku, 2010).
The majority of Ethiopian local NGOs are in depression” due to limited funds and registration difficulties, noted the official. Many groups depend heavily on a small pool of foreign donors. And the Charities and Societies Agency, created in 2009 to regulate CSO activities, implements according to this source “double standards” during registration, being more welcoming to NGOs that support the ruling party. “Some optimists hoped that with new leadership the Ethiopian government would change track and carry out human rights reforms, including amending the abusive CSO and anti-terrorism laws,” Laetitia Bader, a researcher at Human Rights Watch, told Devex. “Disappointingly, instead we see much the same patterns on the human rights front — including large scale arrests of peaceful protestors and prosecution of dissenting voices.
But what seemed to particularly upset the local official is that donors do not seem to be helping to ease these restrictions on CSOs. For instance, the official finds British support to build the capacity of the CSA as helping the government weaken the CSO sector: “DFID is repeatedly helping the Agency while civil society is in crisis”. The UK Department for International Development has a program whose aims include improving the dialogue between the government and civil society sector, and bridging the gap between the two.
The program began in 2010, a year after the NGO law was passed, and eventually included capacity building for CSA to meet the program’s objective. But an annual review of the program concluded in November 2012 noted: “CSO perception of a conducive political and legal environment is not improving; the Agency database is neither publicly accessible nor currently up to date; federal-regional cooperation is not moving forward (to our knowledge); Agency understanding of the civil society sector is not improving (partly due to high staff turnover); and the guidelines and regulations have only received a very minor amendment due to pressure from CSOs and DPs.”
2.8Overview of child poverty
There is no universal interpretation of poverty in general or of child poverty more specifically. While it may seem like a simple concept, poverty is not always easy to quantify. Some may understand poverty as the lack of adequate income to meet basic human needs. Others define it as the inability to keep up with the average standard of living in a given society. Still others take a wider view, interpreting poverty as a lack of access to basic services such as education, primary health care or safe drinking water.
Viewed from the perspective of a child, the exact definition becomes immaterial. Being deprived, by any measure, is damaging to a child’s development, particularly when deprivations are experience in early childhood. A child rarely has a second chance at a good start in life. Deprivations of health, nutrition or stimulation in the earliest months and years of life when the brain is developing at a rapid pace, can lead to damage that is difficult or even impossible to overcome later.
Under nutrition in early childhood, for instance, can result in stunting. Left unaddressed at that point, it can affect cognitive development, leading to learning difficulties and poor health in adolescence and adulthood. Poor health, beyond the physical and emotional consequences, also denies children the chance to play and learn. Missing out on education in early childhood or living in an environment that provides little stimulation or emotional support can severely restricts a person’s productivity as an adult.
In these and many other ways, poverty, in the form of deprivations that begin in childhood, can be felt throughout a lifetime. Children who grow up deprived not only have limited opportunities to fulfill their potential; they often have no option but to raise their own children in poverty. To break this vicious cycle, poverty reduction must begin with a focus on children (UNICEF, 2016).
The consequences of poverty are very significant for children. Children experience poverty differently from adults; they have specific and different needs. While an adult may fall into poverty temporarily, a child who falls into poverty may be poor for a lifetime – rarely does a child get a second chance at an education or a healthy start in life. Even short periods of food deprivation can be detrimental to children’s long-term development. If children do not receive adequate nutrition, they lag behind their peers in size and intellectual capacity, are more vulnerable to life-threatening diseases, perform less well in school, and ultimately are less likely to be productive adults.
Child poverty threatens not only the individual child, but is likely to be passed on to future generations, entrenching and even exacerbating inequality in society (see, e.g. UNICEF, 2012, 2014a; Minujin and Nandy, 2012; Ortiz, Moreira Daniels and Engilbertsdóttir, 2012).
Many of the 18,000 children under the age of five who die every day, mainly from preventable causes, could be saved through adequate social protection (UNICEF, 2014a). Where children are deprived of a decent standard of living, access to quality health care (see ILO, 2014b), education and care, and where they suffer from social exclusion, their future is compromised. Where children are forced to engage in child labor, such exploitation takes a heavy toll on their physical and cognitive development, and on their future life chances (ILO, 2013). Child poverty affects not only the well-being and aspirations of individual children, but also the wider communities, societies and economies in which they live (ILO, 2015). 2.9Concept of orphan children Earlier children related research define child as boys and girls up to the age of 18 years. The age of 18 years relates primarily to the generally accepted age of majority, though in all countries there are legal exceptions, for example, the age at which a child may be married, make a will, or consent to medical treatment. For example, in South Africa, a child may consent to medical treatment, like HIV/AIDS test, without parental consent from the age of 14 years. In Sri Lanka, Sri Lankan Kandyan and Muslim laws regulate the minimum age for marriage, that is, girls as young as 12 may be married with parental consent.
In Ethiopia, a minor may make a will alone when he/she attains the age of 15 years. A child is primarily de?ned by age, with most common agreement being 18 years, which is the legal age of majority in many of the sub-Saharan countries. Ultimately, age de?nitions were felt to depend on the period of dependence of the child on the parents or caretakers of the household. The period of dependence could be extended considerably by many situations, including unemployment, extended studies, physical or mental handicap, or severe illness. Such individuals would not be considered as children, but would remain dependent and remain part of the load on the household (Skinner et al. 2006).The most accepted de?nition of ‘orphan’ is a child, who has lost one or both parents through death. This de?nition was immediately extended in most of the groups to include loss of parents through desertion or if the parents are unable or unwilling to provide care. In most cases the absent parent is the father. An initial question often raised was whether the loss of one parent constituted orphan status, and whether there was a difference according to which parent died or left. For most the loss of one parent was sufficient to classify the child as an orphan, especially if the primary caregiver was lost. The orphan is defined by the deprivation of parents, and is commonly understood to be a child who has lost both parents to death. However, historians and organizations such as UNICEF include the child who has lost one parent, often termed a “half” or “single” orphan, in the definition of ”orphan’ (Nayak, 2014:8).
A distinction was made here between a wage earner, usually the father, and career at home, usually the mother. Both were considered vital to the survival of the household and for the healthy development of the child. A second concern was whether the child who still had a caregiver should be considered an orphan, since they still have extended family or caregivers from their community.
This was raised particularly in view of the African context, where many stated that “orphan” is not a recognized term. The claim that African culture did not de?ne orphan status was contradicted by statements made in one of the groups from Botswana. According to them, in Botswana there are two terms that describe an orphan: “lesiela” (lost one parent). “Lesiela” is widely used because it is user-friendly and less derogatory; with “khutsana”. There is the implication that the child has absolutely nobody to care for him or her, which is contrary to extended family norms.
The absence of guardians certainly increased the potential vulnerability of the orphan. In Zimbabwe orphans were divided into two groups, those with and those without guardians. This emphasized the point made in many of the groups that being an orphan did not always mean that the child became vulnerable – it would depend on the quality of caretaking from there on.
An orphan is de?ned by UNAIDS as a child under 15 years of age who has lost their mother (maternal orphan) or both parents (double orphan). Many researchers and intervention groups usually increase the age range to 18 years, but to use the UNAIDS de?nition. It is also being more generally accepted that the loss of the father would also classify a child as an orphan. The UNAIDS de?nition has come under criticism for its lack of breadth and sensitivity to the situation on the ground for many children. The criticism acknowledges that increasing the age covered by the de?nition to 18 does have policy implications. Since this de?nition increases the number of children affected, but the context demands this acknowledgement (Skinner et al. 2006).
Community de?nitions of OVC are also often different from the de?nitions used by government and external agencies. For instance, assistance to children by the government is directed by particular age limits – any child that falls outside those limits may be excluded. There was general consensus during the focus groups that the government should adopt a “bottom-up” approach, taking guidance from community level when setting parameters for assistance. To get a real sense of where to introduce interventions or support, a clear understanding of the community’s perspective is required. Time has to be spent in the community listening to people who are doing work there themselves. Work in this project, to obtain a common definition of OVC across the three countries of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe, is one contribution to establishing a basic definition that can be used as a basis for planning around OVC at a general level, while acknowledging the speci?cs of each intervention (Skinner et al. 2006).
In Ethiopia, it is commonly understood and legally defined that an orphan is defined as a child who is less than 18 years old and who has lost one or both parents, regardless of the cause of the loss. In other words, a vulnerable child is a child who is less than 18 years of age and whose survival, care, protection or development might have been jeopardized due to a particular condition, and who is found in a situation that precludes the fulfillment of his or her rights.
As the definition given by World Bank, the characteristics of vulnerable children include those children who are orphaned by the death of one or both parents; abandoned by parents; living in extreme poverty; living with a disability; affected by armed conflicts; abused by parents or their careers; malnourished due to extreme poverty; HIV-positive; and finally, those marginalized, stigmatized, or even discriminated against. All vulnerable children have one common denominator:. they have no reliable social safety networks on hand to depend upon in order to adequately manage the risk to which they daily exposed.
2.10 Meaning of vulnerability
According to the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, children are also defined as vulnerable if they have had such specific experiences: withdrawal from school, discrimination and stigma, emotional need and grief over illness or death of parent(s), increase of poverty, loss of property and inheritance rights, loss of shelter, inadequate health care, vulnerability to physical and sexual abuse or are found to be in youth headed households (YHH), child headed households (CHH) or engaged in child labor (2002). The other precarious living situations are further described as including children living with old and ill caregivers.
Vulnerability is derived from the Latin word ‘vulnerary’, which means “to cause damage or injury. According to the keywords used in World Bank poverty study, vulnerability is the result of not being able to fulfill the basic needs for security, more precisely the possibility of suffering a decline in well-being, brought about by shocks against which protection (insurance, avoidance, prevention) is either too costly or not possible, dynamic in nature, can affect individuals or strike whole communities.
A vulnerable child is a child who is less than 18 years of age and whose survival, care, protection or development might have been jeopardized due to a particular condition, and who is found in a situation that precludes the fulfilment of his or her rights. All children are vulnerable by nature compared to adults, but some are more critically vulnerable than others( source.
2.11Causes and challenges of Orphan Vulnerable ChildrenOrphan and vulnerable children (OVC) are children that are susceptible to various types of psychological and social problems (Abashula et al., 2014 cited in Yeshewahareg, 2015:1). Many studies of the orphan emphasize orphaning causal factors. For instance, Nayak (2014:8) noted that “There are many factors responsible for children being orphaned in family due to natural calamities like cyclones, earthquake floods, fire and road accidents, sickness, HIV/AIDS, to mention a few”. Historically, orphaning resulted from high mortality rates, and it remains common in areas ravaged by war or disease.
UNICEF (2006) study shows that orphan and vulnerable children in sub-Sahara Africa number of factors have affected the response to orphans and vulnerable children, other challenges that compete for attention, a scarcity of public funds, and the stigma and silence that often surround AIDS. Furthermore, the situation of the millions of orphans and vulnerable children is not clearly visible because they are dispersed across many countries, where extended families and communities are shouldering the strain, largely without public assistance. National governments in sub-Saharan Africa are putting plans into place to achieve internationally agreed-upon goals for orphans and vulnerable children. The illness and death of a parent from any cause is a crisis for each child left behind. These children may experience anxiety and depression, loses out on their education, and, as they grow, may be at greater risk of HIV and other infections, as well as exploitation and abuse.
International agendas and funding plans for the fight against AIDS have started to reflect the needs of children. A number of donor governments have recently committed substantial resources to the fight against AIDS, including money targeted at reducing the impact of the epidemic on children. In September 2000, a large gathering of world leaders adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration, an ambitious agenda for reducing poverty and improving lives across the globe. At the 2005 World Summit, the commitment to the Millennium Declaration was reaffirmed. All eight of the Millennium Development Goals, including the Goal to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, have a significant impact on the lives of children.
The United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV/AIDS in 2001 boosted leadership, awareness and support in response to the HIV/AIDS crisis. This was reinforced at the Special Session on Children in 2002. Countries resolved to achieve key goals by 2005 and 2010, including the development and implementation of national policies and strategies that support children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV (Now a day’s facts shows that number of orphan children alarmingly increase different source assure the issue according to (WB, 2017) Globally, an estimated 163 million children are orphaned, having lost one or both parents. Millions more are vulnerable due to the effects of illness and poverty.
One tenth of the poorest children globally are least likely to attend school and are most likely to end up in a perpetuation of inter-generational cycles of poverty. Vulnerable children may forgo education for work or household duties, suffer from psychosocial problems and experience greater household poverty. Millions more are vulnerable due to the effects of illness and poverty. Without education, these populations miss the opportunity to acquire the skills to better their own lives.
Many studies noted that most of the orphaned students existence of challenges facing orphaned student on academic performance, and also found out that there are very little efforts made by educational stakeholders and the government to eradicate the challenges facing orphaned students and to foster academic performance of orphaned students in secondary schools.
2.12Orphan and vulnerable children phenomenon If short-term poverty is such that it threatens physical subsistence, then current poverty (not vulnerability) should arguably be the main target of public policy. But security (protection against uncertainty) is a basic need – so it is unavoidable to target vulnerable as well.
Temporal pattern of vulnerability and variability in well-being is also important for the design of targeting schemes:
1) Temporal shocks are auto-correlated across time (same people are exposed over time)? if yes, concentrate help on those who are currently poor.
2) Are shocks correlated across individuals and households (neighbors are affected simultaneously)? If so, target help on communities.
Vulnerable groups Have typically, higher rates of poverty compared to the rest of the population Specifically ‘helpless’ or ‘weak’ groups, liable to serous hardship and poverty Unable to take advantage of opportunities, limited defenses if shocks occur, Disabled, orphans, HIV infected, elderly, female headed households These groups are exposed to specific risks. But many households are also exposed to risks over their lifecycle (Yemtsov, 2013)
Children may be made highly vulnerable because of natural disasters, complex emergencies (including civil conflict), epidemic disease – particularly HIV/AIDS – or extreme poverty. These events contribute to breakdown of traditional family structures and weakening of traditional social safety nets; displacement of children and families as refugees; reduced access to food, shelter, health care, and other essential services; and exploitive child labor. high levels of vulnerability, including economic, social and environmental dimensions (Levin, 2001).
Investigate Orphan mortality and illness rates are also higher. They are also more likely to suffer abuse and neglect. Other sources of vulnerability for children and households are taking in an orphan tends to increase household poverty and food insecurity, as the fostering family must share its resources more widely, increasing the vulnerability of all children. Children also suffer from weakened caregivers, increased societal pathologies associated with a high rate of HIV/AIDS, and adverse environmental conditions. Finally, children face the threat of reduced social services and safety nets Even if HIV infection rates level off now, the number of orphans will continue to climb until 2030 (UNICEF, 2017).
2.13Concepts of social protection and child protection Social protection policies are an essential element of realizing children’s rights, ensuring their well-being, breaking the vicious cycle of poverty and vulnerability, preventing child labor, and helping all children realize their full potential. Despite a large expansion of schemes in developing countries, existing social protection policies do not sufficiently address the income security needs of children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries with a large child population. About 18,000 children die every day, mainly from preventable causes; many of these deaths could be avoided through adequate social protection.
Fiscal consolidation and adjustment measures in higher-income economies threaten progress on social protection for children and their families. Child poverty increased in 18 of the 28 countries of the European Union between 2008 and 2013. Guaranteeing income security for all children, at least at a basic level, can be achieved by nearly all countries around the world. Even low income countries can make great strides in ensuring at least a basic level of income security for children and families anchored in national legislation. ILO estimates demonstrate that a universal child benefit would on average require 1.9 percent of national GDP in 57 low income countries and lower middle income countries.
Social protection is both a human right and a sound economic policy. Social protection powerfully contributes to reducing poverty, exclusion, and inequality – while enhancing political stability and social cohesion. Social protection also contributes to economic growth by supporting household income and thus domestic consumption; this is particularly important during this time of slow recovery and depressed global demand. Further, social protection enhances human capital and productivity, so it has become a critical policy tool for transformative national development. Social protection floors for children and their families are essential for global recovery, inclusive development and social justice, and therefore must be an integral part of the post 2015 development agenda (ILO 2015).
There is a diversity of views on the scope of social protection. Some agencies see social protection in quite narrow terms as a form of social welfare provided to ‘vulnerable’ groups such as those with disabilities, widows or orphans. Others adopt a very broad approach including job creation programs, livelihood programs, law reform and even universal education within its boundaries.
A common theme in these definitions is that social protection measures are concerned with the ways in which individuals, households or communities resilience can be strengthened. The concept of social protection is defined in accordance with the view that such interventions can be ‘seedbeds’ of social change. Social protection is understood as a set of public actions that address poverty, vulnerability and exclusion as well as provide means to cope with life’s major risks throughout the life cycle. This definition has the benefit of including transformative aspects of social protection which address vulnerabilities arising from social exclusion and discrimination.
Social protection can take many forms. The UN social protection floor, for example, talks about governmental obligations to ensure access to essential services (education, health, social services etc) as well as realizing access by ensuring a basic set of essential social transfers in cash and in kind. Cash transfers can be given to households as a unit when they meet poverty or vulnerability criteria, to an individual in a particular population group such as an elderly or disabled person, or to families based on the presence of individuals such as children, girls, or fostered orphans. They can be unconditional or tied to obligations of recipients to participate in work, training, education, health, nutrition, or other services or activities or they can be linked to these activities but not obligatory (ILO, 2015).
UNICEF views social protection as a basic human right. Hence, governments have an obligation to provide both economic and social support to the most vulnerable segments of the population. Social protection affecting children encompasses social assistance and economic support directed at the family or at the individual child and social services including family and community support and alternative care (UNICEF, 2006). More specifically, social protection includes:
(1) Social assistance/economic support: conditional/unconditional cash transfers, child care grants, social pensions, tax benefits, subsidized food, and fee waivers; and
(2) Social services for children and their families including protective and preventive services, such as foster care, adoption, residential treatment, family and community support services for children with special needs as well as early childhood care. Devereux and Sabates-Wheeler (2004) argue that social protection should go beyond raising income and consumption standards of the needy. It should be transformative by not only reducing poverty but by enhancing social equity and social rights of the poor, vulnerable, and marginalized populations Kamerman et al, (2006).
The convention of rights of children (CRC) refers to the conditions of material, social, economic, civil and political deprivation underlying poverty in a number of different Articles including: the right to non-discrimination, life, survival and development, social security, an adequate standard of living, education, family relations and parental guidance, birth registration, protection and participation.
Addressing child poverty therefore requires a focus not just on raising family incomes or on improving access to health and education services but also on the broader components of child poverty envisaged in the CRC: equity, discrimination, participation and protection. Evidence suggests there is a range of complex and inter-linked factors contributing to child protection violations including poverty, lack of access to quality education, rural–urban migration, displacement due to armed conflict or natural disaster, trafficking, child labor, harmful traditional practices such as early marriage, gender-based violence and discrimination due to gender, political, ethnic or religious background (Save the Children, 2011).
2.14Welfare of orphan children
Welfare programs are initiatives set up by the government to support the poor, developmentally challenged, and disadvantaged groups of a country. In developed country, Government welfare is primarily aimed towards people with little to no income, the elderly, and the disabled. Welfare can be in the form of grants, food stamps, vouchers, medical aid, health care, and housing assistance. The subsidized program is only available for legal citizens and permanent residents of the United States.
In general, child welfare services are about protecting children from harm from abuse or neglect, while making every effort to keep families together. Child welfare services include child protection and supports for children in care, including foster care and adoption.
Currently, the global context for considering the well-being of the child is provided by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989, Article 19). The primary legislation affecting children in England and Wales are the Children Acts (1989, 2002, 2004) and Children and Families Act (2014); for Northern Ireland, the Children (Northern Ireland) Order (1995); and for Scotland, the Children (Scotland) Act (1995). They provide the legal framework establishing the responsibilities of all psychologists in respect of child protection and the promotion of a child’s welfare and development. Definitions of child abuse and neglect have changed over time. Abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. It may be acute or a long-term pattern of neglect. Often children are abused in more than one way.
Such guidance serves to reinforce the fact that all professionals, including psychologists, have a clear legal duty to consider the welfare of the child as paramount. ‘Safeguarding children’ remains the most fundamental responsibility of all psychologists whose work impinges on the lives of children either directly or indirectly. The guidance aims to help professionals understand what they need to do, and what they can expect of one another, to safeguard children.
The core legal requirements are: the child’s needs are paramount, and the needs and wishes of each child, be they a baby or infant, or an older child, should be put first, so that each child receives the support they need before a problem goes up. All professionals who come into contact with children and families are alert to their needs and any risks of harm that individual abusers, or potential abusers, may pose to children. All professionals share appropriate information in a timely way and can discuss any concerns about an individual child with colleagues and local authority children’s social care. Appropriately trained professionals are able to use their expert judgment to put a child’s needs at the heart of the safeguarding system, so that the right solution can be found for each individual child.
All professionals contribute to whatever actions are needed to safeguard and promote a child’s welfare and take part in regularly reviewing the progress of a child against specific plans and outcomes. LSCBs co-ordinate the work to safeguard children locally and monitor and challenge the effectiveness of local arrangements. When things go wrong, Serious Case Reviews (SCRs) are published and are open and transparent about any mistakes which were made so that lessons can be learnt. Local areas innovate and changes are informed by wide ranging and cross-cultural evidence and examination of data (from both clinical practice and research evidence). 2.15Social protection in Ethiopia. Many scholars disclose policies and actions that extend protection to those who are exposed to social risks through contributory and/noncontributory transfer and that enhance the capacity of poor and vulnerable people and groups, to escape or avoid falling to poverty, and to better manage risk and shocks, through access to health and essentials service and income security throughout active and in active periods.
In Ethiopia, despite efforts to expand pro-poor service delivery programs, the utilization of basic services by the poor remains a concern. Poor households continue to face barriers in accessing basic social services. Children of poor households often have a lower level of school attendance than their peers (almost 1.8 times lower for primary school attendance in 2014).The discrepancy in the utilization of health services also requires attention. As such, the proportion of the poorest women who access antenatal care from a skilled provider is three times less than for women from the richest quintiles (24% vs. 77%, in 2014). This is despite the fact that almost all (92%) health posts provide antenatal care services. Inequalities also remain recurrent for out of-pocket health expenditure. The poor spent a disproportionately higher proportion of their income on out of-pocket payments to access maternal health care services than their better-off peers (49% of income for the poorest quintile vs. 19% for the highest wealth quintile, in 2008). Access to other services, such as the registration of children at birth, remains low, with more than 90 % of children remaining unregistered (2011).
Moe over Ethiopia’s major vehicle for social protection is the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP), which has provided transfers to poor and food insecure rural households since 2005. The program is well targeted and has achieved many positive outcomes (reduction of the food gap, stabilizing assets, increasing access to basic social services, improving household level diet diversity). PSNP has, however, had no significant impact on nutrition outcomes or education expenditure. PSNP children are actually more likely to be stunted than non-PSNP children (47% versus 42%, in 2014). The utilization of health services by members of PSNP households also remains low: Only 28% of women from PSNP households, for example, use antenatal care services from skilled providers, versus 36% of non-PSNP households (2014).
The continuous expansion of the preventive and primary health care services in Ethiopia has led to the increased availability of services. The Health Extension Programme (HEP), for example, delivers free preventive and promote services at more than 16,447 health posts, by more than 39,000 trained health extension workers. In addition, the primary healthcare units also expanded, with nearly 3,200 health centers providing maternal, new-born and child health services. Community involvement in health and the health seeking behavior of pregnant and lactating women is promoted through the Health Development Army.
Historically, the poor have encountered many obstacles in accessing basic services in Ethiopia. Over the last few years, however, various policy reforms and the implementation of pro-poor allowed to reduce some of these obstacles and decrease inequalities in the access to and utilization of social services. However, various challenges remain and it will thus be useful to assess how other countries have successfully overcome their own obstacles and were able to effectively link the poor with social services using a comprehensive system approach. Moreover, Ethiopia has made various efforts to increase access to basic services. Existing policies will take this further and address issues related to the limited uptake of basic services by the poor, but these need to be translated into concrete strategies and actions (UNICEF, 2016).
2.16Magnitude of orphan and vulnerable children in Ethiopia and Amhara region.
As an effect of the poor conditions of this developing nation, Ethiopia contains and struggles to care for millions of orphaned children. Though estimates vary, recent approximations claim that there are over 5 million orphans including 1.5 million AIDS orphans in Ethiopia. The definition used to classify orphans is children under 18 years of age who have lost one or both parents. (Abebe & Asase, 2007; Gross & Connors, 2007). After AIDS orphans, “The remaining 70% of orphans are often classified as ‘famine orphans,’ ‘war orphans,’ ‘malaria orphans,’ and ‘social orphans,’ i.e. children who have been abandoned mainly due to poverty” (Abebe & Asase, 2007).
The problem of orphans is serious socially and economically , Most of the parental orphans, face the problem of low family income, for maternal orphans ,it creates double burden on women guardians, their occupation depend on daily labor so did not have enough food, health care, housing and tutor. possible out comes in social, economic, poor health status, poor academic performance, food shortage, child delinquents, child begging, dependency syndrome, school dropout and street children ,though orphans undergo different problems like socio-economic and psychological problems, the community and ” iddiroch Hibrete” are there to deal with these problems in the community (Bimal & Nayak, 2014).
The major finding of the study ANRS BOLSA (2008) indicates that the livelihood of most OVC in both urban and rural areas of Amhara Region depends upon their parents, relatives, neighbors, friends, and god and step parents. Similarly, most external driven interventions are relying on family and community based care and support. On the basis of this condition, it becomes imperative to take a look at the theory of social capital. As cited by Awan (2007), Coleman (1988), Bordieu (1993) and Hunter (2003) conceptualized social capital theory as networks of social relationship which are characterized by norms of trust, reciprocity, and closeness which emanate from on living together, kinship, friendship and neighborhood, and which leads to mutually beneficial.
Therefore, OVC and child care providing organizations in the region are using the social capital, operation through children’s relationship with their immediate family members and relatives, as well as friends, neighbors and other religious and social based ties. The existing family and extended kinship based care and support for OVC goes the family code of the Amhara region. On the other hand, the extent of kinship and social network –based relationship is not the same all categories of OVC. For instance, most of children of the street and child commercial sex workers have weak kinship relationship as compared to OVC under family environment and children on the street.
More importantly, from the perspective of the CRC, children have the right to get care and support from all duty bearers including local and international community, government, CBOs, NGOs and FBOs , parents, relatives and children. What important is that the international and constitutional rights of children has to be integrated with kinship and social networking-based relationships in the process of promoting the wellbeing of orphan and vulnerable children in the region based. Ethiopia has ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child and one of its three Optional Protocols that deals with the involvement of children in armed conflict, and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. The country is also a signatory to the African Union Social Policy Framework articulating the requirement to develop a national social protection plan. The draft social protection policy, when implemented, will represent a major transformation in the way Ethiopian society cares for its most vulnerable, including children (UNICEF, 2013).
Dessie town is one of the cities located in Amhra Region. Endris (2011) noted that OVCs in Dessie town have multidimensional socio-economic problems which comply with many children are taking care of their sick parents, face economic problems, have dropped out of school, consume inadequate diets, live in inadequate shelter, and suffer psychological distress, labour exploitation, and other forms of socioeconomic problems.
2.17Conceptual framework of the study.
There are seven key service packages (shelter and care, education, health care, psychosocial support, food and nutrition, economic strengthening and legal protection) that should be considered as a framework when governmental, non-governmental, Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and any other institutions initiated to give support for OVC (FDRE Standard Service Delivery Guidelines for orphans and vulnerable children’s care and support programs, 2010). The National Standard Service Delivery Guidelines for OVC was prepared by FDRE Ministry of Women, Children and Youth in 2010.
This framework is a tool used by all institutions to assess and evaluate interventions made for OVC across Ethiopia. Hence, this study is mainly based on this framework to assess the contributions of the studied NGOs in addressing the holistic needs of OVC and improving their welfare in the study area. In particular, the effectiveness of the NGOs was assessed against the aforementioned seven service elements by using indicators set under each service package element. Based on the literature review conducted for this study and the above indicated gguideline, the following conceptual framework is sketched.
Figure 2.1: Conceptual framework of the study
Source: Constructed by the researcher (January, 2018).
Food & nutrition
Shelter & care
Improved welfare of OVC
Safety & security
As indicated in the conceptual framework, the contributions of the selected NGOs was assessed using the lens of the service factors that encompasses educational supports, health care supports, psychosocial supports (food aid, shelter and care, psychological assistance), legal supports and economic strengthening support. On the other hand, the effectiveness of NGOs in improving the welfare of OVC was evaluated in terms of educational outcome, health condition, food security, safety and security, better socio-economic status, and psychological wellbeing.
CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 IntroductionResearch methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a skill of studying how research is done scientifically. The research methodology employed in the study is discussed in this chapter which comprises of the research design, research methods (including data collection methods, and data presentation and analysis methods), sample design, sample size and sampling techniques.
The research design employed for a particular study depends on the nature of the research problem or issue being addressed, the researchers’ personal experiences, and the audiences of the study (Creswell, 2009:3). Since this study attempts to assess the contributions of NGOs in improving the welfare of OVC in Dessie town, the research design is more of a descriptive research in nature. It mainly shows the current situation of OVC and the contributions of selected NGOs towards addressing the problems of OVC in the study area. However, a mixed methods research design is applied in order to better address the research problem at hand. In other words, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from selected respondents and institutions and analyzed using quantitative and qualitative research approaches. These two types of data were gathered simultaneously or a concurrent triangulation approach was used.
3.3Research methodsAs explained above, the study employed a mixed methods research. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are adopted for the study and semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect quantitative data and focus group discussion (FGD) and key informants for gathering qualitative data. Hence, the study applied different forms of data collection and analysis methods. Furthermore, document analysis has conducted to get secondary data from government institutions and selected NGOs.
3.3.1 Data collection methods
Both primary and secondary sources of data were used to achieve the objectives stated in chapter one of this study. The primary data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire, in-depth interview and focus group discussion. These methods of data collection are discussed as follows:
220.127.116.11 Primary data collection methods
The main data collection method used in this study is a questionnaire. Semi-structured questionnaire was designed and completed by Orphan and Vulnarable Children supported by two NGOs (Ethiopia Orthodox Church Child and Family Affairs Organization, and EECMY-NCES/DASSC Orphan Support FELM Project) working in Dessie town.
First, the questionnaire was developed in English, but it was translated into ‘Amharic’ language to avoid ambiguity and help respondents to easily understand the questions and provide their responses. Both open – and close ended questions were included in the survey. A total of 106 questionnaires were distributed to OVC. However, only 105 questionnaires were completed by respondents and collected by the researcher. This makes the response rate of the questionnaire 99 percent. The respondents themselves administrated the questionnaires with assistance provided where it was requested.
The other data collection method employed in this study was in-depth interview. Two types of interview guideline were prepared: One for employees working in Women and Children Affairs Office (WCAO) and the other for staff of NGOs. A total of five individuals were involved in the in-depth interview (four NGO employees and one from WCAO). These persons are key officials and employees, who are working with OVC and NGOs. Hence, it was believed to collect reliable information from them. Almost all questions included in the interview guide were open-ended questions which are supposed to be helpful to gather the perceptions of respondents regarding the issue under study. Six interviews were held with the above group of respondents.
Focus group discussion
In addition to survey questionnaire and interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with OVC care givers. This method of data collection helps the researcher to get in-depth information about the perceptions and experience of OVC care givers. FGD guiding questions were prepared and the researcher and two reporters have facilitated the FGDs. A total of 18 care givers were participated in two groups.
In addition to the primary data, various secondary data were collected in usable fashion. The main data sources were books, journals, articles, government and NGOs plans, reports and legal frameworks. The researcher has made great care in checking the validity of the secondary data before using in the study.
3.4Population of the study
Dessie town is one of the metropolitan urban centers in Amahra Regional State. There are different NGOs working for orphans in Dessie town who provide the children at orphanage with food, health care, shelter, clothing, education and the personal attention needed for each child’s physical, spiritual and emotional well-being. Currently, there are 34 NGOs actively working in different sectors in the town. However, only six NGOs are involving in OVC program related works in Dessie town. These NGOs are Ethiopian Orthodox Church Child and Family Affairs Organization; Birhan Children Support Chartable Association; Mulu Wengel Amagnoch; Feleg Orphanage Children Association; and Ihsan Megebar Senay Mahber. Of these, two NGOs, namely: Ethiopian Orthodox Church Child and Family Affairs Organization (EOC-FAO) and EECMY-NCES-Dassc-Bo- orphan support FELM Project (Ethiopian Evangelical. Church Development Meknyesus north central Ethopian synod development social service commission )are selected purposefully by the researcher.
The rationale for selecting these two NGOs is due to the number of OVC under their care, availability of organized data in these NGOs and their willingness to provide information for the researcher.
The number of children living in the town which are under 18 years old is about 83,391 in 2015 (Amhara Bofed). However, the target population of the study consists of 106 orphan and vulnerable children in ages between 12 and 18 years living in Dessie town and supported by the aforementioned two selected NGOs.
Since the total population of OVC is too small (N=106), this study followed a census method to include all of them. Therefore, the population for this study comprise of OVC supported by the studied NGOs, care givers, employees working in the selected NGOs and in Women and Child Affairs Office (WCAO) located in Dessie town. Purposive sampling technique was used to capture some key informants from the two NGOs and WCAO; and all care givers or guardians (N=18) of OVC are involved in the study.
3.5Inclusion criteria of participants
Participants included in this study were OVC, care givers of OVC or guardian, employees working in two selected NGOs and WCAO. OVC, who directly benefit or listed as beneficiary by the two NGOs and receiving service for at least one year are included in the survey. The reason for including participants who got service for more than a year is that beneficiaries who were getting service for less than one year do not enable us to conclude whether the service is effective or not. On the other side, care givers of OVC are nearest individuals who can talk about the situation of OVC, the contributions of NGOs and the effectiveness of NGOs in providing support for OVC. In addition, employees working in selected NGOs and WCAO (the responsible government organization related with OVC) are believed to have much experience and insight about the relationship between NGOs and OVC.
3.6Data analysis methods
Data having quantitative in nature collected through survey questionnaire were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 22 and Microsoft Excel. First, quantitative data were chronologically arranged in line with the survey questionnaire to ensure that the correct code was entered for the correct variable. Second, data cleaning has been made to assure the questions included in the questionnaire were filled properly and all questions are answered. Then after, data coding has been done. Finally, data enter into SPSS was completed. Data were presented using frequency tables, charts and figures. In other words, descriptive statistics was used to summarize quantitative data. On the other hand, qualitative data gathered through document review, interviews, FGDs and all responses to open-ended questions was analyzed by categorizing based on their themes and contents. The qualitative data were grouped together based on the themes and patterns of such data using pre-determined codes and used in the analysis accordingly. Direct words of the interviewees and respondents’ responses for open-ended questions set in the questionnaire survey are presented appropriately through integrations with the reports of quantitative data. In this study, qualitative data were mainly used to get in-depth information about the perceptions of respondents and to triangulate data gathered through other data collection methods.
3.7Ethical ConsiderationObservance of ethical norms plays pivotal roles in assuring the credibility of the reports of the study. In this study, several measures will be taken to ensure that participants being protected from any physical or psychological harm. The formal letter issued by Ethiopian Civil Service University will facilitate to get permission from the unit of analysis (i.e., NGOs) and the admission of the researcher to the fieldwork.
As an ethical obligation, the researcher will inform participants about the nature of the research, and the right to either participate or not to participate in the study. Hence, the respondents will give information by their willingness, that is, no one oblige them to give information. The data gathered from respondents will be kept confidentially and the name of the respondents will not be disclosed in the research report, rather generic terms like informant or participant will be appeared in the analysis. Further, the collected data will only be used for academic purpose. The researcher will not use any findings without acknowledging the authors or writers in this research paper.
Data presentation, Analysis and Discussion
IntroductionThe aim of this study is to assess the contributions of NGOs in improving the welfare of OVC in Dessie town. In line with this aim, the study comprises of three specific objectives stipulated in chapter one. The first objective focuses on assessing the current situation of OVC while the second objective dealt with the contributions of two purposefully selected NGOs, namely: Ethiopian Orthodox Church Child and Family Affairs Organization; and EECMY-NCES/DASSC-BO-Orphan Support FELM Project. The third objective is about the effectiveness level of the above mentioned NGOs.
This chapter deals with the data presentation, analysis and interpretation of findings. The collected data are presented using frequency tables, charts, figures and percentages. The analysis mainly followed a descriptive research approach. The data were analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer software. Although the study planned to involve a total of 130 individuals (106 OVC, six managers from NGOs and government institution, and 18 care givers of OVC) during the proposal stage, only 128 respondents took part in this study. These 128 respondents comprises of 105 OVC; four officials working in NGOs, an employee working in Women and Child Affairs office as well as 18 care givers of OVC.
The chapter is organized into five main sections. The first section is the introduction. In the second section, the characteristics of respondents are provided, and the third section discusses the current situation of OVC in the study area. Section four extends the discussion on the contribution of selected NGOs to the welfare of OVC. The final section presents the effectiveness of NGOs to improve the welfare of OVC in the study area.
Characteristics of respondents
Description of the characteristics of the target population gives some basic information about the respondents involved in the study. As already indicated in the methodology chapter, the respondents that filled the questionnaire are OVC that are supported by NGOs under study. Hence, the quantitative analysis is based on the response obtained from 105 OVC (40 from child care center of
Ethiopian Orthodox Church Child and Family Affairs Organization and 65 from EECMY-NCES/DASSC-BO-Orphan Support FELM Project). On the other hand, the qualitative information, collected from five key informants and 18 discussants of FGDs, are summarized to support the quantitative analysis. Accordingly, in this section, respondents’ gender, age, work experience, level of education, occupation and residence location of OVC is presented.
4.2.1Gender distribution of respondents
Figure 4.1: Gender distribution of respondents
Source: Sample survey (March, 2018).
As the above Figure 4.1 shown in on the, out of the total 105 respondents drawn from OVC, 76 were females (72.4%) and the remaining 29 (27.6%) were males. This shows that female individuals were dominating males in getting support from selected NGOs. On the other side, of the five key informants participated in the study, three were males and two were females. There were also 12 female and six male respondents representing care givers of OVC involved in FGDs.
4.2.2Age distribution of respondentsTable 4.1: Age distribution of respondents
Age of OVC Frequency Percent
12 years 8 7.6
13 years 5 4.8
14 years 8 7.6
15 years 26 24.8
16 years 30 28.6
18 years 28 26.7
Total 105 100
The other characteristic of respondents is age. As indicated in Table 4.1 above, 28.6 percent and 26.7 percent of OVC are with ages of 16 years and 18 years, respectively. This is followed by respondents with age of 15 years which accounts 24.8 percent. Other OVC respondents are in ages between 12 and 14 years. Out of four key informants, three of them are in age bracket between 41 and 45 years. Only one informant has age between 35and 40 years. On the other hand among 18 FGD participants, eight respondents are in ages between 31 and 40 years. Three of them are in ages between 41 and 50 years and the remaining seven care givers are with ages between 51 and 55 years.
4.2.3Educational level of respondents
Figure 4.2: Educational status of respondents
Source: Respondents survey (March, 2018)
Figure 4.2 illustrates the educational status of respondents. Education is a key determinant of individual opportunities, attitudes, and economic and social status. The majority (37.1%) of respondents, who are drawn from OVC, are in a range of grade 9 to 10. 32.4 percent of OVC are within the range of 5 to 8 grades. The remaining respondents are under the primary level first cycle or in grades 1 to 4 (12.4%), completed preparatory classes (10.5%) and grade 12 students (7.6%). This shows that most of the OVC are in secondary level first cycle and primary level 2nd cycle education levels that still needs much support from NGOs until they completed their education program. On the other side, all care givers are below 10th grade.
4.2. 4 Family condition of OVCAccording to Skinner (2008), the most accepted definition of the term ‘orphan’ is “a child who has lost both parents through bereavement”. However, this definition is often extended to include the loss of parents through desertion or abandonment where the parents are unable or unwilling to provide for the child. The loss of parents through death or desertion is an important aspect of venerability. The special category of children who are victims of or susceptible to the above mentioned problems are categorized as OVC. OVC include a number of categories, such as orphans, abandoned children, street children, handicapped children as well as child soldier.
The survey data (see Table 4.2 below) indicates that 65 OVC respondents (near to 62%) have no parents. However, among 40 OVC respondents, who confirmed that they have parents, the majority of them (67.5%) are orphans, who have only one parent. 22.5 percent of OVC have both parents and the remaining OVC (10%) do not know whether their parents are alive or not.
Table 4.2: Family condition of OVC
Do you have parents?
Yes 40 38.1
No 65 61.9
Total 105 100
If your answer for the above question is ‘Yes’, are both of parents alive?
Yes 9 22.5
No 27 67.5
Do not know 4 10.0
Total 40 100
If both of your parents are alive, what is their marital status?
Living together 3 33.3
Divorced 6 66.7
Total 9 100
If one of your parents is alive, is your mother or father?
Only your mother is alive 19 70.4
Only your father is alive 8 29.6
Total 27 100
Furthermore, out of the 27 OVC, who have only one parent, 19 of them have alive mother while the remaining OVC have father only. This indicates that most OVC have mothers who may not have the ability to support their children because most women, in Ethiopian context, are involved in non-productive sectors or they may not have job at all. This finding is similar with the argument forwarded by Yewondwossen (2014:12), “In Ethiopia … 12 percent children under age 18 live with their mother only, 4 percent live with their father only, and 10 percent live with neither parent.”
Although some OVC have both parents, most of their parents are not living together or they are divorced. Almost half (48.6%) of the respondents lose both or either of their parents in ages below six years (see Table 4.3). Others (43.8%) were also fairly young in ages between teens or even younger when they lose their parents. This implies that OVC lose parents during their early stages of childhood that needs the support of their parents critically. All these situations make the problems of OVC very complicated, worsen and challenging to rehabilitate and change their lives.
Table 4.3: Age of respondents when they lose their parents
Age category of children Frequency Percent
Age below one year 8 7.6
Age between one and three years 15 14.3
Age between four and six years 28 26.7
Age between seven and nine years 35 33.3
10 years and above 11 10.5
Do not know 8 7.6
Total 105 100
Many studies clearly show that in developing countries the plights of children are “a natural outcome of reflections of the socio-economic factors, rural-urban migration, incipient revolutions and other social unrest, whereas in developed countries, the plight of children is related to moral abandonment” (MoLSA, 1988; Radda Barnen, 1988:6; cited in Tadesse, 2006:18). As highlighted by Yeshewahareg (2015:1), referring PEPFAR (2012), the causes of vulnerability and orphan-hood are mainly related to HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, poverty, conflict, natural disasters and infectious diseases.
Respondents, representing OVC, were also asked to mention the reasons or causes why they became orphan children. The detailed information is presented in Figure 4.3 below.
Figure 4.3: Reasons of OVC why they became orphan children.
As depicted in Figure 4.3 above, the main reason for being orphan children was loss of both parents. This is supported by 48.6 percent of OVC. Due to death of children’s father was the second root cause of being an orphan (near to 22%). Other OVC respondents mentioned poverty coupled with death of parents have been the main reason for child vulnerability which accounts 10.5 percent of the total respondents. The remaining respondents put other reasons, such as HIV/AIDS, war/conflict and drought as reasons for being orphan children. This implies that the reasons for becoming orphan children are multifaceted in number although loss of parents has the highest score.
4.3Current situation of Orphan and Vulnerable Children in Dessie townThe study conducted by Yewondwossen (2014:14) shows that the number of orphan and vulnerable children in Amhara region is not only alarmingly increasing but thousands of children live in severe of socio-economic situation. A situation analysis study on OVC conducted by Amhara BoLSA in 2008 depicts that the largest OVC population in the region is found in Bahir Dar (18.2 %), Dessie (13.3 %) and Gondar (10.4 %). This indicates that Dessie is the second town in the region where there is highest population of OVC. This initiates the current researcher to examine the present situation of OVC in the study town, that is, Dessie.
4.3.1The trend of OVC in Dessie Town
Globally, the number of OVC is rapidly increasing. To substantiate this trend, Nayak (2014:9) pointed out that every day 5,760 more children become orphans and every year 2,102,400 more children become orphans in Africa alone. Many research findings disclosed that in Amhara Regional State the number and trend of OVC is increasing and threatens the capacity of the kinship system and the local community. Dessie town is not exceptional. The following Figure also confirms this phenomenon.
Figure 4.4: Do you think the number of OVCs is increasing in Dessie town?
The majority of OVC (73.3%) reported that the trend of OVC is increasing in Dessie town. Although there are a number of reasons indicated in the literature, the findings of this study show that economic problems or poverty is the main reason for OVC (39%) followed by HIV/AIDS which accounts 33.3 percent. Lose of parents due to car accident (20%) and migration of people particularly children and youth (5.7%) are other reasons for the increase of OVC in the town.
Table 4.4: Causes for increasing the number of OVC according to beneficiaries
Causes/reasons for the increase in the number of OVC Frequency Percent
HIV/AIDS 35 33.3
Economic problems/Poverty 41 39
Car accident 21 20
Migration of children and youth 6 5.7
Others (unemployment, peers influence, attitude problem) 2 1.9
Total 105 100
4.3.2Perception of the local community towards OVC
The concept of helping out the orphaned children is gradually changing from agencies, such as NGOs and government organizations, to community due to extensive community awareness. As noted by Nayak (2014:8), now a day the role of community in alleviation of orphan problem is significantly observed in different communities. There is an increased need for grass root community action to curb the problems of children, in particular OVC. However, to resolve the problems of OVC in Dessie town, it is necessary to explore the perception of the local community including families/relatives, neighbours and peers, among others.
Figure 4.5: The perception of the local community towards OVC
As illustrated in Figure 4.5, 48 (45.7%) OVC believed that the local community have no good perception towards them. The community around Dessie town are discriminating OVC due to different reasons. Nevertheless, out of 105 respondents, 38 of them mentioned the positive attitude of the local community for supporting the OVC. The remaining 17 respondents indicated the moderate approach of the people for OVC.
4.3.3Current problems of OVCOrphaned children are one of the most disadvantaged groups living in the community with various problems. Orphan problems are universal in nature and the magnitude of problem varies from one geographical location to another (Nayak, 2014:8). OVC are not feeling they are getting equal access of government services like health and school, in the study area. This is the perception of 77.1 percent of OVC. This study identified the major problems that OVC are facing and it is presented in the following Figure.
Figure 4.6: The current problems of OVC
As per the perception of respondents, lack of health care and education access is the first problem OVC are facing which scores the highest percentage (25.7%). This is followed by the presence of food, shelter and clothing problems and lack of health care (reported by 18.1% each). Lack of employment opportunity is the other problem of OVC which mainly affecting those educated OVC which accounts 12.4 percent. Lack of education opportunity is also affecting OVC in Dessie town (11.4%). There are also other problems, such as discrimination by the local community and child labour exploitation which are reported by 7.6 percent and 6.7 percent, respectively. Inferred from the above data, issues related with health care and education are becoming serious problems affecting the life of OVC in the study area. This problem constitutes more than 55 percent of the total survey participants.
4.3.4Respondents’ perception regarding the responsible body to support OVCAs discussed earlier, there are a number of problems that OVC are confronting. Many studies and government policies, programs and plans, such as GTP I and GTP II, clearly stipulate the need for joint efforts by different concerned bodies to resolve the problems of the community, including the disadvantaged children. Although there is a common perception from the local community to solve their problems by the government, it is not possible in reality. Governments are in nowadays facing shortage of resources to address the varied and deep rooted problems of the society. This is very worse in developing countries like Ethiopia. Therefore, the government, NGOs, CSOs, CBOs, private sector and the general public should engage to resolve the problems of OVC and improve their welfare.
The data collected from OVC is also similar with the above idea. As shown in Table 4.5 below, 34.3 percent of the respondents believed that all government organizations, NGOs, private organizations, religious institutions and the community are responsible to support OVC. There are also significant numbers of respondents (24.8%), who think that government organizations should take the lion role to solve their problems. 19 percent of the respondents pointed out that NGOs have highest responsibility in improving the life of OVC. Other respondents suggested that private organizations, religious institutions, and the community should play greater role in sharing the problems of OVC. This implies that OVC are expecting much from NGOs next to the government.
Table 4.5: Respondents’ perception about the responsible body to support OVC
Who is responsible, in your opinion, to assist OVC? Frequency Percent
Government organizations 26 24.8
NGOs 20 19.0
Private organizations 7 6.7
Religious institutions 8 7.6
Community 8 7.6
All organizations 36 34.3
Total 105 100
OVC were also asked to indicate the organization/institution that they have been obtaining support. Accordingly, as the date below shows, out of 105 respondents, 74 of them indicated that they have received support only from NGOs, whereas 31 OVC reported that both government and NGOs were assisting them.
Figure 4.7: From which of the following organizations you have got support?
From the above data, one can understand that most OVC have been supported by either NGOs or government organizations (GOs) and from both NGOs and GOs. This indicates that the involvement of NGOs is too much in supporting OVC.
4.4Contributions of NGOs to the welfare of OVC in Dessie town
The second objective of this study is to investigate the contributions of NGOs in improving the welfare of OVC in the study area. This was the core of the study. The researcher’s interest was to find out the contributions of the two selected NGOs in improving the welfare of OVC in the study town. The study explores whether the NGOs work with people, and distribute benefits to them.
As discussed in the previous sections, all OVC respondents (n=105) have been obtaining support from the two NGOs only, or coupled with GOs. The support may include technical, financial and material aids.
Table 4.6 on the next page shows that a number of OVC (37.1%) was obtaining financial support from NGOs. The reason for this is due to the high interest of OVC to get financial support from NGOs. In a focus group discussion, some care givers noted that most OVC (beneficiaries) only value monetary benefits as compared to other kinds of benefits like provision of education and health service. As these discussants describe, NGOs are providing 400 Birr for one OVC per month; and 500 Birr for an OVC semi-annually for clothing. Most OVC and care givers are complaining about the amount of money they get from NGOs. They said the money is not adequate to feed and fulfil education related facilities, to mention a few.
35.2 percent of respondents revealed that NGOs are providing education service to OVC mainly vocational education and sponsorship to join universities. There are also a number of respondents who obtained health care service and counselling and guidance services (for example, family planning) from the studied NGOs.
The expectations of most OVC under the support of the two NGOs are found too much. As shown in Table 4.6 below, the types of support that OVC were expecting from NGOs in order of importance are health service, employment opportunity, education, financial aid, and shelter/housing. Although the majority of respondents (29.5%) need financial support due to the economic problem they are facing, others were expecting a combination of health service, education and financial aid (24.8%). Education service is the highest need of OVC separately or coupled with other types of support. This implies that OVC are facing a number of challenges that obliged to expect any kind of assistance from organizations.
Table 4.6: Type of support OVC expect from NGOs
Type of support Frequency Percent
Financial support 31 29.5
Health service, education & financial aid 26 24.8
Education service 16 15.2
Health service 6 5.7
Employment opportunity 4 3.8
Health service and education 1 1.0
Shelter/Housing 2 1.9
All types of support including food aid 19 18.1
Total 105 100
The information collected from care givers and key informants also confirmed the perception of OVC. The majority of discussants and informants believed that OVC are in need of different support from NGOs and from any other organizations. In addition to the types of expectations listed above, interview participants and care givers have also mentioned food aid, counselling and guidance services and scholarship opportunities needed for OVC.
In reality, OVC are getting different types of support from the two NGOs. Even though Table 4.6 on the next page does not indicate the extent how NGOs satisfied the expectations of OVC, it outlines the types of support currently providing. As illustrated in the Table, all respondents (n=105) reported that NGOs are providing financial aid for OVC followed by education service (reported by 24.8% of respondents). This somewhat coincides with the expectation of OVC. Health care service, and counselling and guidance service was also the other service provided by NGOs which accounts 17.1 percent. OVC were also obtaining counselling and guidance services only from NGOs (14.4%) and legal services (60.1%). From the data it is observed that employment opportunity is the list support that NGOs are providing for OVC. This indicates that the studied NGOs are trying to contribute for improving the well-being of OVC through the provision of different kinds of services in the Dessie town.
Table 4.7: Types of support that OVC currently obtaining from NGOs
Types of support n=105
Financial support 105 100
Education service 26 24.8
Health care, and counselling and guidance services 18 17.1
Counselling and guidance services 15 14.3
Education and material aid (e.g., stationery and books) 5 4.8
Shelter, food and clothing 40 38.0
Education and employment opportunity 2 1.9
Legal support 64 60.1
Most of OVC (62.9%) and care givers indicated that the services provided by NGOs are not adequate. In particular, the financial support granted to OVC is not enough for purchasing basic need and cover transportation costs for enrolled OVC. In this connection, respondents were asked to rate the extent of NGOs’ contribution in improving the welfare of OVC. As presented in Figure 4.8 on the next page, 70.5 percent of OVC respondents rate the contributions of NGOs to be either very low or low level. Almost 22 percent of OVC reported the extent of NGOs’ contributions as moderate. A few number of respondents (7.6%) believed the contributions of NGOs to be high. This implies that most OVC are not happy on the contributions of NGOs.
4.5Effectiveness of selected NGOs in improving the welfare of OVC
This section is devoted to assess the effectiveness of essential services given by selected NGOs to ensure welfare of OVC Dessie town. Essential services element examined were health care, education, psychosocial, legal and economic strengthening support. Correlation of dependent and independent variables analysed to see the relationship of the supports (or lack thereof) given and the current well-being status of OVC using Chi-Square.
Figure 4.8: Extent of NGOs contribution
Out of the total respondents (n=105), 84.8 percent of them reported that they had access to school by the support of the two NGOs. Only 15.2 percent of the respondents did not get access of education. Of the OVC, who have got education access by the support of NGOs, most of them (85.7%) are enrolled in school and only 14.3 percent do not enrolled in school. This implies that nearly all OVC in school age supported by NGOs have been enrolled in school.
The majority of OVC felt that they are learning as expected. This accounts 87.2 percent of respondents who are enrolled in school. The remaining 12.8 percent are not learning as expected. On the other hand, the collected data depicts that NGOs were supporting enrolled OVC in providing sufficient school materials (reported by 77.9% of respondents) like stationeries, uniforms and book while 22.1 percent of enrolled OVC did not get school material as they expect. Out of 77 respondents, who are enrolled in school, 79.5 percent of them said that they are promoted from grade to grade, whereas 20.5 % are not.
61 percent of OVC had access to health services by the support of NGOs. Others were not getting such services. The health status of almost 42 percent and 35.2 percent of respondents, out of the total respondents (OVC), was bad and fair, respectively (see Table 4.8). But OVC’s health status showed improvement after they have got health access by the support of NGOs. Out of 64 OVC, who have got health service by the help of NGOs, 75 percent of respondents replied that their health status improved from bad and fair to good status, and 23.4 percent of OVC have fair health status. In other words, regarding the current health status of OVC, the most frequently given response is “Good”.
Table 4.8: Health status OVC before getting support from NGOs
Health status of OVC before getting support from NGOs Health status of OVC who have got support from NGOs
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Good 24 22.9 48 75.0
Fair 37 35.2 15 23.4
Bad 44 41.9 1 1.6
Total 105 100 64 100
A number of OVC (53.3%) reported that there is times where any health services they needed but did not receive from NGOs, whereas 46 percent of OVC responded that there is no time that they did not get medical service while they are in need. Most care givers who participated in FGD said that children under their care get treated sometimes when they fall ill. This implies that OVC are in problem when they are ill. As a result, near to 62 percent of the total respondents said they seldom miss from school or work due to illness while 14.3 percent reported that they missed most of the time. The remaining OVC never miss from school.
Table 4.9: How often do OVC miss from school or work due to illness
Never 25 23.8
Seldom 65 61.9
Most the time 15 14.3
Total 105 100
4.5.3OVC’s status of food SecurityThe study findings on the food security aspect of OVC show that 77% (n=81) of the respondents reported that there are twice or three times they slept hungry in the past 4 weeks. As shown in Table 4.9 on the next page, 15.2 percent of (n=16) of OVC said that they slept hungry once in the past 4 weeks. The rest of the OVC (7.6%) responded that there is no time they slept hungry in the past 4 weeks. This implies that OVC are in a serious problem of food shortage that needs the support of the concerned body including GO and NGOs.
Table 4.10: Times OVC slept hungry within last 4 weeks
None 8 7.6
Once 16 15.2
Twice 27 25.7
Three times 54 51.4
Total 105 100
In connection with food insecurity problem of OVC, more than 77 percent of OVC (n=81) replied that there is three or more than three days that they went whole day without food in past 4 weeks. Others (near to 23%) indicate that they went to school without food for two days during the last four days. Inferred from the data, it is clearly understood that OVC are facing challenges to attend their education due to food shortage. This may have adverse consequence on their enrolment performance.
Table 4.11: Days OVC went whole day without food in last 4 weeks
Two days 24 22.9
Three times 44 41.9
More than three times 37 35.2
Total 105 100
Concerning improvement in food consumption, more than half (55.2%) of the respondents said that their no much change in food consumption trend of OVC or it is similar as compared to the time they first involved in the NGOs programs. Rather than improvement in food consumption, more than 37 percent of respondents claimed that the situation is becoming even worse. Only 7.6 percent of OVC reported the improvement in food consumption trend of OVC.
Table 4.12: Improvement in food consumption
Improved 8 7.6
Decreased 39 37.1
Same 58 55.2
Total 105 100
As per the report of care givers in FGDs, it was difficult to feed OVC more than twice before children joined the support program of NGOs. However, currently there is significant change in the meal frequency of OVC. All OVC respondents replied that they eat three times daily.
4.5.4Psychological status of OVC
Out of the total OVC respondents, 33 of them reported that they have got psychological support from NGOs during the last one year, in particular counselling and guidance in family planning. As a result, a number of OVC has changed their psychological status. 57.6 percent of OVC feel safe and secure as a result of the psychological support by NGOs. Others feel self-confidence (27.3%) and participate in school extracurricular activity like clubs (15.2%). According to the perceptions of NGO employees, while interviewing, the counselling and guidance services given for OVC contributes much changing behaviour of OVC. The following table shows the psychological change observed on OVC as a result of support from NGOs.
Table 4.13: Psychological change observed on OVC
OVC feel safe and secure 19 57.6
OVC feel self-confidence 9 27.3
OVC participate in school extracurricular activity like clubs 5 15.2
Total 33 100
4.5.5Status of shelter and care
Only 40 OVC are getting shelter and care service under the support of Ethiopian Orthodox Church Child and Family Affairs Organization. In other words, 38.1 percent of the total respondents (n=105) are getting such service (see Table 4.12). Of these, the majority of respondents 55 percent (n=22) reported that the housing condition of the centre is moderately adequate. There are also respondents who indicated the housing condition of OVC as good and bad with 22.5 percent each. Most respondents indicated that OVC’s sleeping place is improved after they entered in the centre.
The remaining 65 respondents (61.9%) do not get shelter and care service from NGOs. However, to know their shelter condition the same question was also forwarded to this group. Accordingly, the study result shows that 46.2 percent of OVC are living in a bad or inadequate house condition. The reaming OVC respondents are living in a house which is moderately adequate that need repair. Only 6.2 percent indicated the housing condition as good. As per the data presented in Table 4.12, OVC, who are living in NGOs supported center, are relatively living in a better condition as compared to those out of the center. This indicates that NGOs are better to provide house and care services at centers rather than providing financial grant for housing.
Table 4.14: Housing condition of OVC
Housing condition of the centre supported by NGOs Housing condition where you are currently living in (out of the centre)
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Good 9 22.5 4 6.2
Moderate/needs repair 22 55.0 31 47.7
Bad/fair 9 22.5 30 46.2
Total 40 100 65 100
Concerning the sleeping place of the centre, 85 percent of OVC reported that they are sleeping on mattress and proportional numbers of OVC (15%) are sleeping without mattress. Only 42.5 percent of OVC under the care of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church Child & Family Affairs Organization have night clothes while 57.5 percent of respondents have no such a facility fulfilled by the NGO.
4.5.6Status of OVC’s legal conditionOut of the total 105 respondents, only 33 of them (31.4%) reported that they are getting legal support from NGOs. The majority claimed that they are not obtaining such a service. The finding on legal support outcome shown in the Table below revealed that all 58.1 percent of OVC respondent have birth certificate and for all of them it was facilitated by the NGOs.
Concerning presence of anyone who will give support for OVC for legal issues, the majority 56.2 percent replied that they have no someone who will give support or facilitate for legal issues raised on them. While 19 percent of respondents positively answered towards the presence of someone who will give support or facilitate regarding legal issues they may face, others (24.8%) responded that they are not sure whether they will get someone who will give or facilitate for legal issues raised on them.
4.6. Presentations of Qualitative Data
The researcher to collect information that can be used for qualitative data collection used key informant intervie and FGD. The information gathered through these methods is as follows, following each source, detail, and content.
4.5.2. Key Informants
The researcher conducted interview from key NGOs official and the government side woman’s and child affairs.
The two NGOs program directors program is the general organizational activity of the organization, as well as the problems of the Corporation and the actions taken by the organization and the organization’s actions, as well as the profound changes that have taken the beneficiaries to the beneficiaries and the changes that cannot be made.
? As regards the other two social services professionals, these professionals are directly involved with the day-to-day life of every child in the service of childcare, nutrition, progression, overall behavior of children and their future hopes, with a view to providing enough information to support the study.
For these items, interviewees were asked to answer questions that were asked by the interview, and compiled on the following questions related to these questions.
18.104.22.168. Demographic Characteristics of Key Informants
Above in Table 4.1.3 presents characteristics of social workers and program director working in the orphanage centre participated in the study. The demographic characteristics of social workers and program director presented include sex, age and marital status. Other information includes level of education and experience in dealing with orphans.
22.214.171.124. Data Presentations of Key Informants
A) Program director prepared interview questions and their responses;
1) Ask the program director if the orphans and vulnerable children are the main support needs of the organization. The director of the program, if he or she is an orphaned or vulnerable person, needs the support of the program for any needs for anyone family or human life. Many of the major causes of infant mortality are the death of parents, the lack of understanding of the community and the absence of childbearing due to the culture of childbirth, the inability to raise a child after childbirth, the loss of a child, the low standard of living of the community or the economic capacity of the children. The main causes of social and economic problems are generally, attributed to the death of a family, poverty or childbirth.
2/Do you have any specific requirements for using your organization? If the program director fails to answer any of the questions listed, the respondent will have his / her own standard of being eligible for those people who have no parent’s father, mothers, and grandparents who have no cousin, aunt, grandparent, or extended family. The children who were present, were asked to be accepted by the police or hospitals, with the exception of gender-neutral between the ages of up to five and those who remained isolated for various reasons in the community.
3) If the organization proposes what kind of support or service it offers to children, it will provide a comprehensive list of nutrition, including breakfast, meals and supper, which will provide all the supports, including full support such as a family. They have been treated for medical care in the home and abroad as well as in the treatment and care of the children. In the case of mothers who raise children, the organization will provide training for four months before and after the organization enters into employment.
She said that children are not only trained from KG to Preparatory but are also engaged in job training and training to the university through to university. She said that, children would be provided with a variety of funding for different colleges, paying for school fees and other related expenses, and providing professional support and counseling for professionals and caregivers, for the children to be fully dressed and properly dressed at school during the school day. Another is that when the children are 15 years of age, the children are aged 15 and older and are living with the caregivers of their own mothers, whom 10 to 15 children are living in the same home. The director said.
Table 4.15: Is there anyone who will give legal issue support if you are in need
Yes 20 19.0
No 59 56.2
Do not know 26 24.8
Total 105 100
4.5.7Socio-economic statusRespondents were asked on the current socio-economic status of OVC. Although almost all of the respondents are either under the care of the NGO at the centre or under the supervisor of their family, they may not have highest income. As the data shows in table 4.14, most OVC in ages above 15 years are engaged in different kinds of job. On the sources of livelihood, the finding of the study illustrated in the following Table, the main source of livelihood for most OVC is daily wage (27.6%), informal trade or straight vender (11.4%), assistance obtained from the community and neighbours (22.9%) and very few (1.9%) from petty trade. The remaining large numbers of OVC have no source of income except the support they obtained from NGOs.
Table 4.16: Sources of OVC livelihood
Petty trade 5 4.8
Informal trade 12 11.4
Local community 24 22.9
Daily wage 29 27.6
Others 2 1.9
No income 33 31.4
Total 105 100
To sum up, as per the variables used to evaluate the effectiveness of any organization engaged in OVC programs, the study finding shows that the two NGOs under investigation are not effective in providing services. The variables used were health care, education service, legal support, socio-economic status, and psychological support.
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