20001511302000213360The use of computer technology and the impact on student By William Edwin

20001511302000213360The use of computer technology and the impact on student
By William Edwin , [email protected] use of computer technology and the impact on student
By William Edwin , [email protected] REPORT 2018 August
2420096000STUDENT REPORT 2018 August

AbstractThis study explored the use of computer in the field of education. The quantitative data was gathered from various resources on the internet and from books. The results highlight how much of an impact does computer have for students to achieving better results.

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Keywords: Computer technology, Education, Learning method, Memory and emotion
Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc521921494 h 1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc521921495 h 1Methodology PAGEREF _Toc521921496 h 1Findings PAGEREF _Toc521921497 h 2Computer as a substitute for a physical textbook PAGEREF _Toc521921498 h 3Impact on student as a learning methods PAGEREF _Toc521921499 h 6Computer increase student mark PAGEREF _Toc521921500 h 6Computer does not help increasing the student mark PAGEREF _Toc521921501 h 6Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc521921502 h 9Acknowledgement PAGEREF _Toc521921503 h 10References PAGEREF _Toc521921504 h 10Appendices PAGEREF _Toc521921505 h 12A. PAGEREF _Toc521921506 h 12B. PAGEREF _Toc521921507 h 13C. PAGEREF _Toc521921508 h 14D. PAGEREF _Toc521921509 h 15
Introduction “Today’s students are fundamentally different from students 20 years ago. Given the technology revolution, students interface with screens more frequently than people. Additionally, they are growing up in a global community without leaving their homes”.CITATION and15 l 5129 (Armani, 2015)The use of computer in the field of education is not something new. Most of the education facilitator has been using computer technology to present their learning materials and students interact with computer technology more frequently than ever.

This report will examine how beneficial the use of computer for student, and cover whether or not it will helps students in achieving better results, some people believe that it does and the other did not.

MethodologyQuantitative data for this report was gathered by using various resources from website and books
Findingsleft6913290007861300Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 home ICT equipment and internet use CITATION and151 l 5129 (OECD, 2015)Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 home ICT equipment and internet use CITATION and151 l 5129 (OECD, 2015)Based on the OECD Survey results that are done in 2012, it is revealed that out of 64 countries that are listed, having the average of 89.1% students are owns at least a computer at home.

Figure1.1 ICT Equipment and Internet use CITATION and151 l 5129 (OECD, 2015)Computer as a substitute for a physical textbookLaptop price in market are still expensive ranging from 250 to 700 dollars ,but the cost of textbooks student have to purchase itself is actually ranging around that number as wellCITATION liz12 l 5129 (F, 2012) . According to the NACS average collect student have to spend $655 on textbook each year CITATION Tyl17 l 5129 (Kingkade, 2017). Yet the information provided by it outdated quickly and schools have to get the student to purchase a new up to date textbook. CITATION liz12 l 5129 (F, 2012).

With the use of digital technologies these days, Teacher, author or publisher could actually edit their text with more up-to date information CITATION liz12 l 5129 (F, 2012). Teacher could select whatever source material they need to use on the internet and handed it to student, which is better than using the classic textbook that student using only half of CITATION liz12 l 5129 (F, 2012). Most libraries are excluding having textbook in their collection because of various reasons and it is not possible for library to meet the number of demands with hundred thousand of students. CITATION joy l 5129 (joyner library , East carolina university, n.d.)The amount of heavy stuff student have to carry in their backpack, such as notebook, textbook, school utensil and lunchbox are burdening the studentsCITATION liz12 l 5129 (F, 2012). “Students often carry backpack loads of twenty-two percent of their body weight when it is only recommended to carry fifteen at most” are stated by orthopaedic surgery scientist Brandon macias of UCSD’s department. (As cited in F. Liz, 2012). Occupational and environmental health expert Kevin Slates says, “A load of books or materials distributed improperly or unevenly, day after day, is indeed going to cause stress to a growing spinal column and back”. (As cited in F. Liz , 2012)
With the figure from 1 and 1.1which, are done in 2012, a conclusion could be made that student these days have no problem in owning a computer, in fact most of them already do.

Furthermore, having a single laptop is far more convenient for the student compared to having multiple textbooks CITATION liz12 l 5129 (F, 2012). If the students are doing their homework or assignment on laptop then there will be no more “I forgot it at home” excuses, if only thing they have to bring to school is a single laptopCITATION liz12 l 5129 (F, 2012). It is also easier and faster to search up knowledge on laptops than in textbooks, you could even find the exact keyword without spending much time or even highlight the word on the laptop, if you wish to do so. CITATION liz12 l 5129 (F, 2012).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 The importance of technology in education CITATION The13 l 5129 (The Importance Of Technology In Education Infographic, 2013)
Impact on student as a learning methodsComputer increase student markAccording to some of the studies found on the internet that are listed below, the usage of computer in the educational system seems to have positive effects on the student marks.

A research study that was conducted in Auburn, Maine in 2012 was assigning 129 students in the kindergarten classes to use an ipads for nine weeks.CITATION jim12 l 5129 (Dalyrmple, 2012) 266 students were tested before and after the ipads were introduced into the classroom, according to the literacy test results, students that used the ipads performing better than the students that did not, in every literacy measure they were test on.CITATION jim12 l 5129 (Dalyrmple, 2012)In 2013 University of California Irvine medical school reported, “iPad equipped medical students scored 23 percent higher on national exams than previously unequipped classes. The students are handed the ipad in 2010” CITATION jon13 l 5129 (Comstock, 2013).

Another study centered on an iPad game, Motion Math, has shown that the iPad can help with fundamental math skillsCITATION dan11 l 5129 (Donahdo, 2011). Somehow, fifth graders who regularly played the game for 20 minutes per day have increased their test scores by 15 percent on averageCITATION dan11 l 5129 (Donahdo, 2011).

Computer does not help increasing the student markDifferent result was told from the recent studies in 2015 by Andreas Schleicher, he reached a conclusion that using computer do not improve pupil results, the report conclude:
The students that used computer regularly have worse results than students that use the computer once or twice a week
In the country that invested in technology it is shown that the students did not have significant improvement in the subject such as reading , mathematic or science
school system such as south korea and shanghai in china have lower levels of computer use in school, yet they are achieving better results
Singapore schools which have the moderate use of computer is actually top on digital skills
CITATION Sea15 l 5129 (Coughlan, 2015)Similar reports are being told in the book made by Lois M. Davis and co. they reached a conclusion after doing some research on incarcerated adults, that are performing tasks such as reading and mathematics CITATION loi13 l 5129 (Davis, Bozick, Steele, Saunders, & Miles, 2013). He concluded, “The effect of computer-assisted instruction is not statistically different from that of traditional face to face classroom instruction” CITATION loi13 p 56 l 5129 (Davis, Bozick, Steele, Saunders, & Miles, 2013, p. 56).

Correlation between 2 statements
Now what could have caused they reached different conclusion even though they are using the same device? On much closer inspection, it seems that Psychological effects might take parts in how the research results are being different. According to few website about human psychology on the internet, the series of findings implied that emotion playing a role in how people (encoding) information, consolidating memories and during the recall of experiences at later date CITATION Emo l 5129 (Emotions and Memory, n.d.). For instance a cognitive psychologist Donald MacKay and a team of researchers asked participants to take part in an emotional Stroop test, in which they were presented with different words in quick successionCITATION Mac04 p 474-488 l 5129 (Mackay D. G., 2004, pp. 474-488). Each word was printed in a different colour, and subjects were asked to name the colourCITATION Mac04 p 474-488 l 5129 (Mackay D. G., 2004, pp. 474-488). The participants were also later asked to recall the words after the initial testCITATION Mac04 p 474-488 l 5129 (Mackay D. G., 2004, pp. 474-488). MacKay found that words that have an illicit or strong meaning, which were intended to elicit an emotional response, were recalled more frequently than words, which carried less emotional connotations. CITATION Mac04 p 474-488 l 5129 (Mackay D. G., 2004, pp. 474-488)According to Belle Beth Copper Human brains are made to be attracted to novelty, it improves the memories and learning capacity by releasing chemical in the brain called dopamine. CITATION bel13 l 5129 (Copper, 2013).
There is a region in our midbrain called the substantia nigra/ventral segmental area or SN/VTA. This is essentially the major “novelty centre” of the brain, which responds to novel stimuli. The SN/VTA is closely linked to areas of the brain called the hippocampus and the amygdala, both of which play large roles in learning and memory. The hippocampus compares stimuli against existing memories, while the amygdala responds to emotional stimuli and strengthens associated long-term memories.CITATION bel13 l 5129 (Copper, 2013)Dr Düzel, which is medical doctor and PhD doctor, also did mention:
When we see something new, we see it has a potential for rewarding us in some way. This potential that lies in new things motivates us to explore our environment for rewards. The brain learns that the stimulus, once familiar, has no reward associated with it and so it loses its potential. For this reason, only completely new objects activate the midbrain area and increase our levels of dopamine. CITATION DrE06 l 5129 (Düzel, 2006)Another research are being made by Harvard university psychologist, who collected data at St Andrew’s, 435 students were tested including elementary, middle and upper school students on how happiness affecting their grade CITATION lau15 l 5129 (Lauren Schiller, 2015).

We developed developmentally appropriate surveys to measure students’ happiness with feedback from teachers and students at the school. Results revealed that, on average, students who reported being happier had higher grades. Specifically, we found a statistically significant correlation between happiness and students’ GPA from elementary school through high school.CITATION lau15 l 5129 (Lauren Schiller, 2015)ConclusionThe use of computer for education does benefitting students in some ways, such as preparing students to get familiar with technology for later use and the convenience it presents. But based on the findings unfortunately it does not have a significant impact on the student performance, some researches did actually come with a conclusion that by using computer in class, it helps the student to have a better mark with but some other findings says that computer usage in class actually do not have a significant impact at all. Some other factor might have caused their findings to have different results when all the participants were using the computer to do the same tasks. Under further investigation it seems the method they are using are the one that caused the results to be different. The students, which are reported to have better marks in the experiment, are the results of “novelty” as stated in the article by Copper. It builds up motivation, which interest student in learning and makes them performing better. This does not happen in negative findings made by Lois M Davis and co. and Schleicher from OECD. In findings made by Schleicher he did not interact with the subject themself instead, he took the data from that are gathered from the respective facility, and for Lois M Davis and company , they are using incarcerated adults and the subject are aware they are being tested. Which nullify the psychological effects. Human psychology seems have to take more parts in how brain encoding their memories and more findings actually supports that statement. A conclusion could be drawn that computer as a learning method does not really help student performing better. What really matters is how the facilitator presents their material to students in smart and creative way. It will improve and motivate to student to achieve better. Computer itself is just a tool to facilitate user for convenience.

AcknowledgementA special thanks to Anita murphy (SIT) for helping in providing resources, example and etc.

It is useful for this report to reach it is completion.
References BIBLIOGRAPHY Armani, A. (2015, october 09). How can technology improve school education? Retrieved from weforum: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/10/how-can-technology-improve-school-education/
Comstock, J. (2013, february 13). iPad-equipped medical school class scores 23 percent higher on exams. Retrieved from mobihealthnews.com: https://www.mobihealthnews.com/20311/ipad-equipped-medical-school-class-scores-23-percent-higher-on-exams
Copper, B. B. (2013, may 23). novelty and the brain. Retrieved from lifehacker.com: https://www.lifehacker.com.au/2013/05/novelty-and-the-brain-why-new-things-make-us-feel-so-good/
Coughlan, S. (2015, september 15). Computers ‘do not improve’ pupil results, says OECD. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-34174796
Dalyrmple, J. (2012, february 17). ipad improves kindergarteners literacy scores. Retrieved from loopinsight: http://www.loopinsight.com/2012/02/17/ipad-improves-kindergartners-literacy-scores/
Davis, L. M., Bozick, R., Steele, J. L., Saunders, J., & Miles, J. N. (2013). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education: A Meta-Analysis of Programs That Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults. RAND Corporation.

Donahdo, D. (2011, december 12). motion math helping drive ipad and education research. Retrieved from wired.com: https://www.wired.com/2011/12/motion-math-education-research/
Düzel, D. E. (2006, august 2). Novelty aids learning. Retrieved from ucl: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/news-releases-archive/newlearning
Emotions and Memory. (n.d.). Retrieved from psychologistworld: https://www.psychologistworld.com/emotion/emotion-memory-psychology#references
F., L. (2012, december 18). Should Student’s Textbooks and Notebooks Be Replaced With Laptops? Retrieved from patch: https://patch.com/california/dublin/bp–should-students-textbooks-and-notebooks-be-replac31d95e3d77
joyner library , East carolina university. (n.d.). why we don’t provide textbook. Retrieved from library.olemiss.edu: https://libraries.olemiss.edu/why-we-dont-provide-textbooks/
Kingkade, T. (2017, december 06). College Textbook Prices Increasing Faster Than Tuition And Inflation. Retrieved from huffington: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/04/college-textbook-prices-increase_n_2409153.html
Lauren Schiller, C. H. (2015, july 30). It’s true: happier students get higher grades. Retrieved from theconverstation.com: http://theconversation.com/its-true-happier-students-get-higher-grades-41488
Mackay D. G., S. ,. (2004). Relations between emotion, memory, and attention: Evidence from taboo Stroop, lexical decision, and immediate memory tasks. Memory & Cognition. . Los Angeles: Psychonomic Society, inc.

OECD. (2015). Students, Computers and Learning. Retrieved from Oecd-library: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/students-computers-and-learning_9789264239555-en#page53
The Importance Of Technology In Education Infographic. (2013, december 24). Retrieved from elearninginfographics.com: https://elearninginfographics.com/the-importance-of-technology-in-education-infographic/

-901706169025Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 Performance in computer based assessment CITATION and151 l 5129 (OECD, 2015)Figure 3 Performance in computer based assessment CITATION and151 l 5129 (OECD, 2015)Appendices40388716441800A.B.

Figure 4 student performance in digital reading CITATION and151 l 5129 (OECD, 2015)-18542021653500C.-1841505290820Figure 5 socio economic difference in ICT access and use CITATION and151 l 5129 (OECD, 2015)Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5 socio economic difference in ICT access and use CITATION and151 l 5129 (OECD, 2015)
D.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6 Textbook price increase CITATION Tyl17 l 5129 (Kingkade, 2017)

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