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2(i) Why Employers Value Decision Making
Structural culture in addition administration panache both concludes the decision-making procedure in every corporation. Any might utilize consensus-based methods although others rely on managers or administrative collections towards make significant decisions around a corporate. Numerous administrations utilize an amalgamation of consolidated in addition consensus-based panaches. For example any worker contributes during a conclusion creating procedure depends at his situation during a general construction of a company. Add abilities towards your CV cover communication in addition interview.
(ii) The Decision-Making Process
The respectable method towards brand a most knowledgeable conclusion exists towards contemplate everything a pertinent info in addition follow a procedure’s contemplating a most probable result. The flabbergasted checklist similar this is beneficial aimed at which purpose. Describe the problem challenge or opportunity.

1. Generate a sequence of likely answers or answers.
2. Assess the prices aids and trade-offs related along every option.
3. Choice an answer or answer.
4. Tool a selected option.
5. Evaluate an influence’s a conclusion in addition adjust a price of act for example wanted. You may’t continuously discovery yourself through six ladders during the noticeable method. You can take accountability aimed at any facet of a procedure however you can combine dissimilar ladders into different phases instead of others. Though someone has to drive through every stage. Hopping steps usually needles to bad results. Instance smooth uncertainty you have not at all administration know-how yet you are probable towards brand the conclusion at professional outlines. Because conclusion creating exists not continuously the procedure of wounding and ventilation you may not comprehend pardon you exist doing. This example stretches you an idea of pardon doings you may part along possible employers and their effort history to show their decision-making abilities. The situation is significant towards retain the participation of an occupation necessities as suitable for example likely. Enable brainstorming conferences to make designations aimed at new produces. The voting staff evaluates an influence of a retail time extension. Scrutinize suggestions of three advertisement agencies and select a best corporation to carry out the campaign. Ask your staff for feedback on important topics that can help you with your request ability. Make a tilt of alternatives aimed at a fresh provincial auctions territory. Hunt aimed at lawful otherwise logistical issues connected towards a fresh corporation policy. Brainstorm possible subjects aimed at fundraising campaigns. Scrutinize concentration group figures to enable variety of fresh produce packaging. Liken a fortes in addition faintness of a three potential dealers aimed at the cure of payroll. Retain in awareness which the machinery which is significant during conclusion-creating is not around studying a diversity of methods however also meaningful the fundamentals always applying them in addition re-evaluating in addition improving them. Uncertainty you otherwise your squads consistently contribute in receiving respectable outcomes you want towards create respectable decisions.
(iii) Common Challenges of Decision Making
Performing the overhead-termed ladders will assistance you brand extra operational decisions however here exist any complications towards appearance aimed at. There exist any of a mutual dares you force expression along superlative practices towards assistance you avoid these difficulties: contain also much info or are insufficient. The situation is significant to gather applicable info once impending a conclusion-creating procedure however the situation is indispensable towards comprehend the actual quantity of contextual info which is wanted. An overwork of info is to retain you disorganized and unordered in addition to avert you since next your intuition. Rely on the results. Even if you trail the ladders during a conclusion creating procedure the outcomes are still improbable towards is precisely pardon you have during mind. So it is extremely significant to ascertain for valid and valid alternatives. Surplus sureness in unforeseen outcomes may contain negative penalties. Executive is a significant ability during a corporate environment especially for persons in manager’s in addition executive locations. And towards identifying mutual contests the situation may assistance towards ensure well thought-out conclusions in addition optimistic results as said by the logical processes described here.

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2.0 SPECIAL PRODUCT (Bebo arch and concrete railway sleepers)
Special product is a produce that products where not all industries are able to produce these products. This is because most industries lack equipment or hardware to produce such products. Among the intended products are bebo arch and concrete railway sleepers. One of place capable of producing bebo arch in Malaysia is Hume Concrete Sdn Bhd located in Beranang Selangor. They also make concrete railway sleepers for railway in Malaysia. Now, they are getting orders for the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) projects.
Hume Concrete has equipment capable of producing bebo arch in small quantities which is 2 bebo arch per day. Regularly, orders are within 100 pieces per batch and mostly two or three pieces of bebo arch (3%) is rejected because it does not fulfill the requirement by the client. Bebo arch is system is a standardized patented precast concrete arch system for the design and construction of earth overfilled bridges, tunnels, culverts, other underground structures , as crossing structures over waterways, as overpass or underpass for roadways and railways and as protective structures for example shelters for aircraft and bunkers for munitions . The bebo bridge concrete arch system is a combination of cast in place concrete footings, precast arch elements, headwalls, and wing walls. The system uses the fundamentals of soil structure interaction to achieve superior strength and stability . Standard span ranges from 3600mm to 25600mm and longer span is upon request by the client.

FIGURE 2.1: Product (Bebo arch)
Bebo arch system have its own advantages in economy, speed and quality. In economy, the arch sections are slender in design which results in material savings for both concrete and reinforcing steel compared to traditional applications such as box culverts or beam frame type structures. Reduces maintenance costs and lowers life cycle costs as there are no bridge deck or joints at the deck or roadway interface . Bebo arch need moderate requirements for back and overfill material result in a cost effective construction procedure . It is also aesthetically pleasing & environmentally friendly . Besides, fully pre-engineered arch design to various design codes result in quick turnaround times for the complete structural design. Rapid installation results in reduced overall project costs, delays and detours. Apart from that, the bebo proven quality, structural integrity & durability. Bebo structures have no exposed bridge deck, no transition joints or approach slabs and no moving bearings the look of the true arch shape is always well received by officials, private property developers and the public. Overfilled reinforced concrete arch bridges are extremely durable and require virtually no maintenance (low life-cycle costs). Manufacturing is fast and efficient allowing us to offer a high quality yet cost effective bridge option.

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FIGURE 2.2: Moulding for Bebo arch

Moreover, concrete railway sleepers becomes one of the famous product in Malaysia. This is because Malaysia government want to increase the quantity of railway in deep and remote areas. Sleepers are transverse beams laying on ballast and support. Wooden sleepers were utilized as a part of the past in light of the fact that timber was promptly accessible in the neighborhood. Nevertheless, restressed or reinforced concrete sleepers, and to a restricted degree steel sleepers, have been received in current railway tracks over the previous decades on account of their strength and long administration life. Solid sleepers are depicted as either twin-square or mono-piece. Inside all these sorts, concrete sleepers are all the more generally utilized in light of the fact that they are not influenced all that much by either atmosphere or climate. Furthermore, it provides anchorage for the fastening system and limit longitudinal, parallel and vertical movement by implanting itself onto the substructures. There are two types of concrete sleepers which are mono block concrete sleeper and twin block concrete sleeper . Railway sleeper that has been used at Hume Concrete is mono block concrete sleeper as in Figure 2.3 below.

Figure 2.3: Mono block concrete sleeper
In addition, Concrete railway sleeper is apply at mainline, turnout, cross over tracks as level crossing sleepers and ballast top bridge decks. It is also give advantages to us. Concrete railway sleeper is more durable having greater life up to 50years. It is economical as compare to wood and steel. Concrete railway sleeper is easy to manufacture, not susceptible to vermin attack, not susceptible to fire and it is good for track circuited areas.

In contrast, prestressed concrete railway sleeper or railroad ties is one of the design of concrete railway sleeper. It is principally designed in order to carry wheel loads from the rails to the ground. Their design takes into account static and dynamic loading conditions. It is evident that prestressed concrete has played a significant role as to maintain the high endurance of the sleepers under low to moderate repeated impact loads. In spite of the most common use of the prestressed concrete sleepers in railway tracks, there have always been considerable demands from rail and track engineers to improve serviceability and functionality of concrete sleepers. For example, signaling, fiber optic, equipment cables are often damaged either by acute ballast corners or by tamping machine operation. There has been a significant need to redesign concrete sleeper to cater cables internally so that they would not experience detrimental or harsh environments. Accordingly, this study is the world first to experimentally investigate the effects of holes and web openings on structural behaviors of concrete sleepers under rail loading condition. The modified compression field theory for ultimate strength behaviors of concrete sleepers will be highlighted in this study. The outcome of this study will enable the new design and calculation methods for prestressed concrete sleepers with holes and web opening that practically benefits civil, track and structural engineers in railway industry .

REFFERENCES
1) Bebo Arch Solution. Special Product Bebo Arch System. Retrieved May 1, 2018 from http://www.beboarch.com/bebo-arch-system.

2) Contech Engineered Solutions. Bebo BridesConcrete Arch System. Retrieved May 1, 2018 from http://www.conteches.com/products/bridges-and-structures/precast/bebo-bridge.

3) Hume Concrete Sdn. Bhd. Hume Bebo Arch Product. Retrieved May 1, 2018 from http://www.humeconcrete.com.my/index.php/features/bulk/bebo-arch-system.
4) Kahawatta Gamage, E., Kaewunruen, S. & Remennikov. Design of holes and web openings in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. Retrieved 4 May 3, 2018 from http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6291&context=eispapers.

5) ScienceDiret. Prestresed concrete railway sleeper. Retrieved 3 May, 2018. From https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705816327679.

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2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

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