Role of Disney Movies in Inculcating Women Empowerment in Adolescent Girls
Researcher:Afsa KiranReg #L1F16MPMC0018
Advisor:Ma’am Muniba Fatima
According to Grant ; Osanlo (2014) theoretical framework consists of the selected theory (or theories) that undergird your thinking with regards to how you understand and plan to research your topic, as well as the concepts and definitions from that theory that are relevant to your topic. Abend and Gabriel (2013) explains that the theoretical framework introduces and describes the theory that explains why the research problem under study exists. Creswell (2003) makes distinctions between literature used for qualitative studies and quantitative studies. In quantitative methods, presentation of a theoretical framework is crucial to the study, which will have been designed to test the theory. However, qualitative studies can also use a theoretical framework. Moreover the theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your research paper and that relate to the broader areas of knowledge being considered (Labaree, 2018).
The proposed theoretical framework for current study is comprised of two theories. First, adolescent girls must consume media and formulate an overall expectation of women empowerment. This can be explained by Cultivation Theory. Second, how much adolescent girls can observe and learn from that ideal expectation created by exposure to media, and this can be explained through Social Learning Theory.
Cultivation Theory is significant in mass communication. It states if a heavy viewer is exposed to more violence content eventually effected by the Mean World Syndrome, an idea that the world is worse than it actually is (Gerbner and Gross, 1976 ).Morgan, Shanahan and Signorielli (2017) explains that cultivation analysis describes a body of research that looks at relationships between exposure to mass media (most often television) and beliefs about the world (attitudes, and sometimes behaviors). It is one of the most frequently encountered and often discussed theories within the field of media effects. Cultivation is a sociocultural theory regarding the role of television in shaping viewers’ perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values (Gerbner & Gross, 1976). Cultivation theory examines the long-term effects of television. “The primary proposition of cultivation theory states that the more time people spend ‘living’ in the television world, the more likely they are to believe social reality aligns with reality portrayed on television (Riddle, 2009).
According to West & Turner (2010) cultivation theory is positivistic, meaning it assumes the existence of objective reality and value-neutral research. A study conducted by Jennings Bryant and Dorina Miron (2004), found that Cultivation Theory was the third-most frequently tilized theory, showing that it continues to be one of the most popular theories in mass-communication research. Television is a medium of the socialization of most people into standardized roles and behaviors. Its function is in a word, enculturation (Gerbner, Gross, Morgan & Signorielli, 1986).
Cultivation theory (sometimes referred to as the cultivation hypothesis or cultivation analysis) was an approach developed by Professor George Gerbner, dean of the Annenberg School of Communications at the University of Pennsylvania. He began the ‘Cultural Indicators’ research project in the mid-1960s, to study whether and how watching television may influence viewers’ ideas of what the everyday world is like (Joshi, 2006). In 1976, cultivation theory derived from several large-scale research projects in a comprehensive project entitled Cultural Indicators. The Cultural Indicators Project began as a stand-alone study commissioned by Lyndon B. Johnson for the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (Gerbner, Gross, Morgan ; Signorielli, 1986). The cultural indicators project consisted of three components: an institutional process analysis that focused on how media messages are produced and disseminated, a message system analysis that focused on what actual messages were conveyed by the media, and a cultivation analysis that focused on how exposure to media messages influences recipients’ conceptions of the real world (Shrum, 2017). The Cultivation literature appears to exhibit three different conceptions of the term. One conception is that cultivation is a mass media theory that was introduced by Gerbner and maintained by him throughout the course of his life. A second conception arises from the pattern of operational practices used by researchers who have published what they presented as tests of various parts of Gerbner’s system of explanation. And a third conception is exhibited by researchers who operate within a general socialization perspective and who largely ignore the conceptualizations of Gerbner as they explore a variety of ways that media exert their influence on individuals (Potter, 2017). Briefly, cultural indicators research was designed to systematically examine mass media as indicators of what was happening in the cultural realm, to parallel the data provided by economic and social indicators. Television content was the most oft-measured indicator within this research, with much of the early data collection focused on violence, sex roles, and the demography of network television (Morgan, Shanahan ; Signorielli,2017).
According to Mosharafa (2015) the theory proposes that the danger of television lies in its ability to shape not a particular view point about one specific issue but in its ability to shape people’s moral values and general beliefs about the world. The theory stands on a number of concepts: the symbolic environment, storytelling, the symbolic function of television, the television traits, the cultural model, and the cultivation of value system, the multidirectional process, and the cultural indicators.
Cultivation theory holds three core assumptions. The first assumption highlights the medium, the second, the audience, and the final assumption deals with the function of the medium on audiences and their ability to react to it. a) Television is fundamentally different from other forms of mass media (Gerbner, Gross & Signorielli, 1978). b) Television shapes the way individuals within society think and relate to each other. c) Television’s effects are limited (Wikipedia). Cultivation theorists argue that television has long-term effects which are small, gradual, indirect but cumulative and significant.
They emphasize the effects of television viewing on the attitudes rather than the behavior of viewers. Heavy watching of television is seen as ‘cultivating’ attitudes which are more consistent with the world of television programs than with the everyday world (Chandler, 1995). This study has used Cultivation Theory by George Gerbner as a guide in exploring the consequences or effects of Disney movies on adolescent girls.
Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory is a theory of learning and social behavior which proposes that new behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others (Bandura, 1971). It states that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement (Bandura, 1963). In addition to the observation of behavior, learning also occurs through the observation of rewards and punishments, a process known as vicarious reinforcement. When a particular behavior is rewarded regularly, it will most likely persist; conversely, if a particular behavior is constantly punished, it will most likely desist (Renzetti et. al, 2012).
Social learning theory is increasingly cited as an essential component of sustainable natural resource management and the promotion of desirable behavioural change (Muro ; Jeffrey 2008). People learn through observing others’ behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors (Bandura, 1977) Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. “Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action” (Bandura).
This theory is based on the idea that we learn from our interactions with others in a social context. Separately, by observing the behaviors of others, people develop similar behaviors. After observing the behavior of others, people assimilate and imitate that behavior, especially if their observational experiences are positive ones or include rewards related to the observed behavior. According to Bandura, imitation involves the actual reproduction of observed motor activities (Bandura 1977).
The principles of social learning are assumed to operate in the same way throughout life. SLT posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation and modeling. Based on these general principles, learning can occur without a change in behavior (Nabavi, 2012). In other words, behaviorists say that learning has to be represented by a permanent change in behavior; while in contrast social learning theorists say that because people can learn through observation alone, their learning may not necessarily be shown in their performance (Bandura, 1965). Based on the literature, there are three concepts in SLT. Firstly, people can learn through observation which is known as observational learning. Secondly, mental states are important factor for learning it is also named as intrinsic reinforcement. Finally, it refers to this point that learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior and it follows by modeling process (Nabavi, 2012).
According to Bandura Found within the social learning theory lies three main concepts. First, as previously mentioned is the notion that individuals have the ability to learn through observation, second- that mental states are a fundamental part of this process and thirdly, the theory alleges that when something is learned this does not always follow by a change in behavior. As external, environmental reinforcement was not the only influence to learning and behavior, intrinsic reinforcement was also considered to play a part in forming the learned response of an individual. As it is perceived as a form of internal reward, such examples include pride, satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment (Social Learning Theory: Understanding Bandura’s Theory of Learning, n.d). Observational learning considers that individuals are able to learn without demonstrating new behaviors. According to Sincero (2011) there 4 basic concepts of this theory that are as follows:
Observational learning explains the nature of children to learn behaviors by watching the behavior of the people around them, and eventually, imitating them. With the “Bobo Doll” experiment(s), Bandura included an adult who is tasked to act aggressively toward a Bobo Doll while the children observe him. Later, Bandura let the children play inside a room with the Bobo Doll. He affirmed that these children imitated the aggressive behavior toward the doll, which they had observed earlier.
After his studies, Bandura was able to determine 3 basic models of observational learning, which include:
A Live Model, which includes an actual person performing a behavior.
A Verbal Instruction Model, which involves telling of details and descriptions of a behavior.
A Symbolic Model, which includes either a real or fictional character demonstrating the behavior via movies, books, television, radio, online media and other media sources.
The state of mind (mental states) is crucial to learning.In this concept, Bandura stated that not only external reinforcement or factors can affect learning and behavior. There is also what he called intrinsic reinforcement, which is in a form of internal reward or a better feeling after performing the behavior (e.g. sense of accomplishment, confidence, satisfaction, etc.)
Learning does not mean that there will be a change in the behavior of an individual.
Specific factors influence the success of learning and it is the following steps that determine the observational learning and modeling process:
Attention: For behaviors to be successfully learned, the individual must pay sufficient attention.
Retention: Storing this information so that it may be used at a later date is crucial to the observational learning process.
Reproduction: Following attention and retention comes the time to reproduce the observed behavior. Practice of this behavior assists with the improvement of skills.
Motivation: The individual must be motivated to repeat the learned behavior. Reinforcement and punishment influence assist to influence this step as it acts to either encourage or deter the individual from having the motivation to repeat the modeled behavior.
According to Cherry (2017) But social learning can also be utilized to teach people positive behaviors. Researchers can use social learning theory to investigate and understand ways that positive role models can be used to encourage desirable behaviors and to facilitate social change.
Bandura’s social learning theory has had important implication in the field of education. Today, both teachers and parents recognize how important it is to model appropriate behaviors. Other classroom strategies such as encouraging children and building self-efficacy are also rooted in social learning theory.
Conceptualization ; Operationalization
The issue of women empowerment is getting importance day by day and it has attracted the attention from the scholars worldwide. According to Arundhati Chattopadhyaya (2005) “Empowerment is multi-dimensional and refers to the expansion of freedom of choice and action in all spheres to shape one’s life. It also implies control over resources and decisions”. Moreover the World Bank defines this term as “the process of increasing the capacity of individuals or groups to make choices and to transform those choices in desired actions” (Mandal, 2013).
It ranges from self-strength to efficiency building of women however women empowerment now can be categorized into five main parts; social, educational, economic, political and psychological. In this study we will be looking for only two types of empowerment i.e. social and psychological.
Social Empowerment: According to Antony (2006) “empowerment of women is multi-dimensional process, which should enable the individuals or a group of individuals to realize their full identity and powers”. Empowerment of women means enjoyment of 1) equal rights, equal status and freedom of self-development with men (Mandal, 2013)
Psychological Empowerment: Psychological empowerment is defined as “intrinsic task motivation reflecting a sense of self-control in relation to one’s work and an active involvement with one’s work role” (Kim & Lee, 2106). “Through psychological empowerment women not only transgress the traditional and patriarchal taboos and social obligations, they also transform their selves and subjectivities” (Mandal, 2013). “Psychological empowerment is composed of four cognitions: meaning, self-determination, competence, and impact. Specifically, “meaning refers to the alignment between one’s work role and one’s own beliefs, values, and standards. Self-determination is an individual’s sense of autonomy or control concerning the initiation or regulation of one’s actions. Competence refers to the belief in one’s capability to successfully perform work activities. Impact is the belief that one can make a difference in the managerial process; that one could influence operational outcomes in the work unit” (Kim ; Lee, 2016) Psychological empowerment can be achieved through building their own self-confidence, recognizing their self-worth and by taking control of their own income, body and decisions.
In this Research Women Empowerment refers to not be dependent on economically and emotionally, to have a senses of get education in any field and can do jobs in desired fields or organizations with equal rights and be aware about their actual rights. Women empowerment is that women should be valiant and dauntless in achieving their goals and facing challenges in life. Women should know their self-worth.
Gender roles in society means to how we’re expected to act, speak, dress, groom and conduct ourselves based upon our assigned sex. According to Blackstone (2003) ‘Gender is a social term that is often confused with a term sex. Sex is a biological concept, determined on the basis of individuals’ primary sex characteristics. Gender on the other hand, refers to the meanings, values and characteristics that people ascribed to different sexes.’ There are two types of roles: achieved roles and ascribed roles. An achieved role is one that is acquired or it is a position that is earned or chosen and reflects a person’s skills, abilities, and efforts. Being a professional athlete, for example, is an achieved status, as is being a lawyer, college professor, or criminal. On the other hand ascribed role is one that is beyond an individual’s control. It is not earned, rather it is something people are either born with or had no control over. Examples of ascribed status include sex and race.
In this study gender role refers to that brave, independent and heroic roles of females character that they earned a position in their community.
Self–efficacy plays a major role in determining our chances for success in fact there are some psychologists placed self-efficacy above talent in recipe of success. Self-efficacy beliefs are beliefs about the ability to “organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” (Bandura, 1997). Self-efficacy is a person’s belief in his or her capability to complete a future task or solve a future problem.
In this study self-efficacy refers to what people can do with their skills and abilities under certain conditions it is an evaluation of how well one can mobilize one’s resources to accomplish goals.Statement of Problem
Studies done previously have shown that Disney movies were depicting stereotypical roles and women as disempowered and enslaved, now recent studies have shown that Disney has changed the female pattern from Princess-needs-prince to brave, valiant and dauntless, which may have influence on the viewers of Disney movies then more must be known that how the new pattern of female characters in Disney movies is influencing its viewers and causes change in society.
Rationale of the study
The studies done previously have shown that Disney has changed the representation of women in a dramatic way and constantly changing it (Lewis, 2016) in a way they create their female characters, (Krouwels, 2016) as independent, brave and heroic (Garbedian, 2015) while Disney is changing the roles of female characters then Disney is likely to influence those who watch Disney movies and studies have shown that those viewers are mostly adolescent girls. This study explores the influence of independent and heroic princesses of Disney movies on the perceptions of adolescents girls about the empowerment and gender roles and how these changes leads to women empowerment in our society.
Significance of study
This study is important because portrayal of brave and valiant female characters can be used as an example for Pakistani animated film makers to encourage a more positive variety of women’s representation in children’s movies that will help young girls become stronger women and help to obstruct that deeply rooted reliance on patriarchy in society. It will be new addition to existing literature because most previously done studies were based on qualitative research
Objective of the study
to document the adolescent girls’ watching habits of Disney Movies.
to identify the relation between Disney movies and women empowerment.
to explore the influence of Disney movies on adolescent girls’ perceptions about psychological empowerment.
to explore the influence of Disney movies on adolescent girls’ perceptions about social empowerment.
to document the influence of Disney movies on adolescent girls about gender roles.
H1: More likely the adolescent girls watch Disney movies with great interest and likings
H2: There is likely to be the association between Disney movies and adolescent girls’ perceptions about women empowerment.
H3: More the adolescent girls watch Disney movies more will be the effect on their perceptions about psychological empowerment.
H3-a: Depiction of strong and confident female characters in Disney movies likely to influence perceptions of self-esteem in adolescent girls.
H3-b: Depiction of independent and dauntless female characters in Disney movies likely to influence perceptions about self-efficacy in adolescent girls.
H4: There is likely to be the association between Disney movies and social empowerment of adolescent girls..H4-b: More likely the depiction of equal rights of women in Disney movies have effects on adolescent girls perceptions about equal rights.
H4-c: Self-development of women shown in Disney movies likely to have relation with adolescent girls’ perceptions about self-development.
H5: More likely the Disney movies have relation with adolescent girls perceptions about gender roles.
RQ1) Do the adolescent girls watch Disney movies with great interest and liking?
RQ2) Is there any association between Disney movies and adolescent girls’ perceptions about women empowerment?
RQ3) Do the Disney movies have effect on adolescent girls’ perceptions about psychological empowerment?
RQ3a) Are the strong and confident female characters in Disney movies influence perceptions about self-esteem in adolescent girls?
RQ3b) Do the independent and dauntless female characters in Disney movies influence perceptions about self-efficacy in adolescent girls?
RQ4) Is there an association between Disney movies and perceptions about equal rights?
RQ4a) Do the Disney movies have effects on adolescent girls’ perceptions about equal rights?
RQ4b) Do the depiction of self-development in Disney movies has effect on adolescent girls’ perceptions about equal rights?
RQ5) Is there a relation between Disney movies and adolescent girls’ perceptions about self-development?
This quantitative research explores the role of Disney Movies in inculcating the women empowerment in adolescent girls. The goal will be to analyze the efficacy of medium in raising awareness towards the concept of women empowerment and gender roles in adolescent girls.
Cross sectional survey research design will be used to conduct this research.
Adolescent girls of Lahore will be the population of this study.
Sample for this research will be comprise of 400 adolescent girls (aged between 10-16) from public and private schools of Lahore.
Current research will be executed through purposive sampling.
Survey Questionnaire will be administered to collect data for this research.
Watching habits viewing pattern scale.
Scale for measuring psychological empowerment.
Scale for measuring social empowerment.
Scale for measuring women empowerment.
Scale for measuring perceptions about gender roles.
The data will be analyzed through SPPS software 21.0.
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