1. IntroductionIt is very hard to define the termglobalization.
In general, globalization is the process of integration ofindustries, economies, markets, culture, world views, policy and technology allaround the world. According the International Monitory Fund (2008),Globalization is the process of international integration of products,services, flow of capital and interchanging of world views through thetechnological advancement. Many researcher and writer have put their own viewto define the word globalization. Bishop, T., Reinke, J. and Andams, T. (2011)mention globalization as a result of integration and interconnection ofdifferent nations from the flow of human, trade, finance, ideas, business.According to them, globalization is the combination of growing economies andsocieties around the world.
Similarly, Biltonet al., (1996:5) treated globalization as an integration of economic, social,political cultural relation from one country to another country. It is aprocess where regional and national economies, societies and cultures arecombined by the global network of industry, communication, immigration, tradeand transportation. In the past year, globalization was focused on the economicaspects of the world like international flow of capital, foreign directinvestment, trade etc. But in the recent time, globalization has covered broaderrange of areas and aspects such as media, cultural factors, social factors,technological factors, political factors, biological factors as well aseconomic factors. Junarsin, (2009) describes the globalization as a process ofcapital flows like human. Financial, power and resource capital flows from onecountry to another country.
The least developed countries arethose countries that have categorized in terms of their low gross nationalincome, high degree of economic vulnerability and weak human resource. The lessdeveloped countries that have estimated gross national income is less than $750based on a three year average, low education, health, education, adultliteracy. Agriculture is the main occupation of those people who are from theleast developed countries. Thosecountries are characterized by low level of income, technological backwardness,low infrastructure, dependence on other countries resources and there is nostability of export of goods and services. There are 48 countries listed inleast developed countries (LDCs) among them 33 countries are from the Africa, 13countries from Asia and Pacific and 1 country from Latin America and Caribbean(DESA, 2017).
Bhutan, Sudan, Yemen, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh,Maldives Cambodia etc. are under the less developed countries.2. The pros and cons of globalizationThe emergence of globalization hastaken positive as well as negative impacts in the world. Adaptation of newtechnology, quality education, quality goods and services through the highlevel of competition, flow of capital, large markets share are the mainopportunities of globalization in the world (Awuah & Amal, 2011). Accordingto Agada, (2015) globalization helps to promote the economic welfare in thecountry and reduce level of poverty in some extent. Similarly, Oyekanmi, (2009)mentioned that globalization brings positivism as well as negativism in thenation.
Positivism are related with technological development and adaptation, utilizationand distribution of knowledge, economic growth, infrastructure development,innovation, flow of communication, transfer of capital, cultural exchange,create employment opportunities to the ultimate number of people, industrialdevelopment, improve level of education, health, advanced transportationsystem, increase life standard of people, easy for export and import of goodsand services etc. And negativism are related with crime, violence in thesociety, loss of cultural values, terrorism, increase level of poverty, unequaleconomic condition, exploitation of natural resources by developed countries, increaseenvironmental pollution and increase level of deforestation etc. High levelcompetition, high level of inequality, environmental damage, industrialinstability, reduction in the domestic employment opportunities and income arethe results of globalization (Awuah & Amal, 2011: Hamdi, 2013). The maineffects of globalization to the less developed countries are discussed in thefollowing point.3. Effects of globalization oneconomic/tradeMost of the author agree thatglobalization makes a markets more efficient in a country, increase competitionand equal distribution of wealth.
Globalization helps to generate economic growth in the less developedcountries by adopting modern technologies. Globalization has promoted lessdeveloped country to improve markets, issue loan from World Bank for theinfrastructure development, remove business tariff and increase internationallevel of management in the country (Hamdi, 2013). Improvement of nationalincome by using advance technology, reduction of poverty, increase foreigndirect investment and creation of employment opportunities are the maineconomic benefit arises from the globalization in the less developed countries(Jaumotte, Lall, et al. 2013). Foreign direct investment is one of theimportant economic factors of globalization which helps to develop newindustries and multinational companies to generate economic growth andemployment in the less developed countries (Lall, 2004 cited in lee, E.
andVivarelli, M., 2006). Developed and less developed countries are related anddependent with each other for resources like human resource, financial resourceas well as technological resource (Thrilwall, 2003 cited in Hamdi 2013).According to Ch Akram, (2011) globalization has improved economy of the worldthrough currency exchange, free flow of capital resource, increase in crossborder business and trade, transfer of human resource from one country toanother country and flow of information as well as communication network. Thetotal export of goods and services has grown up in the global economy due tothe globalization. The total export of the global economy was $61.81 billion in1950 and reached to $18,936.41 billion in 2014 (Statista, 2015).
It means theglobal export of the economy is growing day by day. Likewise, multinationalcorporations (MNCs) are also increasing in the world because of globalization.The initial stage of globalization, United States of America was 48.5% share ofMNCs but in 2002 it reduced to 28% because the involvement of various countriesinto the MNCs (Ch Akram, 2011). MNCs helps to increase the growth rate of FDIin the world by promoting and running business activities. Foreign directinvestment plays an important role for establishing new and existing industryin the less developed countries. Due to the increase in industry and multinationalcorporations in a country, the demand and supply of goods and services also increasesin a country. With the increase in demand and supply of goods and services in acountry, general employment level of a country also increases which helps toincrease the personal income, personal tax level and corporate tax level of acountry and it directly increases the national income of a country.
Then,country can achieve high level of economic growth as well as many developmentactivities in a country because of globalization.However, globalization is one of themain issue to create income inequality, economic interdependence and poverty inless developed countries. Due to the increase in inequality, economic growth ofa country as well living standard of people are affected adversely (Bishop,Reinke, et al., 2011). World Bank mentioned that 1.1 billion people are livingin the world under the poverty line and those people are not able to fulfilltheir basic needs (Ukpere, and Slabbert, 2007). Most of the African countriesas well as Asian countries are economically controlled, misused and exploitedof natural resources by the developed countries because of globalization(Oyekanmi, 2009). Less developed countries faces high level of mortality ratebecause of poverty.
The foreign companies which is established into lessdeveloped countries increases the job opportunities only for skilled workforce.However due to the technological development in the new business, domesticcompanies and adaptation of technology in the agriculture sectors, unskilledworkforce cannot get a job opportunities in the country and it creates andrises unemployment. 4. Effects of globalization onenvironmentThe effects on environment from theglobalization is the significant issue in the current world.
Environmentalpollution, environmental degradation, depletion of ozone layer are the someenvironmental problems from the globalization (O’Brien and Williams 2013).Effects on environment is the important challenges to the less developed aswell as developed countries. Institutional impacts, technological impacts,systematic impacts, policy impacts and societal impacts are the five mainimpacts of globalization on environment (Panayotou, 2000). The growing rate ofindustrial production led to a bigger use of natural resources which leads toenvironmental pollution and degradation arises in the world. Biologicalproblems in the countries arises due to the high level of air pollution causingfrom water pollution, industrial emissions, high level of precarious damagesand it caused degradation of landscape in the countries (Sapozhnikova, 2005).Globalization has impacted on world environment by increasing GHG emissions,promoting CO2 emissions from transportation, developing industrial activities,promoting deforestation, impoverishing and damaging biodiversity. Green houseeffects and GHG emissions is occurred from the change of climate in the worldwhich is created due to the industrial revolution, generation electricity,burning oil and coal and it’s directly and indirectly affect to theenvironment.
The human activities such as high volume of industrial productionof goods and services, transportation mainly road transport, deforestation andpollution are the main causes of CO2 emissions in the world.The increase in industrial productionand manufacturing activities, rises in the level of consumption activities, useof electricity and energy, high use of natural resources like oil, soil,mineral, forest, stone, water etc. are resulted from the globalization and itincreases the level of pollution in the environment as well as environmentaldegradation and depletion. Due to the continuous use of mineral, oil, sands,stone for the development industrial and business activities, people willsuffer from the natural disaster like landslides and earthquake in coming year.Huge improvement of Indian economy due to the globalization and it also affectand damage the environment of India (Hindustan Time, 2011). Less developedcountries has adopted low level of technology because of low level of resourcesand capital which generates high volume of air pollution and noise pollution.It is harmful and dangerous for the environment. With the increase in pollutionin the environment, many kinds of diseases and health related problems arisesto the people in the world.
The increasing number of people in the world mayuse high volume natural resources like wood from forest, sand, stone and otherminerals for the development of residential house which has impacted directly onthe environment and increase deforestation, soil erosion, landslides.The government and non-governmentinstitution should be involved in environmental protection activities to reducethe environmental pollution, environmental depletion and environmentaldegradation. Developing environment protection policy, methods, strict rulesand regulation helps to reduce environmental damage in the word and it leads toeconomic growth of the countries.
Better thought of people, cultural and socialvalues, and norms, better information about environment protection andawareness for people should be considered to protect the environment in theworld. The nations should not use only natural resources for the economicgrowth, it shouldn’t go back from the social responsibilities towards theprotection of environment (Kochtcheeva, L.V. 2013). It means every company inthe world should have social responsibilities to protect environment, carefulabout rules and regulation and environmental policy to reduce and protect theenvironment.
Many business organization and industries are also responsible forthe protection of environment in the world. The government of a country andother national and international level organization should provide thesufficient knowledge and information to the people about the environmentprotection, should make a policy, rules and regulation to reduce theenvironmental damage in the world.5. Impacts of globalization oncultureThe cultures of less developedcountries are mostly impacted positively as well as negatively byglobalization. The cultural values, norms, beliefs, fashion, living standard ofpeople in less developed countries are influenced by European countries, USA,Australia etc. Due to the globalization, every country can know about othercountries culture and value and it is easy to change and follow other countriesculture. Every country has their own culture in terms of nationality which isthe identity of citizen, religions, history, social activities that aredifferent country to country (Mueller, 1994). Culture such as value, beliefs,morals, art, knowledge, customs, social system, fashion, tradition, history,religion, habits, is the most important aspects for the people of a country.
Inthe recent year, sharing and transferring cultural value, norms, fashion andfestivals has been increasing from one country to another country. It meansevery country and people are interrelated and interconnected in terms ofculture in the current time. Culture helps to give self-respect and make goodrelationship between country and people in the world which changes the mind ofpeople in a society and nation (Obiora, 2002). Culture are different and uniquefor every human, society and nation. Every people has different behavior andattitude in the world. Due to the mass media and means of communication likeTV, radio, movies, news, cell phone, email and internet, people and country inthe world are interconnected and interrelated to each other. Globalization hasmade world more closer, appreciate, recognize and identify needs of each otherin the current world (Yusuf, 2003).
There has been seeing some culturalsimilarities all around the world which is due to the globalization. People ofless developed countries are adopted same fashion clothes, brands like thepeople of developed countries.However, many less developedcountries are negatively impacted by the globalization such as loosing culturalvalue, identity, traditions, customs and languages (Hamdi, 2013).
Less developedcountries are influenced by the western culture and society and they adoptednew eating habit, fashion, music, songs, festivals, religions, movies,language, and brand due to the globalization. The less developed countriesvanished their traditional culture, values, beliefs, customs, festivals,nationality because of globalization. Modification and adaptation of westernlife style is the main problems in the less developed countries for losing theirtraditional cultural values, identity, festivals, caste, religions and history.The cultural values and history of a nation is the main factor to achieveeconomic growth in the country. The tourism industry is also based on thecultural values, festivals and cultural history. Culture of a country helps to improvethe economic condition. So we should preserve our cultural values, festivalsand cultural history for the future development.6.
Impacts of globalization onpolitical aspectsInternational politics is alsointerconnected and interrelated to each other in the world due to theglobalization. In traditional era, politics was limited within own nationalpolitical system. The government of a nation was responsible for providingsafety and security of citizens, environmental protection, economic improvementand welfare, cultural safety and protection of human rights within the countryborder. But due to the globalization, it has been changing. Now a days,politics, political systems, political activities, global economy, trends andcondition are spreading at the global level because of globalization.
Intergovernmental organization such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF),the World Trade Organization (WTO), the World Bank and political integrationsystems like European Union (EU) has been arising into the state due to theglobalization system in the world. Political systems and activities spreads allover the world due to the global movement, NGOs and INGOs (Global Policy Forum,2017). The various impacts arises in the national culture, economy and politicsdue to the globalization. For example: historically, Nepal had monarchistgovernment. But the influence of the countries like, India, European countriesand American countries, Nepal have Constitutional Democracy.
Nepalese politicsis multi party structure where different kinds of parties involve into the election.The elected party from the election will be the government in Nepal. It’s allabout the impacts of globalization in Nepal. Sometimes it effected negativelyin a country. Political instability in less developed countries is the mainproblems in a current situation.
Due to political instability in a nation,decreases the economic activities, create employment situation, increasespoverty, no strict rules and regulation, increase the level of crime, citizenof a country doesn’t feel safety. Many foreignand domestic investor can stop their investment in the country because of politicalinstability. Economy of a country is negatively affected by the political instability.Due to the increasing level of political power, leadership power, somecountries in the world are involving in the war which is not beneficial for thecountry as well as world. In the domestic level, the political parties are alsoinvolving into the war. One party may not be satisfied with the decision of anotherparty.
Then, they involve in the war in the country which is not profitable forthe development of the countries. All of those activities has lost thedevelopment activities in the less developed countries. The employee of lessdeveloped countries are based on employment union and they use political power negativelyto increase the salary level and other facilities.
As a result many industriesand companies has closed in the countries which decreases the employment ofpeople as well as national income of a nation.7. Impacts of globalization onemployment and educationGlobalization is the main factorwhich plays the significant role in the areas of employment, education andhealth in the less developed countries.
High level of competition ineducational institutions, the level of quality education in the world has beenchanging dramatically. The people from the less developed countries hasmigrated to the developed countries for employment, quality education, betterhealth, better careers, maintain living standards and for other opportunities.It’s all are from the impacts of globalization. The employment, education and health are essential to develop andmaintain the economic system, economic condition and social system of acountry. The increasing level of technology and communication in the world, theeducation system and health are totally changed. Due to the high level ofcompetition and demand of the people, the multinational higher educationalsystem has been arising in the world which helps to increase the abilities andcompetencies of people in a practical way. The government of a nation,Non-Government Organization (NGO), International Non-Government Organization(INGO) and World Health Organization has been trying to increase the literacy aswell as avoid incurable diseases in the less developed countries. The countriesin the world can get many benefits from flow of skilled human resources toimprove economic condition, develop research and innovation.
Due to the highimprovement in education system, health and skills human resources, theeconomic condition of a country can reach in a high level which is thebeneficial for the country as well as citizens of a country. The developmentand success of any country depends on health, education system and employmentlevel.However, the less developed countrieshas suffered from various problems due to the globalization. The unequal levelof education system, health and employment between developed and less developedcountries are the main problems in the world. Most of the developed as well asEnglish speaking countries like USA, UK, Canada and Australia are benefitedfrom the globalization because they have skilled human resource and advancedtechnology. Transfer of skilled human resource from less developed countries todeveloped countries is the main problems to improve the economic condition ofless developed countries.
Only the developed countries like USA, UK, Australia,and Canada are mostly benefited from the technological development, innovation,human capital, high level of education and health but less developed countrieshas some limitation to get such type of benefit (Altbach, 2004). Domestic companyand small industry cannot compete with the international industry in a nation.So, many regional people has lost their job due to the globalization. Only skilledpeople will get good job with the higher pay in the international companies. Poorpeople who don’t have sufficient financial resources cannot go high level ofeducational institution and health care center. High level of education institutions and hospitalare only afforded by the rich people in the world.
9. Conclusion Globalization is an ongoing processwhich is related with integration and interconnection, industrialization,liberalization and internationalization in the world. Globalization hasprovided advantages as well as disadvantages in the current world. People aswell as less developed countries are getting more benefit from theglobalization such as improvement of economic condition, higher level of jobopportunities, high level of education system, health system, technologicaladvancement, and cultural exchange between the countries, reduction of povertylevel, proper utilization of natural resources, quality goods and services. Butglobalization has also impacted less developed countries negatively indifferent aspects like economical aspects, environmental aspects, politicalaspects and cultural aspects. Economic crisis, loss of domestic job, highcompetition, cultural loss, poor educational system in less developedcountries, environmental degradation, unequal distribution of income and increasing level of terrorism are resultedfrom th1e globalization. Due to the integration of countries, development ofinformation and internet, world become closer and smaller.
Modernization oftransportation system, modernization of information technology, advancedresearch and development related to science are all through the globalization.Every country are running to make nation beautiful as well as powerful in termsof leadership, infrastructure, technology, education, health, security, safety,advanced communication system etc. The branded products like IPhone, MacBook,Samsung, Nike clothes and shoes, Adidas clothes and shoes, Dior perfume, creamare using all over the world because of globalization.