1.0 Executive Summary
The main objective of this business plan is to provide investors information which necessary to evaluate the scope of Inferno Company in the market and the potential future growth in the global market. The market trend analysis and research has shown that there is great and sufficient room for business like Inferno Company to run. Inferno Company will have an energetic, young, inventive, responsible and progressive management style. The ethics and responsibilities toward environmental protection of the management and employees eventually stipulate and accelerate the growth and improvement of Inferno Company.
Inferno Roof Tiles is an invented roof tiles made from waste plastics and sand. This results in an eco-product which re-engineered waste into a new functional product. The gap between building construction and environmental friendly can be closer with the launching of Inferno roof tiles as a new building material for Malaysian construction. Inferno Company will work closely to the private construction sectors, as well as the government sector for the implementation of the Inferno roof tiles in their new and developing projects.
Inferno Company strives to compete with the current commercial roof tile companies and manufacturers and become the major supplier of green roof tiles in Malaysia followed by Asia and worldwide. This ambitious target is set once the company noticed about the increasing trend and demand in green building materials and tends in solving the environmental issues which is increasing in an alarming rate.
The company is seeking for a moderate investment from investors with the intention to launch and start-up the business to provide building and constructions industry the best alternative and solution. Inferno Company is expected to achieve profitability within a year.

Figure 1.1: Comparison chart for sales, gross margin and net profit in future 3 years.?
2.0 Company Description
Inferno is a freshly established company which was formed to create a supreme quality green roof tile manufacturing brand aimed at the Malaysian market. The company was formed with an intention to have strong focus on the development of green technology and materials as well as the development of skills at the same time creating job opportunities. With this aspiration, the company seeks to infiltrate the Malaysian market with the blue ribbon recycled roof tile solutions distributed through few platforms, notably E-Commerce, direct supply in large quantities to construction companies (both private and government) and retailed stores such as hardware stores.
There has been an increasing demand for roof tile in developing countries like Malaysia. However, commercial roof tiles nowadays are usually not environmental friendly and require greater energy to produce or manufacture. This has prompted the materials engineers to develop a greener roof tiles which can be manufacture or produce in a lower consumption energy and eventually reduce the burden of exploiting raw materials for production of roof tiles.
The product is named Inferno Tiles. It is made of a composite material which comprises recycled HDPE plastics and sand. Plastics are the major issues now and by using plastics as raw materials in the product can reduce the environmental impacts. The embodied energy in plastics allows the possibility of low energy consumption rate in manufacturing and hence lower cost is required to produce a piece of roof tile as compared to the commercial one which made from virgin materials. However, the performance of the roof tiles has been conforming and outstand the commercial ones.
Inferno Company strives to be the dominant provider of supreme green roof tiles. With this intention, strict quality control program, competitive pricing, timely response towards customers, after sale services and lean manufacturing will be implemented.
The company not only strives to provide green roof tile but also other green building materials in future. Green building materials can provide a better and more environmental friendly construction. Eco-house which is environmental friendly will be the vision of the company.
Team Description
Inferno is a partnership, owned and operated by five materials engineers who had associated with the composite material projects for years and with the extensive research conducted as well as collaborations of the composite material projects ranging from biodegradable food packaging to building and constructions. Two of the materials engineers had experienced in invention of new materials specifically for buildings and constructions. Another three materials engineers had years of experiences in designing composite materials for multipurpose applications in diverse industries.

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3.0 Product
Our product, Inferno roof tile is a green and affordable building construction material. Inferno roof tile are made from the combination of HDPE plastics and sand with a ratio of 7 to 3 respectively. Our company collects or buys the waste plastics from recycle centers and categorizes all the recycled plastics according to their recycle grades. After categorization, the HDPE plastic is heated to its melting point. Then, sand is added into melted plastic and stirred by a mixer. The mixture will become a paste-like compound and it is poured into a roof tile mould to compress it to desired shape. Inferno plastic roof tile is formed after cooled.

Unit Selling Points (USP)
1. Recycling and re-engineering. Recycling is one of the effective ways to reduce the amount of plastic to be landfilled. Plastic bags used in this world per minute are 1,000,000 (Our Product, 2017). However, plastic takes more than 600 years to decompose (Our Product, 2017). Inferno roof tile utilizes the plastic wastes as one of the major materials. This case the waste plastics are re-engineered into a new functional product. Therefore, possibility of reduction in the waste plastic being landfilled or burned is greatly increased and accelerated.

2. Environmental friendly. The manufacturing process of Inferno roof tiles does not create waste because the process is reversible as the excess from trimming will be collected and reuse in the melting process. After all, the main ingredients for Inferno roof tiles are most industrial and commercial wastes.

3. Long lifespan. The Inferno roof tile can last for at least 100 years because both plastic and sand does not decompose easily and it may have a lifespan of more than hundred years. This is a credit when this material is used for refurbishing and the maintenance of the historical buildings and important buildings which represent the culture and identity of certain countries or communities.

4. Great performance in strength. Inferno roof tile is having superb performance in strength than commercial clay roof tile. During installation process, the Inferno tile will not easily break when impact exerts from a height while the commercial clay roof tile breaks in no time. The reason behind this outstanding performance is Inferno roof tile has good impact absorption and good tensile strength compare to commercial clay roof tile which is a brittle material. Inferno roof tile can withstand the force more than human weight; this indicates that worker can step on it without the fear of breaking the roof tiles during installation.
5. Water, weather and flame resistance. Inferno tile is water resistance because plastic is having low water absorption properties. UV resistance of Inferno roof tiles are tested and proven to be effective when exposed under a hot weather in certain country especially those Asia country. The colours of Inferno tile will maintained under hot sun. Inferno roof tile aids in prevention of the flame spread out along the roof.

6. Soundproof. The noise can be reduced by Inferno tile during raining day. The impact of rain drop is absorbed as compare to a metal roof tile.

7. Light weight. The Inferno roof tile has an average weight which is approximately 1.3 kg which is 70% lighter weight compared to traditional roof tiles. The load applied by the roof tile to the framework of the roofing system can be reduced, thus the roofing system reinforcement during building construction can also be reduced. During installation, the worker can install it easily. Besides that, transportation cost can be saved as lighter weight of products consumes less petrol during transportation.

8. Variety. Inferno roof tile can be moulded into many shapes such as slate, roman, slate ridge and etc. It also comes in a wide range of colour choices and customization of colour choice by customer is also possible.
Inferno Slate Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 300 × 600 mm
Thickness 25 mm
Headlap 75 mm

Inferno Ridge/Hip Cap for Slate Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 300 × 600 mm
Thickness 25 mm
Headlap 20 mm

Inferno Roman Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 330 × 420 mm
Wave height 40 mm
Headlap 50 mm

Inferno Ridge/Hip Cap for Roman Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 330 × 200 mm
Wave height 40 mm
Headlap 20 mm

Colour Available

9. Low cost. The major materials used are waste plastics and sand. The material cost and energy consumption is much lower than virgin plastic. The maintenance and installation cost will be reduced because not easy to break as compare to clay tile and long lifespan of Inferno roof tile. The price of Inferno roof tile is RM 12 per square meter.

Table 3.1| The properties of Inferno Roof Tile.
Material Specifications
Compression resistance 14 MPa
Temperature range -60°C to +80°C
Lifespan >100 years
Density 1103 kg/m2
Flame spread No flame spread
Water absorption 0.3%
Fracture toughness 3.5 kgf/cm2
Biological stability Moss and mold spread resistance
Chemical stability No reaction with acidic and alkaline environment
UV-resistance Resistance to UV-radiation and colour will maintain
Heat conductivity 2800 J/m2s
4.0 Industry Analysis
Roof Tile Manufacturing
According to Department of Statistics Malaysia, the population in Malaysia is estimated at 32 million in 2017 (Current Population Estimates, Malaysia, 2016-2017, 2017). With the growing of population, the number of households needed in the future will increase. The roof tiles industry is expected to increase in the future. The house owner will want to use the Inferno roof tiles which are cheaper and better strength and properties to replace the commercial roof tiles.

4.1 PEST Analysis
Political Factors: Politics can be one of the risk factors to roof tile industry. Recently Malaysia had been formed a new government, thus they can change business rules that bring positively or negatively impact to roof tile industry. Malaysia government had made announcement to abolish Goods and Services Tax (GST) and implement Sales and Service Tax (SST) start from 1 September 2018. Under GST, everyone need to be charged on the tax including supplier, manufacturer, whole seller and retailer (Sales and Service Tax (SST) in Malaysia, 2018). The range of taxable become lesser under SST can bring positively impact to Malaysian.

Economic Factors: Malaysia economic growth rate was increased from 4.2% to 5.9% in 2016 and 2017 (Malaysia Economic Outlook, 2018). The data showed that Malaysia current economy is in growing stage. More investments will come in to Malaysia to develop economic. Government is encouraging people to develop or create their own business.

Social Factors: Entrepreneurial spirit has been encouraged and promoted in Malaysia to own businesses. The strong competitiveness atmosphere causes people hard to find job. Creativities and innovative is what a company looking for. Inferno Company creates and design a new production line and product in Malaysia to survive in roof tile market.

Technological Factors: Nowadays, new technologies and high efficiency machines are sought by industry. The machines that use in roof tile industry need to be designed for faster and higher speed and also ensure the quality of product to be excellent at the same time. The industry need to be performed efficiency and effective at the same time. Old machines or second hand machines have lower performance rate and speed compared to new machines.
4.2 Porter’s Five Forces
Competitive Rivalry: There are lots of roof tile manufacturers in Malaysia and the market is considered quite competitive. Inferno Company also created as roof tile manufacturer but have unique and different with other competitors. Inferno Company is using HDPE to produce an eco-friendly roof tile. The strength and properties of this HDPE roof tiles is better than clay and cement roof tile. The competitive rivalry is minimal because there is no manufacturer produce this kind of roof tile in Malaysia. Hence, Inferno Company has tremendous strength and profits in the market.

Supplier Power: The main raw material needed is the waste HDPE plastics and sand. There are quite a lot of waste plastic supplier can be found in Malaysia. Waste plastics or HDPE plastics have no much in value and can buy it at cheaper price. Since there are many suppliers can be found, comparison on prices between different suppliers can be conducted and survey to get the most suitable supplier.

Buyer Power: The potential buyers of Inferno roof tile are the private sector contractor and government sector contractor for residential construction and non-residential construction in Malaysia. Large amount of roof tiles are needed for one construction. The different between Inferno and other competitors is Inferno provide roof tile with better strength and lower price. This can help to reduce plastic waste as the raw material used is waste HDPE plastics. Nowadays, contractors and government are looking for beneficial and effective ways to reduce pollution and waste. Launching of Inferno roof tiles can accelerate this event.

Threat of Substitution: In roof tile industry, the requirements for roof tile are strict where a building and construction material must be safety and at the same time strength must be significant. It is not easy to invent a new material to substitute the roof tile. Hence, the industry will face lesser threat of substitution.

Threat of New Entry: This roof tile business requires changing technologies to improve the process, huge capital investment is necessary. Inferno Company faces threat from local and top roof tile manufacturers which they may also will develop this kind of roof tile in the future. To overcome this problem, partnerships and reputations are mandatory for Inferno Company which can help to secure the business in the market.
5.0 Market Analysis
In past few years, construction industry has a robust growth in Malaysia due to expansion of economics and development sectors. According to the Malaysia Country Report by Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB), the collected data showed that the value of construction project awarded was recorded MYR 141.8 billion in 2015 increased to MYR 229 billion (Country Report Malaysia, 2017). In term of both value and number of project private sector have occupy 77.8% (RM178.1 billion) and 74.3% (5,091 projects) versus government sector at 22.2%(RM50.9 billion) and 25.7% (1,764 projects) (Country Report Malaysia, 2017).
Table 5.1| Value of Construction Projects Awarded by Sector and Type of Project (Country Report Malaysia, 2017).
Sector and type of Project Value (RM million)
In year 2014 2015 2016 2017
Total Private Sector 161,363.78 117,127.32 178,143.68 34,311.26
Residential 34,781.71 51,097.83 39,075.50 11,265.92
Non-Residential 91,973.73 49,374.63 38,964.58 15,072.84
Social Amenities 4,833.52 2,575.03 3,561.94 1,575.82
Infrastructure 29,774.82 14,079.83 96,541.66 6,396.68
Total Government Sector 23,653.56 24,724.12 50,882.08 6,045.07
Residential 2,139.25 2,677.18 1,560.38 909.06
Non-Residential 3,925.24 4,049.74 3,546.58 681.61
Social Amenities 3,343.55 2,940.88 5,110.49 1,047.74
Infrastructure 14,245.52 15,056.32 40,664.63 3,406.66
Grand Total 185,017.34 141,851.44 229,025.76 40,356.33
Note: As at 30 June 2017 Source: CIDB Malaysia

The tiles market has been greatly impacted by the growth in the construction industry in Malaysia. Nowadays, the amount of existing residential, commercial and government units increase continuously, this trend leads the market of replacement demand for tiles increase at the same time (Gupta, 2018). With growing of urbanization, the number of households and buildings are predicted to increase and cause the raising in the demand of tiles.

Table 5.2| Number of Construction Projects Awarded by Sector and Type of Project (Country Report Malaysia, 2017).
Sector and type of Project Number
In year 2014 2015 2016 2017
Total Private Sector 6,276 5,643 5,091 1,645
Residential 2,161 1,929 1,762 597
Non-Residential 2,677 2,316 2,005 665
Social Amenities 257 250 263 81
Infrastructure 1,181 1,148 1,061 302
Total Government Sector 1,800 1,901 1,764 488
Residential 160 164 92 45
Non-Residential 342 376 404 97
Social Amenities 445 476 414 127
Infrastructure 853 885 854 219
Grand Total 8,076 7,544 6,855 2,133
Note: As at 30 June 2017 Source: CIDB Malaysia

5.1 Market Segmentations
In regards to the distribution business, there are more than 2,000 construction related businesses annually in Malaysia. All these businesses could be the potential customers of Inferno roof tiles.
Private and government sector contractor: Nowadays, people concerns about the environmental pollution. By using Inferno roof tiles, it can promote the event and activities on recycling of plastic. This also can be a new and unique selling point of the construction project.
Local businesses: The hardware store and roof tiles suppliers can look for new roof tiles to promote and sell to customers. This new design can grab the attention and curiosity of customer to know more information of this roof tile. The customers may buy the roof tiles for self-replacement in household.

Figure 5.1: Market analysis in pie chart.

5.2 Product and Business Analysis
The primary competitive advantage and selling point of Inferno roof tile is the unique and invention of roof tile which uses waste plastics as ingredient. This invention is currently cannot be found in market. As compare the Inferno roof tiles with commercial cement and clay roof tile, there are some advantages over the other competitors. The addition of plastic to the roof tiles gives the roof tiles considerable durability and it is environmentally safe and does not emit harmful substance. Besides, the Inferno roof tiles do not absorb moisture easily, thus it can last for a longer time and easy to clean. Another advantage is the price of Inferno roof tile which is cheaper than commercial clay and cement roof tile as the material cost and production cost are lower. According to a study in Science Magazine, Malaysia is the eighth worst country worldwide for plastic waste and Malaysia was estimated produced almost one million tonnes of mismanaged plastic waste (Jenna R. Jambeck, 2015). As using waste plastic as main material to make this tile, the mismanaged plastic scenario can also be reduced.

5.3 Competitor Analysis
In current roof tile market in Malaysia, there are many roofing tiles manufacturers, distributors and wholesalers that provide clay and cement roof tiles on a regular basis. There are no manufacturers and distributors produce this type of recycled plastic roof tile in Malaysia like Inferno. Majority roof tile manufacturers are using clay or cement as raw materials in production of roof tile. However, there are some roof tile manufacturers in oversea had started the businesses of recycled plastic roof tile:
• Resintile (EA) Ltd (South Africa): The primary objective of this business is to reduce the contamination and pollution of the environment and at the same time provide a product that is safe, light and easy to install. This roof tiles are not only cheaper but also eco-friendly to environment.
• Zhangjiagang Aicheng Machinery (China): China is the top country worst country for plastic waste which have around 8.82 million tonnes of mismanaged plastic waste (Jenna R. Jambeck, 2015). Thus, most of the company started to develop and manufacture product by using plastic waste. Zhangjiagang Aicheng Machinery has developed a recycled plastic roofing tile extrusion line. The industry produces PVC corrugated roof tile by extrusion.
Inferno Company creates a similar production line as the competitor to produce the recycled plastic roof tile. The production cost and material cost are lower because the production line and raw materials are readily available in Malaysia and no import fees are needed. Inferno roof tiles can supply to local market with lower price and may export to other countries in the future.
6.0 Marketing Plan
As aforementioned, our main ingredients used to manufacture our product are waste HDPE plastics and sand as compare with the traditional roof tiles, which include clay or concrete, metal or plastic roofing material, our raw material cost is lower. The machines used to process Inferno roof tile are lesser and therefore lesser worker is required. Thus, lots of time can be saved from there and a higher production rate can be achieved. As referring on above points, Inferno roof tiles can be launched in 15-21% lower price (which is 55% or above of our manufacturing cost) than the traditional clay or concrete roof tiles, thus able to earn a higher profit than traditional or commercial roof tiles.
Our main company target group will be residential constructors (including private and government sector). As for our product market, there are some existing customer who joined in contractor associations such as Master Builders Association Malaysia (CIDB) and etc. From there, application of community marketing and outbound marketing is possible to advertise Inferno Company to the potential customers. By open up a list of prospects of the market of new building material and been recognized and hopefully able to lead to word of mouth marketing. Outbound marketing includes direct and E-mail marketing to communicate with customer on their requirements and enquiries on Inferno products. Furthermore, the marketing strategy will be implied is affinity marketing to generates sales and creates new customers, at the same time, build brand awareness or B-to-B (business to business) marketing by supporting customers using a better material selection of our product. This case can be done by having partnerships with SP Setia, Eco-world, IOI properties and etc.
Moreover, online marketing will be done through social media to advertise our product and target buyers who aimed at small quantity for renovation purpose or acknowledge to retailers of Inferno products. Through Facebook or YouTube channels, such as Tech Insider, Science Channel and etc, to publish articles or contents to showcase Inferno Company’s knowledge and expertise on the products, meanwhile, educate potential customers and influence them without direct selling. Besides that, search engine such as Google, can be utilized by creating company website as this is one of the best way to be recognized as a start-up company. Thus, from the website, cross-media marketing is possible as provide information are provided through multiple channels and to contact or cooperate with Inferno Company or retail stores in no time.
Another marketing strategy will be implemented is Ambush marketing. This is done by participating contractor Expo and Technology Expo, which allows capitalization of Inferno products and leverage the brand equity of others business. Besides that, PR marketing will be fully utilized to build connection and trust between the customers as long-term cooperation can be achieved.
Place (distribution)
As a new start-up manufacturing company, customer source is found by own so our focus of customer will be private residential contractors followed by government contractors and renovation companies. Cooperation with retail owners is another strategic approach on finding potential customers to distribute Inferno roof tiles. Then, connection with a few green building or huge contractor company operation shall be made, which needed bulk consumption and construction amount to sell the product directly to them. Shipping logistic is then a necessary to transport Inferno products to clients. At current stage, East Malaysia is Inferno Company’s primary target. As the company expands, west Malaysia and ASEAN then worldwide will be the next targets.
Inferno roof tile is a composite comprises of plastics and sand. As compared with the existence concrete in current market, Inferno product is more feasibility to customize the shape upon customer request since Inferno roof tiles does not limit to the traditional model design. Besides that, most of the current building materials worldwide used are concrete-based, i.e. clay or concrete tiles which are quite brittle, Inferno roof tiles have great impact absorption which also indicates that a safe transportation is guaranteed. Inferno roof tiles are also readily available in a wide variation of colours. Furthermore, corrosion like metal roof tiles is no longer a concern for Inferno roof tiles. Therefore, Inferno products are not only able to achieved the basic requirements but also earn some extra credits which current market demands.

7.0 Financial Plan
Funding requirements
Based on the forecast made (refer to tables below), confidently mentioned that investing to Inferno Company is a reliable investment and sound business since profit will be made in a few-year-time. In order to progress, an investment of about RM100000 is mandatory by Aug 2018. The start-up fund will be useful in the procurement of equipment and initial operating expenses.
Payback strategy
In the future years, this investment can be gained by a dividend of excess profit. The profits earned by the sales revenue will generate a lot of extra fund which can payback the investment and in addition 10% interest which is about RM10000 from the amount of investment can be guaranteed.
Important Assumptions
The financial projections for Inferno Roof Tile are based on the following assumptions. These assumptions are thought to be quite conservative and accurate as well as the financial forecasts.

Table 7.1 | General assumptions.
General Assumptions Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Plan Month 1 2 3
Current Interest Rate 10.00% 10.00% 10.00%
Long-term Interest Rate 10.00% 10.00% 10.00%
Tax Rate 25.42% 25.00% 25.00%
Other 0 0 0

7.1 Break-even analysis

Figure 7.1: Break Even Analysis chart.

Table 7.2| Table for break even analysis.
Break-Even Analysis (RM)

Monthly Unit Break-even 303
Monthly Revenue Break-even 8547
Monthly Variable Cost 257.55

Average Per-Unit Revenue 28.20
Average Per-Unit Variable Cost 0.85
Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost 8289.45

7.2 Projected Profit and Loss
The tables and the charts below show the income expenses monthly for first year and annually for the next two years.
Table 7.3 | Profit and Loss
Inferno Profit and loss
Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Sales 65250 185668 299456
Direct Cost of Sales 4682 5228 5450
Other 0 0 0
Total Cost of Sales 4682 5228 5450

Gross Margin 60568 180440 294006
Gross Margin % 92.82% 97.18% 98.18%

Payroll 25458 35878 48546
Sales and Marketing and Other Expenses 900 1200 1600
Depreciation 2600 2600 2600
Leased Equipment 0 0 0
Utilities 3500 3700 3900
Insurance 1500 1500 1500
Rent 6000 7000 8000
Payroll Taxes (25%) 6471 8970 12137
Worker Salaries 5000 7000 9000
Other 0 0 0
Total Operating Expenses 51429 67848 87283

Profit Before Interest and Taxes 9139 112592 206723
EBITA 9139 112592 206723
Interest Expenses 0 0 0
Taxes Incurred (25%) 0 28148 51681

Net Profit 9139 84444 155042
Net Profit/Sales 14.00% 45.48% 51.77%

Profit Monthly

Figure 7.2: Projected monthly profit.

Profit Yearly

Figure 7.3: Projected yearly profit.
Gross Margin Monthly

Figure 7.4: Expected gross margin monthly.

Gross Margin Yearly

Figure 7.5: Expected gross margin yearly.
7.3 Projected Cash Flow
Table 7.4 | Yearly Cash flow
Inferno Cash Flow
Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Cash Received (RM)
i) Cash from Operations
Cash sales 116500 157486 175469
Cash from receivable 51050 62530 70152
Subtotal Cash from Operations 167550 220016 245981

ii) Additional Cash Received
Sales Tax/VAT, HST/GST Received 0 0 0
New Current Borrowing 0 0 0
New Other liabilities (interest-free) 0 0 0
New Long-term liabilities 0 0 0
Sales of other current assets 0 0 0
Sales of long term assets 0 0 0
New Investment Received 10000 0 0
Subtotal Cash Received 177550 220016 245981

Year (RM)
Expenditures from Operations
Cash Spending 40193 95976 110452
Bill Payments 25400 90045 90124
Subtotal spent on Operations 65593 186021 200576

ii) Additional Cash Received
Sales Tax,VAT, HST/GST Paid out 2000 0 0
Principal Repayment of Current Borrowing 0 0 0
Other Liabilities Principal Repayment 0 0 0
Long-term liabilities Principal Repayment 0 0 0
Purchase other current assets for company used 36000 0 0
Purchase long-term assets for company used 10000 0 0
Dividends 40000 0 0
Subtotal cash spent 151593 87021 200576
Net Cash Flow 25957 33995 45405
Cash Balance 45957 79952 125327

The table above shows the projected cash flow for the inferno company whether it will meet the projected sales, estimations are done for after 6 months of operation, Inferno Company will have positive cash flow. The chart for cash flow is shown below:

Cash Flow

Figure 7.6: Cash flow chart.

7.4 Projected Balance Sheet
Inferno Roof tiles balance sheet illustrate a healthy financial position for this new company. The monthly balance sheet was also estimated as shown on the table.
Table 7.5| Projected balance sheet.
Inferno Balance Sheet
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Current Assets
Cash 13997 25640 38690
Accounts Receivable 30500 40500 50500
Other current assets 7000 7000 7000
Total current assets 51497 73140 96190

Long-Term Assets
Long-Term Assets 15000 20000 25000
Depreciation 0 0 0
Total long -term assets 15000 20000 25000
Total Assets 66497 93140 121190

ii) Liabilities and capital
Current liabilities
Account Payable 14565 18000 20000
Current Borrowing 0 0 0
Other current liabilities 0 0 0
Subtotal current liabilities 14565 18000 20000

Long-term liabilities 0 0 0
Total liabilities 14565 18000 20000

Paid in capital 60000 60000 60000
Retained earning (25000) (30000) (35000)
Earning (15962) 47456 70000
Total Capital 19038 77456 95000
Total liabilities and capital 33603 95456 115000

Net Worth 19038 77456 95000


Traditional laws have rituals and demands to be met prior to marriage accomplishment. Age of marriage is set to be eighteen in section 4 of marriage acts. It defines marriage as conscious and willful union of male and female whether monogamous or polygamous $ registration as per the law. Both parties are required to have consented be adults and of opposite gender (Chigiti, 2018).
Early marriage is a worldwide calamity within all countries, cultures religions and among all ethnic groups. Kenya is among the 20 countries with high numbers of child marriage (brides, n.d) .Although there is a confirmed decrease in child marriage over the last 10 years this is still not enough to eradicate it as per the sustainable development goals (UNICEF, 2018). Close to twenty five million marriages have been prevented over the last 10 years.650 million is the current estimation of worldwide child marriage. Population married each year stand at 12 million. The sustainable development target stands at 5.3.
Individual children have lawful schooling entitlement. This is guarded by international tradition and concession that binds majorly to organization states Kenya included. The UN proclamation of human right states that everyone has a right to education of which it should be free and obligatory at the basic level. It is clearly stipulated n Kenyan laws that marriage should consensual and between individuals above 18years of age. Marriage for Children below this age can’t be sensible. The agreement on the withdrawal/ending all extant segregation against women and the minor right congress contains a detailed set of implementable devotions on education and gender equality rights (NCCC, 2010) The Sustainable development goal number five (UN, 2015)also stresses the need for gender equality in education and women empowerment.
Almost everywhere, women in rural areas are liable to get married at a tender age compared to those in rural areas. Their degree of education also has a vital role (UN, 2015).In the United States of America, 2.1% of girls aged 15-17 were married early,7.6% of girls aged 15-19 were cohabiting(UN,2010). In Oceana and South East Asia, 22%of girls experience early marriage each year,12% get married before age 15 (UNPA, 13)Girls in Bangladesh and Afghanistan face early marriage whereby 50% are married under 18 years.
As per UNICEF report, Africa is ranked with the highest rates of early marriages especially in these three countries namely Chad 67%, Niger 76%, and central Africa with more than 68%girl marrying under 18 (Raid, 2018) .
40% of women in sub-Saharan Africa enter marriage by 18 years; most of them are the second or third wives of polygamous homesteads (UNICEF, 2012). An estimated 23% of girls are married before their 18th birthday in Kenya today with 4% 0f them married before 15 years (UNICEF 2017). Although Kenya has a law fighting against the practice of early childhood marriages it is still practiced in the country’s rural. In a comparison of a number of girls to boys married by age of 18, girls stand at 11.6% which is higher than for boys which stand at 11.6%.
The national prevalence rate is at 34% for girls and 1.4% for males (plan international 2011). Child marriage and female genital mutilation are two of the key violations against young girls in the country despite having enough laws against the retrogressive practice.
A countrywide survey showed that these counties namely Kisii, Kuria, West Pokot, Wajir, Garissa, Marsabit, Isiolo, and Garissa still record large numbers of child marriages. Girls are largely affected than boys at 11% and 1% respectively at ages between 15-19years; this means that more needs to be done to save girls from these practices (Odhiambo, 2017)
According to (Wako, 2017), Parents marry off their children at a tender age for prestige; they are not allowed out of wedlock to conceive at their parents’ homes. Parents receive a bride prize which is determined by whether one is a virgin at the time of being sold off. Key reasons for this include gender inequality, tradition ; poverty. Girls from families of a low socioeconomic class are 2.5 times more likely to marry in childhood compared to those from .a higher socioeconomic class. Those from rural areas are twice likely to face it compared to those in urban settings. This practice also varies with regions with northeastern and coast with the highest observed rates compared to regions like Nairobi and central as the lowest. Childhood marriage is a violation of human rights it limits girls options on top of exposing them to increased health risks and complications like premature deaths during the intra partum period in most developing countries. Young married girls are at an increased risk of compacting HIV in Kenya, a survey in kisumu revealed that 33%of married girls were infected as compared to 22%of unmarried sexually involved age mates (unicef, 2016).
Among the Maasai community in Kenya high rates of child brides is reported.90%of girls are married and exposed to traditional cultural practices like FGM. (Kenya, n.d), the girls drop out of school due to pressures of marriage.
A marked increase in child marriage has been evident by an increase in the percentages between the year 2015 and 2018, this is from4% to 23% (Unicef, 2018)


1. General Description

This visual shows a couple dressed in a traditional Korean costume in front of a traditional Korean house, depicting a scene of a loving couple in the olden days in Korea. This photograph was taken in South Korea, at the Namsangol Hanok Village. Some of the restored traditional Korean houses in Korea are located at this traditional Korean village, Namsangol Hanok Village.

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The couple were dressed in traditional Korean costume and the photo was taken at a traditional Korean village helped to showcase the culture of Korea. The couple were wearing hanbok, hanbok was worn daily until about a century ago and it remains as an important icon of Korea. Hanbok is also categorised into different varieties, hence this also allows one’s social position to be identified. The upper classes usually wear hanbok which were made of high-grade materials and in a variety of colours. Commoners were restricted to only wearing hanbok made of just cotton and were required to only wear white. In the photograph, the couple were wearing hanbok made in high grade materials and were in a variety of colours, showing that they were preferably in the upper class.

The photo also includes a Korean traditional house, known as Hanok as a background. Most Hanok are built with wood, stone, straw, clay and paper that were readily available in nature. Hence, not many old buildings have survived into present times. Therefore, some hanok are restored at Namsangol Hanok Village making it as similar as it was in the past, as the walls behind the couple seemed to be made of clay/cement and stones. This picture also shows that they are a married couple or a couple who is going to get married, as intimacy between normal couples are not publicly shown in the olden days of Korea.

2. Analysis

This photograph consists of 3 different composition.
Firstly, the photographer used the “Rule of Third”. The Rule of Third refers to placing points of interest on the imaginary lines or intersection points of the lines in the picture, as studies have shown that people’s eyes usually go to one of the intersection points naturally rather than the centre of the picture when viewing images. In the photograph, the couple was placed on one of the intersection points, this is because the main focus of the picture should be the couple. The use of this technique naturally helps people viewing the picture to focus on the couple.

Secondly, the photographer also used the “Framing” technique. Framing is the technique whereby the photographer uses elements which were originally at the scene to create a frame within the frame of the picture, hence allowing the viewer to know exactly where they should be focusing on. In the photograph, the photographer made use of the natural environment, which is the tree branches to frame the couple. This has then helped to gain the viewer’s attention on the couple.

Lastly, the angle of the picture taken was an eye-level angle. The eye-level angle is best suited for this situation. A high angle would make the couple look vulnerable or small, while a low angle would make the couple look more powerful. Hence, it was taken at an eye-level angle as this angle allows the viewers to feel comfortable as this is the most common view and we are all used to this angle. In addition, this angle also allows the Hanok behind the couple to be seen as a background. Hence, this makes the overall picture look more realistic as it is supposed to be a setting in the olden days in Korea.

3. Interpretation

The message or story behind this image is that this is the first step they are making together as a couple, starting the next phase of their lives, which refers to them being a married couple. And that they are ready to face the problems they will face as a couple together. Not just taking care of their own needs but taking care of each other’s needs and worries. Mainly showing the romance and love between them, which is important between a married couple.

The photographer’s purpose is to be able to capture the couple’s loving moments, in order to allow the audience to feel the love between them just by looking at the picture. Not only that, but also for the couple to look back and reminisce these moments as they overcome obstacles and grow old together.

The photographer is Jungyeol, he is a Korean wedding photographer. He has a photography style that is of dreamy, vintage and romantic. Hence, this helped me determine the meaning behind the photo, as it showcases the love and romance between the couple. In addition, his K-style photos look just like scenes from Korean movies. Korean movies are mostly known for their romantic storyline, hence this has also helped me determine the meaning of highlighting the love and romance in the picture. I believe the target audience is the people around the couple, couples who are planning to get married or people who needs assurance in marriage.

4. Judgement

There are a few reasons why I honestly like this image.
Firstly, it showcases the genuine love between the couple.

Secondly, there are lots of photographs of this couple which were taken at the same location. But this photograph also highlights the culture of Korea.

Lastly, this is not emphasised in the photograph, but after some research, the couple is actually from Japan. Hence, the photographs of this specific couple caught my attention more as it shows the acceptance between cultures. It shows that the Japan couple is accepting the Korean culture and making to effort to understand more about it by trying on the Korean traditional costumes and experience them personally.

This image makes me feel the positiveness of marriage. People around me has always been talking about how negative marriage is and the problems they face as a marriage couple, and complain about one another. Which some may end up getting a divorce. But this photo gave me a new perspective, which is before a marriage people have to think through about it before making a decision and not make a decision to marry someone without considering the problems they may face as a couple. This is because through this picture, I can truly feel the love and that they accept each other for who they are. Through the actions of the couple, such as the slight embrace the male is giving his wife, I feel that they are prepared to face problems that may come their way during their marriage as one.

The target audience are the people around the couple, couples who are planning to get married and people who needs assurance in marriage. The people around the couple will attend their wedding where these photos will be shown, feeling the love between the couple through the pictures will allow the people to congratulate them wholeheartedly. When the couples who are planning to get married see these love filled pictures, they would also want their wedding photos to be taken by the same photographer. This photograph also shows the positiveness in marriage, positive and negative things may happen during a marriage, but a couple can overcome them together. This may also encourage those who feel uncertain in marriage to get married.


Anon, N.d. Camera shots, angles and movement, lighting, cinematography and mise en scene Online. Available from: http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-54_u-251_t-647_c-2411/camera-shots-angles-and-movement-lighting-cinematography-and-mise-en-scene/nsw/camera-shots-angles-and-movement-lighting-cinematography-and-mise-en-scene/skills-by-text-type-film/film-overview
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Accessed 6 Nov 2018

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Accessed 6 Nov 2018

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Accessed 6 Nov 2018

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Accessed 6 Nov 2018

Onethreeonefour, 2016. #WOTD: Travel Back in Time With a Traditional Hanbok Photoshoot in Seoul Online. Available from: https://www.onethreeonefour.com/blog/traditional-hanbok-photoshoot-seoul-korea/
Accessed 6 Nov 2018

Onethreeonefour, N.d. Jungyeol Online. Available from: https://www.onethreeonefour.com/listing/jungyeol
Accessed 6 Nov 2018

Rowse, D., N.d. Rule of Thirds Online. Available from: https://digital-photography-school.com/rule-of-thirds/
Accessed 6 Nov 2018


1. The graphic includes the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is a federal-statewide cooperative effort in which all states report monthly estimates of total employment and unemployment in the United States. The LAUS county data are estimated using a BLS prescribed multi-step estimation process, which gathers a variety of different information from local areas around the state. The estimates of the state’s employment/unemployment are adjusted so that all areas add to the state-wide total. The data in the graphic reflects on the county where the person lives.

The reason why I chose this article is because according to the San Diego County’s data, the unemployment rate was 3.3 percent in October 2018, which is an increase from the 3.2 percent in September 2018. The California’s Employment Development Department (EDD), shows that some companies may simply be unable to fill jobs because qualified workers don’t want to move to San Diego with its tight housing market and lower wages than might be available elsewhere. The unemployment rate for California was 4.0 percent statewide in 2018, and 3.5 percent for the entire United States. The total jobs in construction, financial services (particularly insurance carriers), administrative support and health care employment decreased by roughly 2500 jobs. While on the other hand, there was increases in transportation, manufacturing, tourism and government employment, according to EDD data.

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This article relates to chapter 7 on Unemployment (“The natural rate of unemployment”, pg. 224) When unemployment rates are less than their natural rate, this can be an indication of an economy expanding beyond their capabilities. After the Gross Domestic Product, the unemployment rate is the second most important indicator of an economy. People pay attention to the unemployment rate because it can affect them personally, but Economists monitor the unemployment rate as an important macroeconomic indicator. They use the unemployment rate to assess the position of the economy relative to the business cycle.


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