There is no universal definition to sustainability but strong sustainability minimizes the possibility of replacing natural resources with artificial things (Pearce, Atkinson et al. 1994, Dresner 2008). This means to utilize the available resources in such a way that current generation obtain their benefits without sacrificing the needs of future generations. This research has analyzed only the social aspect of sustainability that affects the construction projects in Pakistan. Once the importance of sustainability in construction has been understood it would help to find a path towards a common understanding of issue to reach a point from which obtained logically a valid result concerning the relative advantages of different methods to sustainability and to sustainable construction itself (Chong, Kumar et al. (2009).
Sustainable development is simply defined as “development, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED 1987). Sustainable development results to a state of society where living conditions and resources to meet human needs without effecting moral, balance and sustainability of natural ecosystem. Sustainable development can be defined as development that fulfills the needs of current generations without compromising the needs of future generation. However only design considerations and on site management can’t achieve sustainable development (Ding 2008). Sustainable construction is not green or environment friendly only (Gunatilake 2013). The sustainability no longer only considers the environmental aspect, but also considers the economic and social aspects of sustainability (Dempsey, Bramley et al. 2011). The sustainable development is forward-looking. It is a continuous mission for future development of human society. A surly sustainable society is one that make initiatives toward development in sustainable ways (Robin and Poon (2009). Sustainable construction is generally related to the importance of sustainable development in the construction industry. An industry is defined as all who produce, develop, plan, design, build, alter or maintain the built environment and includes building materials manufacturers and suppliers as well as clients and end users (Wilkinson, Sayce et al. 2015). Clients and end users are also the important participants to deliver the sustainable development. Sustainable development is a key for ensuring the better life for present as well as future generations. Mankind uses buildings and structures for their social needs as a shelter, to meet economic needs for investment and to satisfy corporate objectives (Abidin 2009). With the increasing requirements for resource efficiency and climate change adaptation in the construction industry, The contractors needs to implement sustainable practices (Tan, Shen et al. 2011). Sustainable assessment methods for building projects are playing a key role in introducing sustainability values (Kaatz, Root et al. (2006).


What is strategic planning?
Strategic planning determines exactly where your organization is going over the next few years and how it is going to get there. A strategic plan is a coordinated and systematic way to develop a course and direction for your company. Basically, not having a strategic plan is akin to navigating unknown territory without a map. And without a map, you are lost in a highly competitive business environment that will inevitably throw challenges your way. A rule of thumb is that if there’s uncertainty on the horizon, then you need a strategic plan.
This report focuses on assessment of Netflix strategic plan for online video streaming.
Netflix is a leading online video streaming service company with a global brand. Netflix was co-founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Rudolph and originally was launched as a website that allowed consumers to rent DVDs and have them delivered directly to the consumer’s homes. Shortly after, the company started offering a subscription for consumers to purchase, to receive unlimited DVD rentals monthly via mail with a prepaid mailer that would send the DVD rental back to the company. It was a means for consumers to avoid late fees for not returning your DVD rental to the DVD rental store. Located in Los Gatos, California, Netflix began streaming content over the internet in 2007, launching itself into the world’s largest internet subscription service to offer streaming movies and TV episodes. Netflix delivers streaming through software that is available on hundreds of “Netflix Ready Devices,” (David, 2011).
Netflix has expanded globally and trades on the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations Exchange (NASDAQ) under the ticker NFLX (Netflix, 2018). The subscriber base has increased from 600,000 members in 2002 to over 130 million members. Netflix is in over 190 countries and members can get instant access to great content. Has extensive global content library, featuring award winning Netflix originals, feature films, documentary, TV shows and more. The content varies by region and may change over time (Netflix, 2018). Today, Netflix has directed its focus on consumers who want to subscribe to commercial-free streaming of television shows and movies, changing the way consumers are enjoying in home entertainment opportunities.
Although the company does not have an official Vision Statement. Chief Executive Officer, Reed Hastings, has stated his vision for his company to accomplish the following:
• Becoming the best global entertainment distribution service
• Licensing entertainment content around the world
• Creating markets that are accessible to film makers
• Helping content creators around the world to find a global audience (Farfan, 2018)
The company essentially has a vision statement, however to motivate employee’s, Netflix may want to solidify the statement so there is no confusion on the continued vision of the company moving forward. It also gives employees the opportunity to review the vision as they develop a strategic plan and try to accomplish the stated goals of the vision statement.

A Mission Statement is the backbone of an organization. Taking the time to fully develop a robust statement helps all stakeholders involved to understand what the individual business is. Without a mission statement it may be hard to strategically implement a business model that can be fully vetted.
“Our core strategy is to grow our streaming subscription business domestically and globally. We are continuously improving the customer experience, with a focus on expanding our streaming content, enhancing our user interface and extending our streaming service to even more Internet-connected devices, while staying within the parameters of our consolidated net income and operating segment contribution profit targets,” (Edgar Online Inc., 2012).
2.1 Assessment of key resources/capabilities using VRIN Test
The VRIN model which identifies the characteristics of a firm’s resource(s) which they must possess to create a competitive advantage. According to Barney (1991) a firm resource must have four attributes: first it must be Valuable, in the sense that it reduces a firms own weaknesses or exploits industry opportunities, secondly it must be Rare among the existing and potential marketplace, third it must be imperfectly imitable, meaning the competition cannot easily duplicate the resource in question, and lastly the resource needs to be non- substitutable enough to be a source of sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace (Barney, 1991).
The first two: valuable and rare – measures whether or not a resource or capability can support a competitive advantage.
The last two: inimitable and non-substitutable – measures whether or not a resource or capability can be sustainable.
Netflix capabilities and resources are as follows:
Recommendation System: Over the years, Netflix has put a lot of energy into fine-tuning its recommendation system to save users time and brain-power, and to fast-track the route to whatever film or TV show is likely to keep them engaged with the service the longest.
If the statistics are anything to go by, they have been rather successful. A vast majority of the time, around 80% of viewers discover their next Netflix binge through recommendation (as opposed to searching the site themselves). Often, it is right there staring them in the face on their personalized home page. The recommendation system is a valuable resource for Netflix and it is rare because it can support a competitive advantage and cannot be easily copied. It is also non-substitutable.

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Original Programming Content: On its Annual Report 2015 Netflix points out that the company is “a pioneer in the Internet delivery of TV shows and movies.” Due to its website, Netflix produced more than 320 hours of content in 2015. With the releases of award-winning TV shows, such as “House of Cards”, “Narcos” and “Orange is the New Black”, Netflix has developed to an international content leader on that field. Since 2013 the company has been “changing the rules of how serialized television is produced, released and distributed globally. “Talking about Netflix’s content it is not only the quantity but also the quality that has to be mentioned: 45 Emmy nominations, 15 Daytime Emmy nominations, two Oscar nominations and 10 Golden Globe nominations during the first two years prove that Netflix is well recognized by the TV and film industry. Keeping the variety and quality of self-produced shows is one of Netflix’s main goal for the future, as it is a reason to prefer Netflix compared to its competitors. That makes the competence valuable for the organization. To watch these exclusive shows, one has to sign up for a Netflix account, which brings additional members and money to the organization. That high amount of exclusive content is still rare, although Amazon tried to close the gap during the last year. It is also very cost intensive for others to imitate, as own high-quality productions are more expensive than buying licenses, as the whole production as well as the actors, employees and equipment have to be paid. Therefore, competitors need to decide for high investments first with no secured success afterwards. For Netflix the content as a core competence is also not substitutable, as it is the main revenue source and reason for choosing Netflix.

Global Coverage: In January 2016 Netflix announced the launch in 130 more countries. In addition to the at that time already existing 60 countries Netflix is available in 190 countries. The only main and relevant market missing is China. Because of that Netflix expects up to 100 million more customers. This global coverage is valuable and rare, as the biggest competitor Amazon Prime is available in six countries. That are compared to Netflix only 3.2 %. For Amazon and other competitors, it will be harder to enter new markets, as Netflix was first available and already attracted the customers. Though, competitors have to invest more time and money to enter new markets. As new customers will also increase the income of the firm, this global coverage is a unique and no substitutable core competence.

Technology: One of the core competencies of Netflix is the technology, which “provides easy to use technology for customers to use to order and identify what they wish to view.” The registration for a new account is done within four to five steps, the frontend is designed clearly: big screens showing a trailer of the selected movie, small introductions are given and the usage through wiping or clicking to the right or left is easy, whereas the frontend of Amazon Prime is adapted to the Amazon frontend design, which makes it harder to lead through the website due to e.g. small letters and hidden information. Furthermore, the movies are not clearly structured on Amazon, as the same movie can show up in the genre of Kids and Comedy. “It is also allowed for a subscriber to rate the titles that they had previously viewed and receive recommendations based on the titles they previously rated highly. This service was and continues to be highly successful with a good portion of titles being viewed coming from the recommendations provided.” Netflix also offers to stream movies and shows on up to four different devices at the same time. That is something unique, as Amazon does not offer it. Due to that, on account can be shared between a family or friends using different devices for watching.

2.2 Competitive environment using Porter’s five forces framework
In order to determine nature and strength of the competitor pressures in the movie rental industry Netflix is operating in, we use Porter’s five forces model of competition which are “the threats posed by new entrants, the bargaining power of suppliers, the bargaining power of buyers, product substitutes, and the intensity of rivalry among competitors.”

Threats posed by new entrants: Netflix have to keep on maintaining the rising popularity of e-commerce such as an improvement and enhancing their inventory of stream movies with raise their HD streaming inventory. If this attempt is deferred, more suitable earnings of renting movies will take over such as “On Demand”. This is probable because the low-priced entry barriers in the DVD industry linked to streaming content due to the huge amount of streaming content that could become obtainable to possible distributors.
Bargaining power of suppliers: Netflix is completely dependent on exclusive rights of studios for the content they require to provide to customers. Currently, Netflix does not create any of their own content, if the suppliers were to stop the sharing of their content to Netflix, it might cripple business model of Netflix. This provides the suppliers extreme power over contract negotiations with Netflix for content acquisition because there are only a number of studios who supply the movies and shows.
Bargaining power of customers: The industry of movie rental is an active industry. In times of slower economic growth where customers have a less amount of optional income their ability of expenses in the industry will be reduced. In times of a wealthy economy, customers might spend more money on the industry. This provides customers a high power of bargaining in the industry of movie because they can decide to use their entertainment money on alternative services or products.
Product and service substitute: For most homes Digital cable is now necessary, therefore many customers will have a film collection from their cable network. “On Demand,” Services offered by cable television providers might be a substitute for Netflix if they increase their movie stock list to a similar title selection. It is essential for Netflix to keep up with the continually changing technology sector in order to sustain its success.


1.1 Pendahuluan
Latihan industri merupakan salah satu mendekatan untuk para pelajar menyesuaikan diri dengan persekitaran tempat kerja serta mengimplikasikan pembelajaran mereka sewaktu belajar di sesebuah institusi tersebut. Program ini juga bertujuan untuk melahirkan graduan yang berpengetahuan, mahir dan berpengalaman yang mampu untuk mengaplikasikan pengetahuan yang diperolehi di Universiti dengan persekitaran kerja. Program Latihan Perindustrian juga merupakan langkah awal bagi seseorang pelajar untuk mengenali dengan lebih mendalam dan menyediakan peluang untuk pendedahan kepada dunia kerja, yang akan menjadikan graduan lebih sedar akan persekitaran kerja yang sebenar dan jangkaan industri mereka. Hal ini demikian kerana, latihan seperti ini bermanfaat kepada pelajar di masa akan datang.

Selain itu, para pelajar sedikit sebanyak dapat mengenalpasti kelemahan serta kekuatan mereka dalam mengendalikan masalah dan tugasan. Kelemahan yang telah dikenalpasti boleh ditangani dengan pengalaman yang diperolehi melalui latihan industri ini pada masa akan datang. Malahan, kecekapan perlu dipertingkatkan dan diperluaskan bagi memudahkan para pelajar untuk mempertingkatkan prestasi mereka. Hal ini sedikit sebanyak dapat meluaskan pengetahuan dan menambah pengalaman meskipun mengambil masa yang singkat. Seterusnya, dengan menjalani latihan industri ini juga, para pelajar dapat memupuk nilai-nilai murni seperti kerjasama, bantu-membantu, berdisiplin, bersikap amanah dan bertanggungjawab.

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Semasa di universiti, pelajar hanya mempelajari secara teori dan akan mempraktikkan segala teori tersebut semasa menjalani latihan industri ini. Seperti yang sedia maklum, bahawa para pelajar akan tertakluk kepada peraturan-peraturan yang telah ditetapkan oleh organisasi semasa menjalani latihan dimana segala masalah akan dirujuk kepada pihak pengurusan dan bukan lagi kepada pihak universiti, seperti permohonan cuti sakit. Malahan, segala perkara sulit atau rahsia yang berkaitan dengan organisasi yang ditempatkan untuk menjalani praktikal perlu dijaga dan tidak boleh dihebah-hebahkan. Sesetengah pelajar diminta untuk mentandatangani borang perjanjian sebelum menjalani latihan industri. Oleh itu, pelajar terbabit haruslah mengikut segala arahan atau peraturan yang telah ditetapkan oleh organisasi kepada mereka semasa menjalani latihan industri. Akan tetapi, segala borang yang perlu ditandatangani perlu dirujuk kepada penyelaras latihan industri iaitu pihak universiti.

Semasa menjalani latihan industri, para pelajar perlu mencatat aktiviti harian mereka dan masukkan ke dalam buku laporan harian atau dikenali sebagai buku log melalui sistem ‘online’ yang disediakan oleh pihak universiti. Buku log tersebut boleh disemak secara ‘online’ oleh penyelia universiti sama ada secara harian, mingguan, atau bulanan. Catatan yang dilakukan tersebut boleh digunakan oleh pelajar sebagai bahan rujukan ketika menulis laporan seperti yang dikehendaki.

1.2 Objektif Latihan Industri
Terdapat beberapa matlamat dan objektif latihan industri yang digariskan oleh Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. Antaranya ialah:
1. Memberi pendedahan kepada para pelajar tentang alam pekerjaan yang sebenar.
2. Memberi peluang kepada para pelajar mempraktikkan pembelajaran atau teori mereka ke alam pekerjaan.
3. Memberi pendedahan kepada para pelajar untuk belajar mendisiplinkan diri dengan peraturan di tempat kerja.
4. Memupuk nilai-nilai murni dalam diri para pelajar dan mampu menjaga nama baik universiti.

1.3 Objektif Laporan Latihan Industri
Buku Laporan Latihan Industri ini merupakan salah satu perkara wajib yang harus disediakan oleh para pelajar sebagai syarat lulus kursus latihan industri ini. Hal ini demikian kerana, laporan ini merupakan salah satu bukti bahawa para pelajar telah menjalani latihan industri seperti yang telah ditetapkan. Setelah tamat menjalani latihan industri selama sepuluh minggu, para pelajar dikehendaki untuk mendokumentasikan segala aktiviti yang dilakukan sepanjang tempoh latihan industri tersebut. Terdapat beberapa objektif bagi penyediaan laporan latihan industri ini. Antara objektif laporan latihan industri ialah:
1. Memudahkan penyelia universiti bagi memantau kerja atau aktiviti yang dilakukan oleh para pelajar semasa menjalani latihan industri.
2. Menjadi salah satu bahan rujukan kepada para pelajar semasa memulakan kerja di masa akan datang.
3. Membantu para pelajar dalam meyampaikan maklumat aktiviti-aktiviti yang telah dilaksanakan sepanjang tempoh latihan dalam bentuk laporan yang tersusun dan sistematik.
4. Menjadi bahan rujukan kepada organisasi yang bakal mengambil pelajar tersebut mengenai aktiviti serta perkembangan pelajar semasa menjalani latihan industri di organisasi yang ditempatkan melalui penulisan dan pengolahan laporan yang baik.

1.4 Kepentingan Latihan Industri
Terdapat beberapa kepentingan dalam menjalani latihan industri kepada para pelajar, antaranya ialah:
1. Latihan industri mampu melatih para pelajar untuk bersikap lebih disiplin dengan peraturan di tempat kerja dan menjaga hubungan sesama pekerja.
2. Memberi peluang kepada para pelajar untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan alam pekerjaan serta menambahkan pengalaman dan pengetahuan mereka sebelum memulakan kerja di masa hadapan.
3. Latihan industri ini juga mampu membantu para pelajar menerapkan nilai-nilai murni seperti bersikap amanah dan bertanggungjawab dalam melaksanakan tugasan yang diberi. Malahan, para pelajar dapat membentuk imej serta keyakinan diri dalam memberi pendapat serta idea-idea yang bernas melalui penghasilan laporan ini.

2.1 Pengenalan organisasi
Kementerian Kewangan Malaysia atau dikenali sebagai Perbendaharaan Malaysia bertanggungjawab dalam memastikan dasar kewangan dan bajet negara bagi mencapai pertumbuhan dan pembangunan ekonomi negara. Menggubal dan melaksanakan dasar fiskal bagi memastikan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang mampan serta menguruskan pengagihan sumber kewangan dengan cekap dan berkesan. Menggubal dan menyediakan prosedur, prinsip dan tatacara sistem pengurusan kewangan dan perakaunan untuk dipatuhi oleh semua kementerian. Menyelaras hubungan kerjasama berkaitan hal ehwal ekonomi dan kewangan di peringkat antarabangsa bagi memelihara kepentingan negara. Menggubal dasar sistem percukaian yang saksama bagi menjana hasil negara. Memantau syarikat kerajaan yang ditubuhkan di bawah menteri kewangan diperbadankan serta pengurusan kewangan badan berkanun persekutuan khususnya berkaitan pelaburan, pinjaman, aliran tunai bagi memastikan amalan tadbir urus yang baik. Menggubal dasar dan mentadbir urusan berkaitan perolehan kerajaan. Mendapatkan sumber pembiayaan bagi pihak kerajaan dan memberi pinjaman kepada agensi-agensi kerajaan dan sektor swasta bagi projek-projek penswastaan dan kerajaan negeri. Menerajui projek-projek strategik bagi mempertingkatkan penyampaian perkhidmatan awam untuk kesejahteraan rakyat. Memberi khidmat nasihat kepada kementerian bagi projek-projek berimpak tinggi yang mempunyai kepentingan negara. Mengendali rayuan cukai pendapatan dan cukai kastam. Mengawal selia industri pelaporan kredit secara tepat, adil dan saksama.


1. On next day at room temperature films were dipped in 0.5mM N719 dye solution in dark for 24 Hrs.
2. The normal tansperant tape was cut and spread on glass plate with two layers. A small area 0.4mm2 hole was cut on tape. I check hole in film and put the sealent prepared on dye adsorbed film.
3. one drop electrolyte was added on small open area of sealent.
4. The counter Pt electrode (4 ohm ) was put on photoanode. The cell was packed using binder clips. Crocodile pin of Keithly multimeter red end was connected to photoanode and black was connected to Pt electrode. (I tried reverse also)
5. The readings were taken in dark condition as well as in light ON condition.
6. The checking was done with Pin 60mW in pune university and in CMET, Baner


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