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1. INTRODUCTION.

Background
Ethics refers to the moral principles that guide decision-making a behavior (Stephens and Brighton 2015) or how to best live a life which is moral (Johnstone2016). Harris et al (2014) further clarify the definition of ethics as the rules and standards by which a community regulates the behavior of its members. Moral principles, therefore, arise from beliefs about what can be considered right or wrong, which may be socially, professionally or philosophically based (Stephens and Brighton 2015). Johnston (2016) states there is no philosophically significant difference between the terms ethics and morality which can be used interchangeably however, Atkins et al (2014, p26) disagree, believing ethics differ from morals stating that moral principles are rule like expectations or beliefs that a person considers to be ethical.(Words, 2017)
A set of ethical principles often cited in nursing texts are those described by Beuchamp and Childress (1994) in their book Principles of Biomedical Ethics. They are so well known that they have been called “The Georgetown Mantra” as the authors were from Georgetown University. These include the following: • The principle of respect for autonomy – meaning state of self governance • The principle of non maleficence – meaning not doing harm to others • The principle of beneficence – meaning charitable or generous (promote the wellbeing of others) • The principle of justice – meaning being fair in resource allocation and fairness.
However, these principles were developed for medicine in general rather than nursing in particular.(Council, 2009)
The first Code of Ethics and Conducts for Public Service in Tanzania was issued for the first time since independence in 1961. During that period code of ethics and conducts was inherent in different laws and regulations and was not available to all employees as such they were unable to know exactly of the expected standards. To counter that shortcoming in 2005, Tanzania developed a new code of ethics and conducts stipulating clearly the standard of behavior expected for public servants. The existing code has been widely distributed so that public servants clearly understand what is required of them in terms of ethical conduct and standards of performance acceptable in the Public Service, URT (2005). As part of induction programme, all public servants in Tanzania are oriented with these codes to enable them discharge their duties with great care. It is within this framework that all behaviors, actions decisions made by public servants should conform to these codes.(Yusuph, Guohua, & Abeid, 2017)

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Research problem
Negligence’s and lack of knowledge of nursing ethical principle among the nursing students during clinical practices,
Statement of the problem
Notwithstanding the fact that “Nursing Ethics” has been, to some extent, handled as a topic in a number of nursing curricula developed in the country, the emphasis of the subject has not been adequate. Tanzania has decided to give priority to health issues in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals. However, these goals will never be realized if the health of Tanzanians remains poor. Due to this fact, the Tanzania Nurses and Midwives Council embarked on a program to improve knowledge of ethics for nurses in Tanzania. Various approaches have been applied including the development of various guides. The guide consists of five units covering the following themes, which include ethical principles, patients?/client and nurses? rights, ethical dilemmas, ethical decision making, and the Professional Code of Conduct. For each of the broad objectives, specific objectives have been developed including methods and content for handling them. Although this guide’s primary target groups are practicing nurses, it is nevertheless useful for pre-service and in-service trainee nurses.(Council, 2009)
In general, there seems to be three common reasons for nurses’ failure to observe the ethical codes: inef- fectiveness of the codes in daily clinical practices, disparity between the codes and the realities in clinical environments, and nurses’ unawareness of the codes.18 Moreover, the differences between the nurses’ and patients’ viewpoints regarding nurses’ adherence to ethical codes in Iran imply that although the ethical codes for nurses have been set in accordance with the Iranian culture, it is essential to hold more educational programs for the staff as well as nursing students and monitor nurses’ ethical performance more carefully.9 In fact, more informed nurses can respect and protect their patients’ rights more effectively.19 Factors, such as disproportion between the number of nurses and patients, can affect nurses’ ethical performance, as well. Bennett et al.20 also mentioned insufficient time and staff, compared to the large number of patients, as the main barriers to nurses’ observance of professional ethics at work.(Momennasab ; Koshkaki, 2016)

Purpose statement
The purpose of this study of this study is to assess knowledge of nursing ethical principles among the Bachelor nursing students (BNS), this will help to address the challenges facing the nursing students to practice and maintain ethical code of conduct during their clinical routine.

Objectives
Broad objective
The main objective of this study is to improve and maintain knowledge of the ethical code of conduct among the nursing students at MUHAS during clinical practices
Specific objectives of the study
• To assess the knowledge of nursing students on the nursing ethical of conducts.
• To assess level of understanding of ethical principles between the male nursing students and female nursing students
• To assess challenges facing nursing students to practice and maintain nursing ethical principle.

Research questions
• What is the knowledge of nursing student concerning abut nursing ethical of conducts?
• Does the level of understanding of understanding on nursing code of ethics differ between that of male nursing student and female nursing student?

Hypothesis
? Alternative hypothesis
Male nursing student are more likely to have higher level of understanding on nursing ethical principles if compared to the female nursing students

Conceptual framework
Conceptual framework is a written or visual presentation that explains either graphically or in narrative form the relationship of ideas or the main things to be studied can be the key factors, concepts or variables.

Fig 1
Describe the three criteria that can be used to achieve/improve some level of professional practices compliance with the proffessional code of ethics

Sources (adapted and modified from Gberegbe, Ferry Barineka 2016)

Description of the diagram above
A professional code of ethics should have local perspective. That is, the guidelines on professional conduct must be consistent with the values, The individual/personal value can provide the basis of assessing professional codes of ethics in terms of personal culture, so that the likely success of professional code of ethics. The professional code must be able to satisfy or proscribe behaviors. Thus, we recognize the use of punitive measures (loss of membership for those violates the standards) to check unethical behaviour. Velayutham (2003) asserts that disciplinary measures can be used to support enforcement of professional code of ethics.
The mere existence of professional code of ethics is not enough to guarantee an individual profession’s compliance (Cohen, Pant and Sharp, 1992). Miller (in Cohen et al. 1992) acknowledges that professional code of ethics may be respected more in one place than in another. Accordingly, we recognized professional code of ethics as an important valuable.(Gberegbe & Gabriel, 2016)
Literature review
An overview of the nursing ethical principle
Ethics is, and always has been, an essential component of nursing practice. Ethical principles such as the value of life principle, the principle of goodness or rightness, the principle of justice or fairness, the principle of truth telling or honesty, and the principle of individual freedom are basic to nurse-patient relationship. However, the application of these principles in specific situations is often problematic, since nurses, patients, their family members and other healthcare personnel may disagree about what is the right way to act in a situation(Council, 2009). Despite of being the essential component of nursing practice but the knowledge and maintain of principle of ethics among the nursing student during their clinical rotation it has been a big challenges.
Some study have just try to describes some factors that are thought to be the main factor for this nursing students not to adhere to the nursing codes of conduct and these are analyzed as follow disproportion between the number of nurses and patients, can affect nurses’ ethical performance, as well as insufficient time and staff, compared to the large number of patients, as the main barriers to nurses’ observance of professional ethics at work.

Most studies in this area have focused on nurses’ attitudes toward ethical codes, while the real beneficiaries of the codes are patients, and their opinions have to be taken into account in order to improve the quality of care. Moreover, evidence has shown that nurses and patients hold significantly different views about nurses’ adherence to ethical codes. According to one study, while 91.9% of the nurses believed that their performance was satisfactory regarding the ethical codes, only 41.8% of the patients rated their per- formance as acceptable.(Momennasab & Koshkaki, 2016)
Some study has just tried to describe among those principle of conduct no principle is weighted higher than the other principle, both should considered having a vital role in biomedical ethics.” Beauchamp and Childress examined considered moral judgments and the way moral beliefs cohere and found that the general principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, respect for autonomy, and justice play a vital role in biomedical ethics. These authors believe that the four principles are not only specific for biomedical ethics, they are found in all cultures in everyday life because they are part of a cross-cultural common morality shared by all persons committed to morality. The four clusters of principles provide a framework of norms to start with in biomedical ethics. As a starting point no principle is weighted higher than the other principles. When occasion arises, the principles are weighted, balanced, and specified”(Ebbesen, 2016)
Another study conducted in Australia show that has a code of Ethics by which all nurses should abide it, it does it matter where it is in hospital setting, in education institution or conducting the research, this just try to describe the need for approval in conducting of research among the human being while maintain the ethical principles and sound the knowledge of the ethical principles that guide nursing practice and research are essential for any researcher.
The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) (2013) has a Code of Ethics by which all nurses should abide whether practicing within a hospital setting, an educational institution or whilst undertaking any research to protect the moral interests and welfare of patients (Adrian and Chiarella 2016; Johnstone and Crock 2016) and act as advocate (Epstein and Turner 2015; NMBA 2013). If a researcher is specifically undertaking human research it falls under the label of Bioethics (Stephens and Brighton 2015) which is derived from the Greek bios meaning life (Johnstone 2016). Bioethics refers specifically to ethics that are applied to human life or health decisions (Johnstone 2016).(Words, 2017)

References
Council, M. (2009). Nursing Ethics A Facilitator ‘ s Guide.
Ebbesen, M. (2016). Bioethics across Cultures – Philosophical and Empirical Justification of the Four Principles of Biomedical Ethics Clinical Research ; Bioethics Bioethics across Cultures – Philosophical and Empirical Justification of the Four Principles of Biomedical Ethi. Article, (April). https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9627.1000259
Gberegbe, F. B., ; Gabriel, A. (2016). Does Professional code of ethics influence Professional Accounting Practice in Rivers State , Nigeria?? Lilian Okorite Nkanbia-Davies, 4(1), 14–21.
Momennasab, M., ; Koshkaki, A. R. (2016). Nurses ‘ adherence to ethical codes?: The viewpoints of patients , nurses , and managers, 23(7), 794–803. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733015583927
Words, K. E. Y. (2017). A nurses ‘ guide to ethical considerations and the process for ethical approval of nursing research, 35(1), 40–47.
Yusuph, M. L., Guohua, W., ; Abeid, A. R. (2017). Code of Ethics and Conducts in Public Service?: The Litmus Test for Public Administrators Ethical Decision Making in … Code of Ethics and Conducts in Public Service?: The Litmus Test for Public Administrators Ethical Decision Making in Resolving Ethical, 18(January), 79–87. https://doi.org/10.9790/487X-1812037987

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We believe LAZADA platform will be a very popular choice for business as competition for other brands of luxury becomes fiercer and demands for better quality. We firmly believe that this will prove to be a very worthwhile and profitable investment in the future.

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1. INTRODUCTION
STARBUCKS IS AN AMERICAN COFFEE COMPANY AND COFFEE HOUSE CHAIN.STARBUCKS WAS FOUND IN SEATTLE,WASHINGTON IN 1971. THIS STORE WAS OPENED BY THREE PARTNERS I.E BOWKER,BALDWIN AND SIEGL.THESE 3 PARTNERS WERE INSPIRED BY ONE OF THE LEADING COFFEE ENTERPRENEUR NAMELY ALFRED PEET.

THE STARBUCKS MISSON STATEMENT IS : TO INSPIRE AND NURTURE THE HUMAN SPIRIT – ONE PERSON,ONE CUP AND ON NEIGHBOURHOOD AT A TIME.

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STARBUCKS IS CONSIDERED AS THE MAIN REPRESENTATIVE OF “SECOND WAVE COFFEE” INITIALLY DISTINGUISHING ITSELF FROM OTHER COFFEE SERVING VENUES BY ITS TASTE,QUALITY AND CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE WHILE POPULARIZING DARKLY ROASTED COFFEE.STARBUCKS SERVE HOT AND COLD DRINKS,WHOLE-BEAN COFFEE AS VIA,ESPRESOO ETC.
STARBUCKS HAS NOMINATED AS ONE OF THE LARGEST COFFEE HOUSES ALL OVER THE GLOBE.IT HAS APPROXIAMATELY 21,000 PLUS STORES LOCATED IN 61 COUNTRIES ALL OVER THE WORLD.THE KEY SUCCESS OF STARBUCKS IS BECAUSE OF ITS EMBRACED DIVERSITY,APPLYING HIGH STANDARDS IN OPERATIONS,TO PORTRAY RESPECT AND INTERGRITY,TO RECOGNIZE THE LEVEL OF PROFIT EARNED AND ALSO TO CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS THE ENVIRONMENT.STARBUCKS IS A SINGLE COFFEE SHOP THAT DOES NOT HAS A SINGLE DIRECT COMPETITOR.

STARBUCKS HAS FACED CERTAIN DIFFICULTIES, IT HAS BEEN ACCUSSED OF SELLING UNHEALTHY PRODUCTS AND HAS BEEN THE TARGET OF MULTIPLE CONTROVERSIES.STARBUCKS HAS A WELL ESTABLISHED FUTURE IN ALL PARTS OF GLOBE WAS DUE TO THE STRATEGIC DECISION MADE TO MOVE AND EXPAND ITS STORES.

2. PESTEL- PESTEL ANALYSIS IS A FRAME WORK OR TOOL USED BY MARKETERS TO ANALYSE OR MONITOR THE MACRO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS (EXTERNAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT) THAT HAVE AN IMPACT ON THE ORAGANISATION.THIS TOOL IS MAINLY USED WHEN STARTING A NEW BUSINESS OR ENTERING A FOREIGN MARKET.IT IS OFTEN USED WITH OTHER ANALYTICAL BUSINESS TOOLS SUCH AS THE SWOT ANALYSIS AND PORTERS FIVE FORCES TO GET A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF A SITUATION AND ALSO RELATED INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTOR.

2.1 PESTEL STANDS FOR
A.POLITICAL
B.ECONOMIC
C.SOCIAL
D.TECHNOLOGICAL
E.ENVIRONMENTAL
F.LEGAL
A. POLITICAL – POLITICAL FACTORS IS ALL ABOUT HOW AND TO WHAT DEGREE A GOVERNMENT INTERVENCES IN THE ECONOMY OR A CERTAIN INDUSTRY.POLITICAL FACTOR INCLUDE GOVERNMENT POLICY,POLITICAL STABILITY OR INSTABILITY,CORRUPTION,FOREIGN TRADE POLICY,TAX POLICY,LABOUR LAW, ENVIRONMENTAL LAW,TRADE RESRTICTIONS.CONSIDERING THE ABOVE LIST IT IS CLEAR THAT POLITICAL FACTORS OFTEN HAVE AN IMPACT ON ORAGANISATIONS AND HOW THEY DO BUSINESS.THE GOVERNMENT MAY ALSO HAVE PROFOUND IMPACT ON NATION’S EDUCATION SYSYTEM,INFRASTUCTURE AND HEALTH REGULATIONS.

B. ECONOMIC – ECONOMIC FACTORS ARE DETERMINANTS OF A CERTAIN ECONOMY’S PERFORMANCE THAT DIRECTLY IMPACTS A COMPANY AND HAVE RESONATING LONG TERM EFFECTS.FACTORS INCLUDE ECONOMIC GROWTH,INTEREST RATES,EXCHANGE RATES,EMPLOYMENT OR UNEMPLOYMENT RATES,INFLATION RATE,DISPOSABLE INCOME OF CONSTUMERS,BUSINESS AND SO ON.ECONOMIC FACTORS GREATLY AFFECT HOW BUSINESS OPERATES AND MAKES DECISIONS.

C. SOCIAL – SOCIAL FACTORS ARE ALSO KNOWN AS SOCIAL CULTURAL FACTORS.THESE FACTORS INVOLVES SHARED BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES OF THE POPULATION.MAINLY FOCUS ON SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND EMERGING TRENDS.THESE FACTORS INCLUDE:
1. POPULATION GROWTH
2. AGE DISTRIBUTION
3 .HEALTH CONSIOUSNESS
4. CAREER ATITUDES
5. SAFETY EMPASIS
6. LIFESTYLE ATITUDES
7. CULTURAL BARRIERS ETC
THESE FACTORS ARE OF PARTICULAR INTEREST AS THEY HAVE A DIRECT EFFECT ON HOW MARKETERS UNDERSTAND CUSTOMERS AND WHAT DRIVES THEM.FIRMS OR ORGANISATIONS ARE LIKELY TO SUCCED IF THEY CAN ADAPT PRODUCTS AND SERVICES TO PREVALENT SOCIOCULTURAL CONDITIONS.

D. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS – TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS CONSIDER THE RATE OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT THAT COULD AFFECT A MARKET OR INDUSTRY.HENCE FIRMS MUST FOCUS AND STAY ON TOP OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES TO REMAIN COMPETITIVE IN THEIR PRODUCTS AND SERVICES.TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECT MARKETING AND THE MANAGEMENT IN DISTINCT WAYS:
NEW WAYS OF DISTURBUTING GOODS AND SERVICES
NEW WAYS OF PRODUCING GOODS AND SERVICES
NEW WAYS OF COMMUNICATING WITH TARGET MARKETS
IT CREATES OPPORTUNITES FOR NEW PRODUCTS AND PRODUCT IMPROVEMENTS IN TERMS OF MARKETING AND PRODUCTION.IT ALSO HELPS TO UNDERSTAND LEVEL OF INNOVATION,TECHNOLOGICAL AWARENES,TECHONOLOGICAL INCENTIVES ETC.

E. ENVIRONMENTAL – ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATE TO THE INFLUENCE WEATHER AND CLIMATE,ENVIRNOMENTAL POLICIES,CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE CAN CAUSE VARIOUS IMPACT ON MANY INDUSTRIES INCLUDING FARMING,TOURISM AND INSURANCE.ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS HAVE BECOME IMPORTANT DUE TO THE INCREASING SCARCITY OF
RAW MATERIALS,POLLUTION TARGETS,DOING BUSINESS AS AN ETHICAL AND SUSTAINABLE COMPANY,CARBON FOOTPRINTS TEARGETS SET BY GOVERNMENTS(THIS IS A GOOD EXAMPLE WERE ONE FACTOR COULD BE CLASSIFIED AS POLITICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL AT THE SAME TIME).DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING AND WITH GREATER ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS THIS EXTERNAL FACTOR IS BECOMING A SIGNIFICANT ISSUE FOR FIRMS TO CONSIDER.

F. LEGAL – LEGAL FACTORS INCLUDE HEALTH AND SAFETY,EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES,ADVERTISING STANDARDS,CONSUMER RIGHTS AND LAWS,ANTITRUST LAW,COPY RIGHT AND PATENT LAWS,FUTURE LEGISLATION AND COMPETATIVE LEGISLATION TDISCRIMINATION LAWS,LABELLING AND PRODUCT SAFETY.COMPANIES OR ORAGANISATIONS MUST UNDERSTAND WHAT IS LEGAL INORDER TO TRADE SUCCESSFULLY.IF AN ORAGANISATION TARDES GLOBALLY THIS BECOMES A VERY TRICKY AREA TO GET RIGHT AS EACH COUNTRY HAS ITS OWN SET OF RULES AND REGULATIONS.

2.2 IMPACT OF PESTEL ON THE STARBUCKS:
A. POLITICAL FACTORS – POLITICAL FACTORS HAVE A DEEP IMPACT ON STARBUCKS SALES AND IT IS AFFECTED DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY.THE KEY POLITICAL IMPERATIVE STARBUCKS FACES IS THE CONCERN OVER SOURCING OF ITS RAW MATERIALS THAT HAS ATTRACTED THE ATTENTION OF THE POLITICIANS IN THE WEST AND IN THE COUNTRIES FROM WHERE IT SOURCE ITS RAW MATERIAL.THIS REASON MADE STARBUCKS KEEN ON ADHERING TO SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL NORMS AND TO FOLLOW SOURCEING STRATEGIES THAT ARE APPROPRIATE AND IN CONFORMANCE TO THE FAIR TRADE PRACTICES THAT HAVE BEEN APPROVED UPON BY GLOBAL COOPERATIONS AND THE GOVERNMENT DEVELOPING.ANOTHER POLITICAL ISSUSE WHICH STARBUCKS FACES IS THE REGULATORY PRESSURES WITHIN ITS HOME MARKET IN THE UNITED STATES BECAUSE OF GREATER SCRUNITY OF THE BUSINESS PROCEESS THAT MULTINATIONALS BASED IN US ARE SUBJECTED TO.STARBUCKS ALSO NEED TO FOLLOW THE LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN THE COUNTRIES FROM WHERE STARBUCKS BUYS THE RAW MATERIAL.ACTIVISM AND INCREASED POLITICAL AWARENESS IN DEVEOPING COUNTRIES HAVE MADE THIS ESSENTIAL.SOME OTHER FACTORSTO CONSIDER ARE
TAX POLICY
EMPLOYMENT LAWS
B. ECONOMIC – THE FOREMOST EXTERNAL ECONOMIC FOR STARBUCKS IS THE ONGOING GLOBAL ECONOMIC RECESSION WHICH AS EXPLAINED IN THE INTRODUCTION HAS DENTED THE PROFITABILITY OF MANY COMPANIES.THIS HAS CONVINCED BUYERS TO SHIFT TO CHEAP ALTERNATIVES.AS THEYY DID NOT QUIT BUYING COFFEE,STARBUCKS SHOULD SEEK AN OPPORTUNITY HERE.THE COMPANY HAS TO DEAL WITH RISING LABOR AND OPERATIONAL COSTS.THE INFLATIONARY ENVIRONMENTAND FALLING PROFITABILITY IS CAUSING A LOT OF STRESS.SOME OTHER FACTORS WHICH AFFECT STARBUCKS ARE:
LOCAL CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES
LOCAL ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT IN DIFFERENT MARKETS
TAXATION LEVEL
INTEREST RATES AND INFLATION
C. SOCIAL – STARBUCKS CAN OFFER CHEAPER ALTERNATIVES,IT HAS TO DO IT WITHOUT SACRIFICING ITS QUALITY AND THIS IS THE KEY SOCIO CULTURAL CHALLENGE THAT THE COMPANY FACES AS IT EXPAND ITS CONSUMER BASE TO INCLUDE THE CONSUMERS FROM THE LOWER AND THE MIDDLE TIERS OF THE INCOME PYRAMID.THE “GREEN” AND “ETHICAL CHIC” CONSUMERS ARE ALSO CONCERNING.THEY FRET ABOUT SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS OF THE BRANDS.STARBUCKS HAS TO BE AWARE OF THIS TREND.THE OLDER GENERATION IS LIKELY TO TAPER OFF AND HENCE STARBUCKS WOULD HAVE TO LOOKOUT FOR TAPPING THE GEN X AND THE MILLENIALS AS A PART OF STRATEGY. OTHER SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS TO FOCUS ON ARE:
CHANGING FAMILY PATTERNS
CONSUMER PREFERENCES
CHANGING WORK PATTERNS
THE LEVEL OF EDUCATION OF THE POPULATION IN LOCAL MARKETS
CHANGING VALUES AMONG POPULATION
D. TECHONOLOGICAL – STARBUCKS IS IN A GOOD POSITION TO ENJOY BENEFITS OF THE EMERGING MOBILE WAVE.STARBUCKS HAS TIED UP WITH APP BASED DISCOUNT COUPONS IS HELPING IT RIDE THE MOBILE WAVE EASILY.IT IS AN ERA OF TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECT THE PROFITABILITY OF ANY BUSINESS.THE COMPANY INTRODUCED WIFI CAPABILITIES IN ITS OUTLETS ALREADY.INTERNET IS IMPORTANT TO THE CONSUMERS.THEY CAN NOW SURF THE WEB AND DO WORK WHILE SIPPING STARBUCKS COFFEE.THIS IS ADDED VALUE TO THE BRAND.IT HAS ALSO FOCUSED ON DIGITAL INNOVATION TO DRIVE BUSINESS,IT HAS LAUNCHED MOBILE ORDER AND PAY FEATURE.OTHER TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ARE
EMERGENCE OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY
DEVELOPMENTS IN AGRICULTURE
BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DEVEOLPMENTS
E. ENVIRONMENTAL – THE MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE A BRAND IS HIGHER IS ITS POPULARITY AND THE BETTER IS ITS BRANDS.SUCH BRANDS OBTAIN HIGHER LOYALTY FROM THEIR CUSTOMERS.STARBUCKS HAS ALSO MADE SIGNIFICANT INVESTMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVES.IT IS WORKING TO BRING ALL ITS STORES TO LEED BUILDING STANDARDS AND TO APPROACH THEIR DESIGN AND MAINTAINENCE IN A MANNER THAT IS INCLUSIVE OF ITS ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY GOALS.IT IS ALSO WORKING TO SHRINK ITS ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT BY INCREASING RECYCLING AND BY REDUCING THE WASTE RELATED TO CUPS AND OTHER TYPES OF PACKAGING.IT ALSO FOCUSES ON WATER AND ENERGY CONSERVATION.

ANOTHER IMPORTANT AREA WHERE ITS ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVES ARE FOCUSED IS CLIMATE CHANGE.IT IS HELPING FARMERS MITIGATE THE EEFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURE.OVERALL IT HAS INVESTED SIGNIFICANTLY IN ENVIRONMENT RESPONSIBILITY AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY.

F. LEGAL – LEGAL COMPLIANCE IS AN IMPORTANT REQUIREMENT FOR ANY BUSINESSES.HOWEVER,THER SITUATION IS MORE COMPLEX FOR THE ONES OPERATING IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT.SUCH COMPANIES ARE FACED WITH DIFFERENT LAWS IN DIFFERENT NATIONS.FROM THE TAX RATES TO THE LABOR LAWS AND OTHER TYPES OF LAWS,ALL OF THEM DIFFER ACROSS NATIONS.STARBUCKS IS ESPECIALLY CAUTIOUS REGARDING ETHICS AND LEGAL COMPLIANCE.

IT HAS ENACTED A SPECIAL BUSINESS ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE PROGRAM THAT FOCUSES ON TRAINING THE EMPLOYEES AT COMPLIANCE AND ETHICS.THROUGHOUT THE GLOBE WHERE ITS BUSINESS OPERATES THE COMPANY IS FOCUSED ON REMAINING COMPLIANT WITH LAW.APART FROM IT,THE FOCUS IS ALSO ON NON DISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL TREATMENT OF ALL THE EMPLOYEES.WHILE IT REDUCES THE CHANCES OF LEGAL HASSLES,IT ALSO HELPS THE BUSINESS OPERATE FAIRLY AND CREATE A BETTER BRAND IMAGE.

3. PORTER’S 5 FORCES
PORTER’S FIVE FORCES IS A MODEL WHICH IDENTIFIES AND ANALYZES FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES THAT SHAPE EVERY INDUSTRY,IT HELPS IN DETERMINING AND INDUSTRY’S WEAKNESS AND STRENGTHS.IT IS ALSO USED TO IDENTIFY AN INDUSTRY’S STRUCTURE TO DETERMINE COOPERATE STRATEGY,PORTER’S MODEL CAN BE APPILIED TO ANY SEGMENT OF THE ECONOMY TO SEARCH FOR PROFITABILITY AND ATTRACTIVENESS.

A. COMPETITIVE RIVARLY IN THE INDUSTRY – THIS AREA EXAMINES HOW INTENSE THE COMPETITION CURRENTLY IS IN THE MARKETPLACE,WHICH IS DETREMINED BY THE NUMBER OF EXISTING COMEPETITORS AND WHAT EACH IS CAPABLE OF DOING.RIVARLY COMPETITION IS HIGH WHEN THERE ARE JUST A FEW BUSINESSES EQUALLY SELLING A PRODUCT OR SERVICE,WHEN THE INDUSTRY IS GROWING AND WHEN CONSUMERS CAN EASILY SWITH TO A COMPETITORS’S OFFERING FOR LITTLE COST.RIVALRY TENDS TO BE ESPECIALLY FIERCE IF:
COMPETITORS ARE NUMEROUS OR ARE ROUGHLY EQUAL IN SIZE OR MARKET POSITION.

INDUSTRY GROWTH IS SLOW
FIRMS HAVE DIFFERING GOALS,DIVERSE APPROACHES TO COMPETING OR LACK FAMILARITY WITH EACH OTHER.

WHEN RIVALRY COMPETITION IS HIGH,ADVERTISING AND PRICE WARS CAN ENSUE,WHICH CAN HURT A BUSINESS BOTTOM LINE.

B. THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS – THE FORCE EXAMINES HOW EASY OR DIFFICULT IT IS FOR THE COMPETITORS TO JOIN THE MARKET PLACE IN THE INDUSTRY.IF AN INDUSTRY IS PROFITABLE AND THERE ARE FEW BARRIERS TO ENTER,RIVALRY SOON INTENSIFIES.WHEN THE MORE NUMBER OF ORGANISATIONS COMPETE FOR THE SAME MARKET SHARE,PROFITS BEGINS TO FALL.IT IS ESSENTIAL FOR EXISTING ORAGANISATIONS TO CREATE HIGH BARRIERS TO ENTER TO DETER NEW ENTRANTS.THE THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS IS HIGH WHEN:
EXISTING FIRMS DO NOT POSSESE PATENTS,TRADEMARKS OR DO NOT HAVE ESTABILISHED BRAND REPUTATION
THERE IS NO GOVERNMENT REULATIONS
PRODUCTS ARE NEARLY IDENTICAL AND THERE IS LOW CUSTOMER LOYALITY
C. THREAT TO SUBSTITUTE NPRODUCTS OR SERVICES – THIS FORCES IS ESPECIALLY THREATENING WHEN BUYERS CAN EASILY FIND SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS WITH ATTRACTIVE PRICES OR BETTER QUALITY AND WHEN BUYERS CAN SWITCH FROM ONE PRODUCT OR SERVICE TO ANOTHER WITH LITTLE COST.TECHNOLOGICAL ADAVANCES CAN LEAD TO THE DEVEOLPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS THAT SUBSTITUTE EXISTING ONES.

D. BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS – STRONG BARGAINING POWER ALLOWS SUPPLIERS TO SELL HIGHER PRICED OR LOWEER QUALITY RAW MATERIALS TO THEIR BUYERS.THIS DIRECTLY AFFECTS THE BUYING FIRM’S PROFITS BECAUSE IT HAS TO PAY MORE FOR MATERIALS.SUPPLIERS HAVE STRONG BARGAINING POWER WHEN:
THERE IS FEW SUPPLIERS BUT MANY BUYERS
FEW SUBSITITUTE RAW MATERIALS EXIST
SUPPLIERS HOLD SCARE RESOURCES
SUPPLIERS ARE LARGE
COST OF SWITCHING RAW MATERIALS IS ESPECIALLY HIGH
WHEN THERE IS NO SATISFACTORY SUBSTITUTES
E. BARGAINING POWER OF CUSTOMERS – THE BARGAINING POWER OF A CUSTOMERS INCREASES WHEN THEY PURCHASE A LARGE SHARE OF THE FIRMS OUTPUT,THE PRODUCT IS IMPORTANT TO THEM,CLOSE SUBSTITUTES ARE READILY AVAILABLE,AND THE PRODUCT IS RELATIVELT STANDARDIZED.BARGAINING POWER OF A CUSTOMER IS ALSO REFFERED AS THE MARKET OF OUTPUTS,THE ABILITY OF CUSTOMERS TO PUT THE FIRM UNDER PRESSURE,WHICH ALSO PRESSURE,WHICH ALSO AFFECTS THE CUSTOMER’S SENSITIVITY TO PRICE CHANGES.FIRMS CAN TAKE MEASURES TO REDUCE BUYER POWER,SUCH AS IMPLEMETING A LOYALITY PROGRAM.BUYER’S POWER IS HIGH IF BUYERS HAVE MANY ALTERNATIVES.

POTENTIAL FACTORS –
BUYERS CONCENTRATION TO FIRM CONCENTRATION RATIO
BUYERS INFORMATION AVIALABILITY
BUYERS SWITCHING COST
DEGREE OF DEPENDING UPON EXISTING CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION
BUYERS CONCENTRATION TO FIRM CONCENTRATION RATIO
3.2 IMPACT OF PORTER’S FIVE FORCES ON STARBUCKS
A. COMPETITIVE RIVALRY IN THE INDUSTRY – STARBUCKS FACES MODERATE TO HIGH FORCE OF COMPETITIVE RIVALRY OR COMPETITION IN THE FOOD SERVICE AND COFFEE HOUSE INDUSTRIES.THE LARGE NUMBER OF FIRMS IS AN EXTERNAL FACTOR THAT INTENSIFIES COMPETITIVE RIVALRY.THE ENTRY AND THE EXIT BARRIERS ARE SMALL.THE MAIN FACTOR THAT MODERATES THE COMPETITION FOR STARBUCKS IS ITS MARKET SHARE.IT HAS THE HIGHEST MARKET SHARE FOLLOWED BY DUNKIN AND McCAFE. HOWEVER THE PREMIUM QUALITY AND PRODUCT BASED DIFFERENTIATION THAT STARBUCKS USES ALSO GIVE SOME EDGE OVER ITS COMPETITORS.HOWEVER, THE INDUSTRY HAS MATURED AND GROWTH RATE HAS MODERATED AS A HIGH NUMBER OF PLAYERS ARE COMPETITING FOR MARKET SHARE.STILL OVERALL THERE IS ALWAYS SPACE IN THIS INDUSTRY FOR NEW PLAYERS,WHICH ADDS TO THE INTENSITY OF COMPETITION IN IT.

THIS ANALYSIS SHOWS THAT STARBUCKS HAS BEEN ABLE TO MODERATE THE COMPETITIVE THREAT AGAINST IT BASED ON PREMIUM QUALITY OF ITS PRODUCTS AS WELL AS QUALITY OF CUSTOMER SERVICE.APART FROM IT,THE GLOBAL COFFEE BRAND HAS EXCELLENTLY MANAGED ITS SUPPLY CHAIN WHICH HAS REDUCED THEIR BARGAINING POSITION.STARBUCKS HAS ACQUIRED SOME EXCELLENT COMPETENCIES AND BUILT A STRONG BRAND THAT GIVES IT A COMPETITIVE ADAVANTAGE IN THE INDUSTRY.

B. THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS – THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS FOR STARBUCKS IS MODERATE.THE BARRIERS ARE NOT VERY HIGH AND THE INTIAL INVESTMENT TO START A COFFEE BRAND IS NOT HIGH EITHER.NEW ENTRANTS CAN COMPETE WITH BRANDS LIKE STARBUCKS AT LOCAL LEVEL.HOWEVER THE POSSBILITY OF BEING SUCCESSFUL REMAINS LOW TO MODERATE.STARBUCKS HAS A GRABBED A LARGE MARKET SHARE BASED ON ITS INFRASTRUCTURE, EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCT QUALITY.STILL,SWITCHING COSTS BEING LOW,THE NEW BRANDS CAN ATTRACT CUSTOMERS USING LOWER PRICES.SO THE THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS REMAINS.HOWEVER,IT GETS MITIGATED TO A LARGE EXTENT BY BRAND IMAGE,MARKET SHAREAND OTHER FACTORS LIKE LOYALITY. AN IMPORTANT FACTOR THAT GIVES THE STARBUCKS BRAND A COMPETITIVE EDGE IS ITS ACCESS TO RAW MATERIALS AND SUPPLIERS.THE THREAT HAS INCREASED TO SOME LEVEL DUE TO THE ENTRY OF McDONALDS IN THE LINE THROUGH McCAFE.

C. THREAT OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS OR SERVICES – THE NUMBER OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS FOR THE STARBUCKS BRAND COFFEE IS HIGH.FROM JUICES TO TEA AND ALCOHOLIC AS WELL AS NON ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES THERE ARE SEVERAL SUBSTITUTES AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET.THERE ARE PUBS AND RESTAURANTS THAT PROVIDE BOTH GOOD AMBIENCE AND QUALITY PRODUCTS.ANOTHER SOURCE OF THREAT IN THIS AREA ARE THE HOME MADE PRODUCTS THAT THE CONSUMERS CAN MAKE AT HOME.APART FROM IT THE SWITCHING COSTS ARE NEGLIGIBLE.THESE ALL FACTORS MAKE SUBSTITUTE A MODERATE TO BIG THREAT.STILL,THERE ARE SOME FACTORS THAT MODERATE THIS THREAT TO SOME EXTENT.APART FROM THE PREMIUM QUALITY COFFEE,EXCELLENT CUSTOMER SERVICE AND A GREAT AMBIENCE,STARBUCKS ALSO SELLS PREMIUM PACKAGED COFFEE AND COFFEE MAKERS.PREMIUM QUALITY AND BRAND LOYALTY MODERATE THE THREAT OF SUBSTITUTE TO SOME EXTENT.

D. BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS – SUPPLIERS CAN EXERT ONLY LOW TO MODERATE PRESSURE TO STARBUCKS.THE BRAND HAS ITS OWN SUPPLIER DIVERSITY POLICY THAT IT USED TO SELECT THE SUPPLIERS.ETHICAL SOURCING IS ANOTHER MAJOR POLICY AT STARBUCKS.THE BRAND SOURCES COFFEE ETHICALLY FROM SEVERAL PARTS OF THE WORLD.IT IS ALSO GROWING WITH COFFEE FARMERS DIRECTLY THAT HAS HELPED IT GAIN HIGHER CONTROL OVER ITS SUPPLY CHAIN.IT ELIMINATED THE MEDITATORS AND STARTED SOURCING FROM THE FARMERS DIRECTLY.STARBUCKS HAS DEVELOPED GREAT RELATIONSHIPS WITH BOTH TEA AND COCOA FARMING COMMUNITES TO EDUCATE THEM,ABOUT BETTER COCOA FARMING PRACTICES AND TO HELP THEM DERIVE MAXIMUM PROFITS FROM IT.ALL OF THIS HAS WORKED TO REDUCE THE CLOUT OF THE MEDITATORS AND THE SUPPLIERS.MOREOVER,THE NUMBER OF SUPPLIERS IS HIGH AND STARBUCKS HAS PLENTY OF ROOM TO EXERCISE CHOICE.SO ITS EXCELLENT SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN THE LAST DECADE HAS REDUCED THE BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS AND BROUGHT IT LOW.

E. BARGAINING POWER OF CUSTOMERS – THE BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS IN CASE OF STARBUCKS IS MODERATE TO LOW.THE SIZE OF INDIVIDUAL PURCHASES IS SMALL AND SO SINGLE BUYERS DO NOT HOLD ENOUGH INFLUENCE.APART FROM IT THE COFFEE BRAND HAS A DIVERSE CUSTOMER BASE.ITS CUSTOMERS ARE MAINLY QUALITY SENSTIVE AND WILLING TO PAY HIGHER PRICES FOR PERMIUM QUALITY PRODUCTS.STILL, THE PRICES CANNOT BE EXCESSIVELY HIGH BECAUSE CUSTOMERS WATCH FOR SUCH TRENDS WOULD START SWITCHING.MOREOVER,THE PRODUCT MIX OF STARBUCKS IS DIVERSE.
4. STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS – RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER GROWTH OF STARBUCKS ONE WAY IS TO
INCREASE INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION : THE FIRST AND FOREMOST RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STARBUCKS WOULD BE TO INCREASE ITS EXISTENCE IN INTERNATIONAL COUNTRIES( EXCLUDING UNITED STATES OF AMERICA).AGGRESSIVE MARKETING STRATEGIES SHALL BE FOLLOWED AT STARBUCKS TO EXPAND ITS OPERATIONS.STARBUCKS SHALL TRY TO REDUCE ITS MARKETIG STRATEGIES IN US.AS IT HAS ENTERED THE MATURED STAGE OF PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE.

BECOME ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY : MANY EFFORTS HAVE BEEN MADE BY STARBUCKS TO IMPROVE THEIR IMAGE AS A ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY STORE:STILL THERE IS SCOPE FOR FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS.SOME OF THE WAYS WHICH SHALL BE FOLLOWED BY STARBUCKS TO BECOME AN ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY STORE WOULD BE TO RECYCLE THE PORCELAIN CUPS,ENCOURAGE THE CUSTOMERS NOT TO WASTE THE FOOD PRODUCTS AND RECYCLE THE PLASTIC STARBUCKS CARDS.

CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENTS IN THE COFFEE :IT WOULD BE AN IMPORTANT TASK FOR STARBUCKS TO CONTINUALLY IMPROVE THE TASTE OF THE COFFEE.IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF COFFEE,STARBUCKS SHALL ANALYZE ITS BREWING SYSTEMS ON TIMELY BASIS AND CONSIDER RENOVATIONS.THEY SHALL PATENTS AND COPYRIGHT THEIR WAY OF ACCOMPLISHING THE BREWING PROCESS.THIS WILL ADD AS A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FOR STARBUCKS.

TECHNOLOGICAL FRIENDLY ATMOSPHERE : STARBUCKS SHALL TRY TO BUILD A TECHNOLOGY FRIENDLY ATMOSPHERE.WITH THE RISE IN INTERNET FACILITIES AN INCREASING SHIFTS HAVE BEEN MADE FROM CONSUMER’S WORK LOCATIONS TO HOME OFFICES.STARBUCKS HAVE BE REGARDED AS A MEETING SPACE WHERE IN AN ADDITIONAL FACILITY APART FROM WIFI WOULD BE PROVIDED TO THE CUSTOMERS.

5. CONCLUSION
IT IS NO DOUBT THAT STARBUCKS IS ONE OF THE MOST SUCCESFUL COMPANY IN THE WORLD.THEY USED A SIMPLE STRATEGY,CONNECTING LINKS BETWEEN TREATING EMPLOYEES WITH DIGNITY AND RESPECT AND PRODUCING A GOOD PRODUCT AND SERVICES.THAT WAS THE MAJOR FACTORS THAT DIFFERENTIATE STARBUCKS FROM OTHERS AND BRING THE SUCCESSFUL TO STARBUCKS.THE FUTURE OF STARBUCKS,WHICH IS IN A FAST GROWTH PHASE,IS APPARENTLY TO BE SUCCESFULL AND PROMISING.DEFENDING AND GROWING A COMPETITIVE POSITION REQUIRES FIRMLY BUILT STRATEGIES BASED ON ITS UNIQUE,VALUABLE AND LEADING CAPABILITIES AND RESOURCES,RATHER THAN THE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES THEMSELVES,PROACTIVELY RESPONDING TO EVER CHANGING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT TO KEEP FENDING OF ITS COMPETITORS.ALTHOUGH CURRENTLY THERE IS NO FORMIDABLE COMPETITORS FOR STARBUCKS LEADERSHIP IN BOTH INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC MARKETS,IT SHOULD NOT TAKE IT FOR GRANTED FOR GOOD.TOMORROW’S DESTINY OF STARBUCKS SHOULD DEPEND ON ITS STRATEGIC CAPABILITY TO PRESERVE AND SUSTAIN ITS STRENGTH ,OFFSET WEAKNESS,AVOIDS THREATS AND CAPATILIZE ON OPPORTUNITIES.IF STARBUCKS WOULD CORRECTLY IDENTIFY AND DEAL WITH THE ISSUES UNDER CURRENT AND NEAR FUTURE CIRCUMSTANCES,IT COULD REMAIN EXICTED ABOUT FURTHER GROWTH AND CONTINUES TO BE PROSPEROUS.

REFERENCES
Article
Porter M.E (2008).’The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy, ‘ Harvard Business review’
Books,JournalsBartol ,K.,; Tein , Metthews ,G.,Sharma,B.,; Scott-land,B(2011).

Management :A Pacific Rim Focus 6e.Australia.McGraw Hill Pty Ltd
David F.and David ,F.R.,2016.Strategic Management ;A Competitive Advantage Approach,Concepts and Cases.

Gomez-Mejia,L ; Balkin, D.(2011) Management :International Edition .Pearson Education Inc.

Robbins,P.S.,; DeCenzo,A.D.,; Coulter,m.(2011).Fundamentals of management :Global Edition.Pearson Education Inc.

Rotharemal,F.T.;(2015),Strategic Management,McGraw-Hill

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1. A) Hazel will need to forecast the weather so she can calculate the estimated time spent on each neighbors’ lawn. She also need to do demand and sales forecasting. By doing this, she can evaluate her current sales, growth of the business and also identify the number of part-time workers to be hired.
1. B) The inventory items that Hazel will have is chemicals and fertilizers, lawn mowers, scissors, fuels for the lawn mowers.
Hazel need to set the best reorder quantity to ensure her business runs without disruption and also minimize cost.
1. C) Hazel needs to do scheduling for the worker’s timetable including the workload and who is assigned on specific time, lawn mower maintenance, and the travel time between jobs. Bad weather, failure of equipment, absence of part time worker will disrupt her schedule.
1. D) Quality assurance is very important for Hazel’s business. Customers will want to have their lawns to be taken care of properly. Hazel need to make sure that her business delivers their service as promised. Moreover, as Hazel’s business is fairly new, she will want to attract more customers to grow her business further. Therefore, by maintaining good quality assurance, her reputation and service quality will increase and leading to loyal customers, also attract more potential customer.
1. E) She will need to do regular maintenance for the lawn mowers’ engine, and regular checks for the sharpness of the scissors and blades used. Maintenance on service quality also needs to be done to ensure consistent service being delivered.

2. After the service, the customers will give feedback on the cutting and cleaning of their lawn and also the duration for the service to be completed. They also judge the neatness and also the length of grass, which cannot be too long or too short. Moreover, Hazel’s treatment towards her customer will also be, directly or indirectly, be judged for the service quality.

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3. A) Working in a company means she will have fixed income every month. But the downside is the time taken to look for a job may be long. If hazel is working for herself, her can working schedule will be more flexible. This means she can reschedule her working time whenever. But the income generated from running her own business is not fixed.
3. B) Expanding her business means she will generate more profit. But to expand her business, she will need to invest in more capital, leading to higher expenses. As a result, Hazel might need to charge higher to her customer. Customers will be unhappy by the rise in price and will seek other competitor instead.

3. C) By launching a website, Hazel will be able to reach wider customer. Even customer from different neighborhood can use Hazel’s service. This will lead in higher sales and profitability. However, there will be cost incurred in launching a website. There will be need to pay for the web design and other cost related to the website launching.

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