1.3 Research Questions
The succeeding research questions will guide the research study.
1. Is there an important relationship between students’ prior mathematics performance and that demonstrated on Basic Mathematics module?
2. Is there a substantial link between students’ academic self-regulation and performance demonstrated on Basic Mathematics module?
3. Is there a noteworthy connection between students’ learning styles and performance demonstrated on Basic Mathematics module?

4. How does the low performance in Basic Mathematics affect students?
5. Is the teaching methods used at the University has any influence on student poor performance in the basic mathematics module?
6. What should be done to avoid the factors that contribute to poor performance in Basic Mathematics module?

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1.4 Significance of the Study
The purpose of this study is to inspect the factors that contribute to poor performance of students who did Basic Mathematics Module. This study will aim to institute the strategies that can be adopted to improve performance among students who are specializing in Mathematics at the University of Namibia, HP Campus. The findings of this study will provide students and lecturers with new perceptions into developing issues on performance in Basic Mathematics. This study is very vital as it will assist lecturers and students to be aware of the factors that contribute to low performance in Basic Mathematics Module and improve upon them.
1.5 Limitations of the study
Due to the time limitation, this study will only focus on those students of HP Campus that have failed or repeating basic mathematics module.
1.6 Definition of the Terms
Prior mathematics performance: means performance demonstrated at High school level considered eligible for acceptance in the university/programme.
Factors: According to Vulda (2012), factors are Elements contributing to a particular result or situation. Insufficient time is one of the factors in poor performance.
Academic self-regulation factors: refer to students’ ability to monitor, evaluate and make plans for their learning their study habits.
Mathematics: Are the study of objects and their relations. Examples of objects are quantity, structure, space and change Vulda ( 2012).
Learning style: is the diverse ways that students learn.
Poor performance: A performance that is adjudged by the examinees or testees as falling below an expected or desired standard (Aremu, 2000).
Probability sampling: Is defined as the selection of individuals or elements to be the sample representative of the population which ensures that each individual in the population has an equal and fair chance of being part of the sample Abdullahi (2013).
The literature has a surplus of investigations designed to identify factors that apply some influence on students’ performance in academic settings. Among the factors that the researcher will identify as predictors will be prior mathematics achievement, poor performance, self-regulation, learning style, and solution.
2.1. Prior Mathematics achievement
Of all the concepts in the cognitive domain, the one considered the strongest forecaster of academic success is the prior academic achievement (ACT, 2007) which according to Sxhiefe and Csikszentmihalyi (1995) strongly effects students’ mathematical ability. Morrison and Schmit ( 2010), using logistic reversion analysis, found that American College Testing (ACT) mathematics score and high school GPA were significant predictors of achieving a C or better in Mathematics for Liberal Arts. Similarly, Hailikari, Nevgi, and Komulainen (2008) in a study involving 139 students at a university found that prior knowledge was the strongest predictor of student achievement on mathematics. According to ACT (2007), prior knowledge does not only affect student performance but also determines student persistence in college and serve to reduce the difference in success among racial/ethnic and income groups. But, research by Rech and Harrington (2000) into the effect of ACT on mathematics achievement between black and white men found a significant difference between their scores even though their mathematics background were similarly based on ACT mathematics score. Given the relationship of prior mathematics achievement to subsequent mathematics achievement, the significance of the variable is worth investigating in the light of the troubling mathematics performance demonstrated at Basic Mathematics module. Besides prior mathematics achievement, students’ self-efficacy beliefs have also been found to affect academic performance.
2.2. Self-regulation
Self-regulation may be defined as the ability of students to monitor, evaluate and make appropriate plans for their learning. According to Kitsantas(2002) and Zimmerman (2008) cited in Kitsantas, Winsler, and Huie (2008)academic self-regulation is displayed by students who are independent, self-initiated learners with the ability to use a variety of learning strategies, such as organizing, transforming, note taking, to accomplish specific learning goals.
In a study conducted by Benford and GessNewsome (2006) suggested that students who withdrew, failed or obtained poor grades in gateway courses that included mathematics, used ineffective study skills. A meta-analysis conducted by Robbins, et al. (2004) into the relationship between psychological and study skills factors and college outcomes suggested that study skills are precursors of positive class performance, which later drive achievement and persistence behavior. Additionally, incomplete support was found for the effect of other self-regulatory practices such as time management in predicting academic performance during the first year and influencing the second year performance as well (Kitsantas, Winsler, ; Huie, 2008).
Zimmerman (1990, p. 14) believed that self-regulated learners usually employ systematic metacognitive, motivational and behavioral tactics to learning, are responsive to feedback concerning their learning and hold strong views of academic accomplishments. He further recommended that instructional approaches which focus on the metacognitive, motivational and behavioral aspects of learning should be utilized and that attempts to stand-in these dimensions in students would stimulate long-lasting academic learning. Effective study skills have some influence on student performance and were demonstrated the student is likely to exhibit independence using a variety of learning styles to achieve and improve their academic performance in Basic Mathematics module.
2.3. Learning Styles
The term learning style refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them (Pashler, Daniel, Rohrer, and Bork, 2008, p. 105). According to Silver, Strong, and Perini (2000), the concept dates back to ancient Greek all the way to the Renaissance. They linked the learning style concept to Hippocrates “FOURNES” which when not in equilibrium cause persons to exhibit four types of personalities and William Blake’s description of the four Zoas of human existence: the body and its senses; the heart and its capacity for love; the head and its ability to reason; and the spirit and its potential for creative imagination seem similar to that of Hippocrates. Silver et al. (2000) believed that evidence of the learning style concept can also be found in the spiritual stories of Indians of the North American Plains. The four human personality traits are given as wisdom, clarity of perception, introspection, and understanding one’s emotions. Carl Jung (1923) cited in Silver et al. (2000) reclassified human “FOURNESS” and advanced that humans use perception and judgment as cognitive functions to process information.
According to Jung perception is used to process information either through the senses or intuition while judgment is demonstrated through the logic of thinking or subjectivity of feeling. Jung’s model of the way people process information seems to have motivated educational researchers to develop the many theories regarding the learning styles of students. In this regard, Silver et al. (2000, p. 28) identifies four types of learners: the mastery learner who operates under the sensing thinking realm and learns best from drill, demonstration, practice , hands on experience; the understanding learner who operates under the intuitive-thinking realm and learns best through lectures, reading logical discussion and debates, and projects of personal interest; the interpretative learner who operates under the sensing-feeling realm and learns best from group experiences and projects, loving attention, personal expression and personal encounters, role playing; and the self-expressive learner who operates under the intuitive-feeling realm and learns best from creative and artistic activities, open ended discussions of personal and social values, activities that enlighten and enhance myths, human achievement, dramas.
Small ( 2001) suggest that the content of College Algebra should focus on real-world problems, emphasize problem-solving in the modeling sense, and include elementary data analysis. He opined that teaching should be student-centered, make use of appropriate technology and aim to develop communication skills via small group activities and projects to infuse positive experiences and confidence among students.
While no specific learning style was implied by Small the suggested learning activities could be used to describe the three types of learners identified by Silver et al. (2000) i.e. mastery, intuitive and interpretative. Further, Ng, Pinto, and Williams (2011)investigated the effects of learning styles on course performance of approximately forty students on a business statistics course. They used an interpretive and learner-centered approach as well as learning activities that emphasized the applicability of the course studied to the real world. The study found that learning style was not a significant determinant of students’ overall course scores for the entire group of students despite designing the course to facilitate the diverse ways in which students processed information and emphasizing deeper approaches to learning. However, learning styles were significantly related to the average obtained at the examination for some subjects from the same sample used in the investigation discussed.
The findings of Ng et al. (2011) while specific to the survey statistics course investigated have implications for the performances demonstrated by Basic Mathematics Module students. The possible positive effect that accommodating the diverse ways in which students learn might have contributed to whatever increment in student achievement observed in the course. Limited, support is given by the “meshing hypothesis’ concept which posits that instruction is best provided in a manner that suits the learning style of students (Pashler et al., 2008). Herington and Weaven ( 2008) utilizing an action research approach to explore methods of improving the learning styles and outcomes of first-year university students within larges class environments found that the employment of student-centered teaching approaches did not enable students to employ deeper methods of self-regulating but served as a motivating tool. They attributed the lack of development of a more sustained deeper learning style to the previously developed learning style of students which may have to be unlearned before a new one is learned. They further opined that enabling students to transcend surface learning might pose a significant problem for tutors since acquiring a deeper learning style might entail several interventions.
Nevertheless, Riener and Willingham(2010) believe that the learning style theory is a myth. They agree that since differences among learners tend to affect their performance, they should be taken into account by teachers. They contend though those other factors such as learners’ ability, background knowledge, and interest vary from person to person and when learning styles are emphasized these important elements are neglected in the analysis of their effect on learning. On the contrary, Rech and Harrington (2000) believe that when mathematical backgrounds of ethnic groups are similar but mathematics achievement is different than the learning preference, among other variables, of this group should be investigated to determine what interventions could occur to improve performance. Clearly, any research into the factors that influence Basic Mathematics Module performance should also take cognizance of the preferred way in which students learn since the diverse findings indicate the possibility of the variable influencing performance at the course and examination level. Additionally, the findings may confirm or disconfirm the importance of utilizing a student-centered approach to the teaching of Basic Mathematics Module.


1.0 Executive Summary
The main objective of this business plan is to provide investors information which necessary to evaluate the scope of Inferno Company in the market and the potential future growth in the global market. The market trend analysis and research has shown that there is great and sufficient room for business like Inferno Company to run. Inferno Company will have an energetic, young, inventive, responsible and progressive management style. The ethics and responsibilities toward environmental protection of the management and employees eventually stipulate and accelerate the growth and improvement of Inferno Company.
Inferno Roof Tiles is an invented roof tiles made from waste plastics and sand. This results in an eco-product which re-engineered waste into a new functional product. The gap between building construction and environmental friendly can be closer with the launching of Inferno roof tiles as a new building material for Malaysian construction. Inferno Company will work closely to the private construction sectors, as well as the government sector for the implementation of the Inferno roof tiles in their new and developing projects.
Inferno Company strives to compete with the current commercial roof tile companies and manufacturers and become the major supplier of green roof tiles in Malaysia followed by Asia and worldwide. This ambitious target is set once the company noticed about the increasing trend and demand in green building materials and tends in solving the environmental issues which is increasing in an alarming rate.
The company is seeking for a moderate investment from investors with the intention to launch and start-up the business to provide building and constructions industry the best alternative and solution. Inferno Company is expected to achieve profitability within a year.

Figure 1.1: Comparison chart for sales, gross margin and net profit in future 3 years.?
2.0 Company Description
Inferno is a freshly established company which was formed to create a supreme quality green roof tile manufacturing brand aimed at the Malaysian market. The company was formed with an intention to have strong focus on the development of green technology and materials as well as the development of skills at the same time creating job opportunities. With this aspiration, the company seeks to infiltrate the Malaysian market with the blue ribbon recycled roof tile solutions distributed through few platforms, notably E-Commerce, direct supply in large quantities to construction companies (both private and government) and retailed stores such as hardware stores.
There has been an increasing demand for roof tile in developing countries like Malaysia. However, commercial roof tiles nowadays are usually not environmental friendly and require greater energy to produce or manufacture. This has prompted the materials engineers to develop a greener roof tiles which can be manufacture or produce in a lower consumption energy and eventually reduce the burden of exploiting raw materials for production of roof tiles.
The product is named Inferno Tiles. It is made of a composite material which comprises recycled HDPE plastics and sand. Plastics are the major issues now and by using plastics as raw materials in the product can reduce the environmental impacts. The embodied energy in plastics allows the possibility of low energy consumption rate in manufacturing and hence lower cost is required to produce a piece of roof tile as compared to the commercial one which made from virgin materials. However, the performance of the roof tiles has been conforming and outstand the commercial ones.
Inferno Company strives to be the dominant provider of supreme green roof tiles. With this intention, strict quality control program, competitive pricing, timely response towards customers, after sale services and lean manufacturing will be implemented.
The company not only strives to provide green roof tile but also other green building materials in future. Green building materials can provide a better and more environmental friendly construction. Eco-house which is environmental friendly will be the vision of the company.
Team Description
Inferno is a partnership, owned and operated by five materials engineers who had associated with the composite material projects for years and with the extensive research conducted as well as collaborations of the composite material projects ranging from biodegradable food packaging to building and constructions. Two of the materials engineers had experienced in invention of new materials specifically for buildings and constructions. Another three materials engineers had years of experiences in designing composite materials for multipurpose applications in diverse industries.

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3.0 Product
Our product, Inferno roof tile is a green and affordable building construction material. Inferno roof tile are made from the combination of HDPE plastics and sand with a ratio of 7 to 3 respectively. Our company collects or buys the waste plastics from recycle centers and categorizes all the recycled plastics according to their recycle grades. After categorization, the HDPE plastic is heated to its melting point. Then, sand is added into melted plastic and stirred by a mixer. The mixture will become a paste-like compound and it is poured into a roof tile mould to compress it to desired shape. Inferno plastic roof tile is formed after cooled.

Unit Selling Points (USP)
1. Recycling and re-engineering. Recycling is one of the effective ways to reduce the amount of plastic to be landfilled. Plastic bags used in this world per minute are 1,000,000 (Our Product, 2017). However, plastic takes more than 600 years to decompose (Our Product, 2017). Inferno roof tile utilizes the plastic wastes as one of the major materials. This case the waste plastics are re-engineered into a new functional product. Therefore, possibility of reduction in the waste plastic being landfilled or burned is greatly increased and accelerated.

2. Environmental friendly. The manufacturing process of Inferno roof tiles does not create waste because the process is reversible as the excess from trimming will be collected and reuse in the melting process. After all, the main ingredients for Inferno roof tiles are most industrial and commercial wastes.

3. Long lifespan. The Inferno roof tile can last for at least 100 years because both plastic and sand does not decompose easily and it may have a lifespan of more than hundred years. This is a credit when this material is used for refurbishing and the maintenance of the historical buildings and important buildings which represent the culture and identity of certain countries or communities.

4. Great performance in strength. Inferno roof tile is having superb performance in strength than commercial clay roof tile. During installation process, the Inferno tile will not easily break when impact exerts from a height while the commercial clay roof tile breaks in no time. The reason behind this outstanding performance is Inferno roof tile has good impact absorption and good tensile strength compare to commercial clay roof tile which is a brittle material. Inferno roof tile can withstand the force more than human weight; this indicates that worker can step on it without the fear of breaking the roof tiles during installation.
5. Water, weather and flame resistance. Inferno tile is water resistance because plastic is having low water absorption properties. UV resistance of Inferno roof tiles are tested and proven to be effective when exposed under a hot weather in certain country especially those Asia country. The colours of Inferno tile will maintained under hot sun. Inferno roof tile aids in prevention of the flame spread out along the roof.

6. Soundproof. The noise can be reduced by Inferno tile during raining day. The impact of rain drop is absorbed as compare to a metal roof tile.

7. Light weight. The Inferno roof tile has an average weight which is approximately 1.3 kg which is 70% lighter weight compared to traditional roof tiles. The load applied by the roof tile to the framework of the roofing system can be reduced, thus the roofing system reinforcement during building construction can also be reduced. During installation, the worker can install it easily. Besides that, transportation cost can be saved as lighter weight of products consumes less petrol during transportation.

8. Variety. Inferno roof tile can be moulded into many shapes such as slate, roman, slate ridge and etc. It also comes in a wide range of colour choices and customization of colour choice by customer is also possible.
Inferno Slate Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 300 × 600 mm
Thickness 25 mm
Headlap 75 mm

Inferno Ridge/Hip Cap for Slate Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 300 × 600 mm
Thickness 25 mm
Headlap 20 mm

Inferno Roman Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 330 × 420 mm
Wave height 40 mm
Headlap 50 mm

Inferno Ridge/Hip Cap for Roman Roof Tile
Weight per piece 1.3 kg
Size 330 × 200 mm
Wave height 40 mm
Headlap 20 mm

Colour Available

9. Low cost. The major materials used are waste plastics and sand. The material cost and energy consumption is much lower than virgin plastic. The maintenance and installation cost will be reduced because not easy to break as compare to clay tile and long lifespan of Inferno roof tile. The price of Inferno roof tile is RM 12 per square meter.

Table 3.1| The properties of Inferno Roof Tile.
Material Specifications
Compression resistance 14 MPa
Temperature range -60°C to +80°C
Lifespan >100 years
Density 1103 kg/m2
Flame spread No flame spread
Water absorption 0.3%
Fracture toughness 3.5 kgf/cm2
Biological stability Moss and mold spread resistance
Chemical stability No reaction with acidic and alkaline environment
UV-resistance Resistance to UV-radiation and colour will maintain
Heat conductivity 2800 J/m2s
4.0 Industry Analysis
Roof Tile Manufacturing
According to Department of Statistics Malaysia, the population in Malaysia is estimated at 32 million in 2017 (Current Population Estimates, Malaysia, 2016-2017, 2017). With the growing of population, the number of households needed in the future will increase. The roof tiles industry is expected to increase in the future. The house owner will want to use the Inferno roof tiles which are cheaper and better strength and properties to replace the commercial roof tiles.

4.1 PEST Analysis
Political Factors: Politics can be one of the risk factors to roof tile industry. Recently Malaysia had been formed a new government, thus they can change business rules that bring positively or negatively impact to roof tile industry. Malaysia government had made announcement to abolish Goods and Services Tax (GST) and implement Sales and Service Tax (SST) start from 1 September 2018. Under GST, everyone need to be charged on the tax including supplier, manufacturer, whole seller and retailer (Sales and Service Tax (SST) in Malaysia, 2018). The range of taxable become lesser under SST can bring positively impact to Malaysian.

Economic Factors: Malaysia economic growth rate was increased from 4.2% to 5.9% in 2016 and 2017 (Malaysia Economic Outlook, 2018). The data showed that Malaysia current economy is in growing stage. More investments will come in to Malaysia to develop economic. Government is encouraging people to develop or create their own business.

Social Factors: Entrepreneurial spirit has been encouraged and promoted in Malaysia to own businesses. The strong competitiveness atmosphere causes people hard to find job. Creativities and innovative is what a company looking for. Inferno Company creates and design a new production line and product in Malaysia to survive in roof tile market.

Technological Factors: Nowadays, new technologies and high efficiency machines are sought by industry. The machines that use in roof tile industry need to be designed for faster and higher speed and also ensure the quality of product to be excellent at the same time. The industry need to be performed efficiency and effective at the same time. Old machines or second hand machines have lower performance rate and speed compared to new machines.
4.2 Porter’s Five Forces
Competitive Rivalry: There are lots of roof tile manufacturers in Malaysia and the market is considered quite competitive. Inferno Company also created as roof tile manufacturer but have unique and different with other competitors. Inferno Company is using HDPE to produce an eco-friendly roof tile. The strength and properties of this HDPE roof tiles is better than clay and cement roof tile. The competitive rivalry is minimal because there is no manufacturer produce this kind of roof tile in Malaysia. Hence, Inferno Company has tremendous strength and profits in the market.

Supplier Power: The main raw material needed is the waste HDPE plastics and sand. There are quite a lot of waste plastic supplier can be found in Malaysia. Waste plastics or HDPE plastics have no much in value and can buy it at cheaper price. Since there are many suppliers can be found, comparison on prices between different suppliers can be conducted and survey to get the most suitable supplier.

Buyer Power: The potential buyers of Inferno roof tile are the private sector contractor and government sector contractor for residential construction and non-residential construction in Malaysia. Large amount of roof tiles are needed for one construction. The different between Inferno and other competitors is Inferno provide roof tile with better strength and lower price. This can help to reduce plastic waste as the raw material used is waste HDPE plastics. Nowadays, contractors and government are looking for beneficial and effective ways to reduce pollution and waste. Launching of Inferno roof tiles can accelerate this event.

Threat of Substitution: In roof tile industry, the requirements for roof tile are strict where a building and construction material must be safety and at the same time strength must be significant. It is not easy to invent a new material to substitute the roof tile. Hence, the industry will face lesser threat of substitution.

Threat of New Entry: This roof tile business requires changing technologies to improve the process, huge capital investment is necessary. Inferno Company faces threat from local and top roof tile manufacturers which they may also will develop this kind of roof tile in the future. To overcome this problem, partnerships and reputations are mandatory for Inferno Company which can help to secure the business in the market.
5.0 Market Analysis
In past few years, construction industry has a robust growth in Malaysia due to expansion of economics and development sectors. According to the Malaysia Country Report by Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB), the collected data showed that the value of construction project awarded was recorded MYR 141.8 billion in 2015 increased to MYR 229 billion (Country Report Malaysia, 2017). In term of both value and number of project private sector have occupy 77.8% (RM178.1 billion) and 74.3% (5,091 projects) versus government sector at 22.2%(RM50.9 billion) and 25.7% (1,764 projects) (Country Report Malaysia, 2017).
Table 5.1| Value of Construction Projects Awarded by Sector and Type of Project (Country Report Malaysia, 2017).
Sector and type of Project Value (RM million)
In year 2014 2015 2016 2017
Total Private Sector 161,363.78 117,127.32 178,143.68 34,311.26
Residential 34,781.71 51,097.83 39,075.50 11,265.92
Non-Residential 91,973.73 49,374.63 38,964.58 15,072.84
Social Amenities 4,833.52 2,575.03 3,561.94 1,575.82
Infrastructure 29,774.82 14,079.83 96,541.66 6,396.68
Total Government Sector 23,653.56 24,724.12 50,882.08 6,045.07
Residential 2,139.25 2,677.18 1,560.38 909.06
Non-Residential 3,925.24 4,049.74 3,546.58 681.61
Social Amenities 3,343.55 2,940.88 5,110.49 1,047.74
Infrastructure 14,245.52 15,056.32 40,664.63 3,406.66
Grand Total 185,017.34 141,851.44 229,025.76 40,356.33
Note: As at 30 June 2017 Source: CIDB Malaysia

The tiles market has been greatly impacted by the growth in the construction industry in Malaysia. Nowadays, the amount of existing residential, commercial and government units increase continuously, this trend leads the market of replacement demand for tiles increase at the same time (Gupta, 2018). With growing of urbanization, the number of households and buildings are predicted to increase and cause the raising in the demand of tiles.

Table 5.2| Number of Construction Projects Awarded by Sector and Type of Project (Country Report Malaysia, 2017).
Sector and type of Project Number
In year 2014 2015 2016 2017
Total Private Sector 6,276 5,643 5,091 1,645
Residential 2,161 1,929 1,762 597
Non-Residential 2,677 2,316 2,005 665
Social Amenities 257 250 263 81
Infrastructure 1,181 1,148 1,061 302
Total Government Sector 1,800 1,901 1,764 488
Residential 160 164 92 45
Non-Residential 342 376 404 97
Social Amenities 445 476 414 127
Infrastructure 853 885 854 219
Grand Total 8,076 7,544 6,855 2,133
Note: As at 30 June 2017 Source: CIDB Malaysia

5.1 Market Segmentations
In regards to the distribution business, there are more than 2,000 construction related businesses annually in Malaysia. All these businesses could be the potential customers of Inferno roof tiles.
Private and government sector contractor: Nowadays, people concerns about the environmental pollution. By using Inferno roof tiles, it can promote the event and activities on recycling of plastic. This also can be a new and unique selling point of the construction project.
Local businesses: The hardware store and roof tiles suppliers can look for new roof tiles to promote and sell to customers. This new design can grab the attention and curiosity of customer to know more information of this roof tile. The customers may buy the roof tiles for self-replacement in household.

Figure 5.1: Market analysis in pie chart.

5.2 Product and Business Analysis
The primary competitive advantage and selling point of Inferno roof tile is the unique and invention of roof tile which uses waste plastics as ingredient. This invention is currently cannot be found in market. As compare the Inferno roof tiles with commercial cement and clay roof tile, there are some advantages over the other competitors. The addition of plastic to the roof tiles gives the roof tiles considerable durability and it is environmentally safe and does not emit harmful substance. Besides, the Inferno roof tiles do not absorb moisture easily, thus it can last for a longer time and easy to clean. Another advantage is the price of Inferno roof tile which is cheaper than commercial clay and cement roof tile as the material cost and production cost are lower. According to a study in Science Magazine, Malaysia is the eighth worst country worldwide for plastic waste and Malaysia was estimated produced almost one million tonnes of mismanaged plastic waste (Jenna R. Jambeck, 2015). As using waste plastic as main material to make this tile, the mismanaged plastic scenario can also be reduced.

5.3 Competitor Analysis
In current roof tile market in Malaysia, there are many roofing tiles manufacturers, distributors and wholesalers that provide clay and cement roof tiles on a regular basis. There are no manufacturers and distributors produce this type of recycled plastic roof tile in Malaysia like Inferno. Majority roof tile manufacturers are using clay or cement as raw materials in production of roof tile. However, there are some roof tile manufacturers in oversea had started the businesses of recycled plastic roof tile:
• Resintile (EA) Ltd (South Africa): The primary objective of this business is to reduce the contamination and pollution of the environment and at the same time provide a product that is safe, light and easy to install. This roof tiles are not only cheaper but also eco-friendly to environment.
• Zhangjiagang Aicheng Machinery (China): China is the top country worst country for plastic waste which have around 8.82 million tonnes of mismanaged plastic waste (Jenna R. Jambeck, 2015). Thus, most of the company started to develop and manufacture product by using plastic waste. Zhangjiagang Aicheng Machinery has developed a recycled plastic roofing tile extrusion line. The industry produces PVC corrugated roof tile by extrusion.
Inferno Company creates a similar production line as the competitor to produce the recycled plastic roof tile. The production cost and material cost are lower because the production line and raw materials are readily available in Malaysia and no import fees are needed. Inferno roof tiles can supply to local market with lower price and may export to other countries in the future.
6.0 Marketing Plan
As aforementioned, our main ingredients used to manufacture our product are waste HDPE plastics and sand as compare with the traditional roof tiles, which include clay or concrete, metal or plastic roofing material, our raw material cost is lower. The machines used to process Inferno roof tile are lesser and therefore lesser worker is required. Thus, lots of time can be saved from there and a higher production rate can be achieved. As referring on above points, Inferno roof tiles can be launched in 15-21% lower price (which is 55% or above of our manufacturing cost) than the traditional clay or concrete roof tiles, thus able to earn a higher profit than traditional or commercial roof tiles.
Our main company target group will be residential constructors (including private and government sector). As for our product market, there are some existing customer who joined in contractor associations such as Master Builders Association Malaysia (CIDB) and etc. From there, application of community marketing and outbound marketing is possible to advertise Inferno Company to the potential customers. By open up a list of prospects of the market of new building material and been recognized and hopefully able to lead to word of mouth marketing. Outbound marketing includes direct and E-mail marketing to communicate with customer on their requirements and enquiries on Inferno products. Furthermore, the marketing strategy will be implied is affinity marketing to generates sales and creates new customers, at the same time, build brand awareness or B-to-B (business to business) marketing by supporting customers using a better material selection of our product. This case can be done by having partnerships with SP Setia, Eco-world, IOI properties and etc.
Moreover, online marketing will be done through social media to advertise our product and target buyers who aimed at small quantity for renovation purpose or acknowledge to retailers of Inferno products. Through Facebook or YouTube channels, such as Tech Insider, Science Channel and etc, to publish articles or contents to showcase Inferno Company’s knowledge and expertise on the products, meanwhile, educate potential customers and influence them without direct selling. Besides that, search engine such as Google, can be utilized by creating company website as this is one of the best way to be recognized as a start-up company. Thus, from the website, cross-media marketing is possible as provide information are provided through multiple channels and to contact or cooperate with Inferno Company or retail stores in no time.
Another marketing strategy will be implemented is Ambush marketing. This is done by participating contractor Expo and Technology Expo, which allows capitalization of Inferno products and leverage the brand equity of others business. Besides that, PR marketing will be fully utilized to build connection and trust between the customers as long-term cooperation can be achieved.
Place (distribution)
As a new start-up manufacturing company, customer source is found by own so our focus of customer will be private residential contractors followed by government contractors and renovation companies. Cooperation with retail owners is another strategic approach on finding potential customers to distribute Inferno roof tiles. Then, connection with a few green building or huge contractor company operation shall be made, which needed bulk consumption and construction amount to sell the product directly to them. Shipping logistic is then a necessary to transport Inferno products to clients. At current stage, East Malaysia is Inferno Company’s primary target. As the company expands, west Malaysia and ASEAN then worldwide will be the next targets.
Inferno roof tile is a composite comprises of plastics and sand. As compared with the existence concrete in current market, Inferno product is more feasibility to customize the shape upon customer request since Inferno roof tiles does not limit to the traditional model design. Besides that, most of the current building materials worldwide used are concrete-based, i.e. clay or concrete tiles which are quite brittle, Inferno roof tiles have great impact absorption which also indicates that a safe transportation is guaranteed. Inferno roof tiles are also readily available in a wide variation of colours. Furthermore, corrosion like metal roof tiles is no longer a concern for Inferno roof tiles. Therefore, Inferno products are not only able to achieved the basic requirements but also earn some extra credits which current market demands.

7.0 Financial Plan
Funding requirements
Based on the forecast made (refer to tables below), confidently mentioned that investing to Inferno Company is a reliable investment and sound business since profit will be made in a few-year-time. In order to progress, an investment of about RM100000 is mandatory by Aug 2018. The start-up fund will be useful in the procurement of equipment and initial operating expenses.
Payback strategy
In the future years, this investment can be gained by a dividend of excess profit. The profits earned by the sales revenue will generate a lot of extra fund which can payback the investment and in addition 10% interest which is about RM10000 from the amount of investment can be guaranteed.
Important Assumptions
The financial projections for Inferno Roof Tile are based on the following assumptions. These assumptions are thought to be quite conservative and accurate as well as the financial forecasts.


1) Biography/Personal History (10)

Tyler Joseph had fallen in love with music ever since he received a small piano as a Christmas gift from his mother. So, in 2008 at the age of 18 he created a self-entitled album called No Phun Intended in his basement with the help of his best friend Nick Thomas. Nick grew up in Columbus Ohio, playing little league baseball with Tyler. Like Tyler, Nick was also into music, and learned how to play guitar at an early age. He contributed to Tyler’s first ever album by playing guitar on some of the tracks. The album was a fusion of rock, poetry, rap and electronic music. He presented his album to some of his closest friends while in high school and he received a positive response. After high school concluded Tyler and Nick attended The Ohio State University. While attending a college party Tyler bumped into a student named Chris Salih. Chris was born in Texas and came from a musical background, so he instantly connected with Tyler when he found out about Tyler’s musical interests. Chris offered to form a band with Tyler. At first Tyler, was a bit skeptical about creating a band with Chris because he didn’t really know him. However, once Tyler saw the sound studio Chris had created in his basement he decided to join, but only if his best friend Nick could also be in the band. In 2009, a small band was created in Columbus Ohio named Twenty-One Pilots.
After, officially forming a band, the three members decided to all move into Chris’s house. They began to share their music idea’s and started to work on their first album. Tyler Joseph was the main song writer. While working on their first album, the band began to play for a wide variety of audiences in clubs and other venues in the Columbus area. Performing at metal, hardcore, and electronic venues influenced Joseph to experiment with these disparate styles with his songwriting. On December 29th, 2009 the trio released their first album, which was self-titled “Twenty-One Pilots”.
Tyler was the head writer of the band, vocalist, and piano player. Nick played bass, even though he had no prior experience with bass instruments. Chris played the drums and would occasionally also help with the vocals. In 2010 the band started there first ever album “tour”, where they would play songs from their brand new self-titled album. The band started doing outside concerts in fields to promote their new album, and Tyler’s mother would stand outside of Ohio State University and hand out free tickets to the students, to bring in new fans. As they were touring Tyler wanted to catch the attention of unfamiliar or disinterested attendees, so he started to experiment with costumes and on-stage acrobatics.
A big changing moment in the band was when they entered themselves into a battle of the bands contest at the Alrosa Villa. They did not win the contest, but they did help grow their fan base. The band began to slowly build up an even bigger fanbase by posting their music to a music sharing site called SoundCloud. This website allowed the group to reach a much larger audience, who would be able to listen to the bands new album for free.
The largest change to the band came in 2011 with the departure of Chris and Nick. Chris Salih left the band on May 8th 2011, to pursue his passion of wood working and now works for the carpentry business Elmwood Custom Goods. Located in Columbus Ohio, where he currently lives with his wife Krista and their young son Anderson Mack. Nick Thomas left the band on June 3rd 2011 because he wanted to focus more on his schooling and attended college in North Carolina, then he moved to Georgia, where he helps distribute merchandise for Twenty-One Pilots.
Right before he

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1. The first name given to Brazil by the colonialists was “Terra do Santa Cruz” – “land of the Holy Cross.”
2. In terms of population, Brazil takes the 5th place.
3. Brazil prepares the most delicious coffee drinks.
4. The largest and richest city in Brazil is Sao Paulo.
5. The national sport of Brazil is football, therefore in all cities of this state, there is at least 1 stadium.
6. There is no official religion in this country.
7. In Brazil, in each apartment, there are about 3 bathrooms
8. the capital of Brazil, Brasilia was built in just 41 days.
9. Brazil has the most brutal police.
10. No one arrives on time in Brazil.
11. Approximately 1.5 million Japanese lives in Brazil, it is the largest number of people outside Japan.
12. In Brazil, about 15% of the population cannot read and write.
13. Women in Brazil got voting rights in 1946.
14. Brazil was the first country in South America to allow women in armed forces.
15. Brazil holds the 60% of total Amazon Rainforest.
16. There are 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Brazil.
17. Brazil is considered the largest producer of apples.
18. Alone Brazil occupies half of South America’s total landmass.
19. When married, women in Brazil do not change names, but simply combine 2 names.
20. Portuguese ruled Brazil for more than 300 years.
21. The Brazilian national team has won FIFA World Cup 5 times.
22. Almost all cars in Brazil go on biofuel.
23. Brazilians are considered the most talkative people.
24. Cocoa is considered to be the favorite drink of Brazilian people.
25. Christmas is considered the main event in Brazil.
26. Cheese bread is considered a classic breakfast for all Brazilians.
27. In Brazil, there is the largest tropical forest.
28. 70 % population of Brazil is Catholic, which is the largest in the world.
29. At night, drivers in Brazil are allowed to ride when the traffic light is red.
30. In Brazil, the crime rate is very high.
31. Brazil has the largest number of species of plant, mammal and freshwater fish in the world.
32. Till 1961, Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil.
33. In ancient times, Brazil was a colonial state.
34. There are about 4,000 airports in Brazil.
35. Traffic Jams in big cities of Brazil is so common and can reach up to waiting for 3-4 hours.
36. Brazilian speak the Portuguese language.
37. In total, about 6% of the country’s population live in slums.
38. The largest stadium in Brazil is Maracana, it has the capacity of more than 78,000 thousand people.
39. Brazil is the member of UNESCO.
40. Only Brazilian athletes participated in all world championships.
41. Brazil is the largest exporter of coffee.
42. Here flows the largest river in the world – the Amazon.
43. Baia do Sancho beach is considered to be the most beautiful beach in Brazil.
44. Every year in Brazil visits 6 million tourists.
45. Brazil carnival lasts for 4 days and it is declared a national holiday.
46. The national dish of Brazil is Feijoada.
47. In Sao Paulo outdoor advertising is ban.
48. Smoking in public is banned in Brazil, even E-cigarettes are banned.
49. Carnival in Rio De Janeiro is the biggest festival of the world.
50. Brazilians are an open and positive people. They like dancing, beer, and football.
51. São Vicente is the oldest city in Brazil.
52. the 40-meter-high statue of Christ in Rio de Janeiro is in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
53. Only in Brazil, there is a law that allows you to reduce your prison sentence for reading books.
54. Jaguar is the national animal of Brazil.
55. In Brazil, 15% of the world’s fresh water is concentrated.
56. Pico da Neblina is the highest mountain in Brazil.
57. There are three time zones in Brazil.
58. The life expectancy of Brazil is 75 years.
59. Brazil has more species of monkeys than any other country.
60. Bororo is the group of people in Brazil who all have the same blood group ‘O’.


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