Regardless of whether you are intro social media monitoring or not, taking in the differences among traditional and non-traditional marketing can expand and increase the odds of a fruitful crusade. A business’s instinct and great intuition have unquestionably played a role in comprehending what their consumers wants and needs. Unfortunately, their assumptions about their consumers preferences and needs are not generally on track. Failed or insignificantly effective marketing efforts happens to every business professional.

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Traditional Marketing correspondences applies to older media such as television, newspapers, radio, magazines etc. These types of traditional marketing can be extensive and have a life expectancy that is effectively defined. According to Gibson ; Neilson 2000, on the off chance that life expectancy of the marketing media is short, it perhaps most appropriate for an once off event. Getz 2012 has exhorted utilizing traditional marketing communication is a tool to reach an entire mass. Traditional Marketing has a better outwardly engaging, nostalgic and more noteworthy aspects. According to Blakeman 2014, magazine has a longest life span in any forms of traditional tools because it could be easily passed around hand to hand and people can simply read it in the office or while sitting down. Thus, newspapers are very effective because it could be picked up or left in a commute and being picked up for another public passenger to read.

Non Traditional Marketing has conveyed numerous opportunities through digital marketing such as social media, grassroots, guerrilla etc. According to Chaffey ; Smith 2014, it is very overwhelming on how much marketers would now be able to do with using digital marketing methods and the rates has increased in both quantifiability and financially. Purreault et al 2013 explains that digital marketing are stronger and in depth analysis of Customer Relationship Management that was impractical before the development in non traditional strategies. According to Busch 2015 and Kapko 2016, they potray programmatic marketing as living marketing which is a digital form of marketing that could be utilized on the web and in DOOH (Digital out of Home). It could change itself based on its predetermined factors, for example, climates, time, sound and touch. It can likewise be automated which depends on the factors recorded as to meet the demands of the buyer and marketers.


Kotler (2002) clarifies that when marketing for galleries, it is vital to characterize the target market and market to them correctly, utilizing the correct tools to suit that market. These tools can originate from either the traditional or non-traditional fields. According to Perreault et al, a target market is accomplished through market division and by utilizing proper instruments or potentially channels to communicate with that group. Also, each market objectives need to be tended to in various courses all together for an advertising to be effective.

In the world of marketing, staying in stride with your competitors often isn’t enough to gain momentum and success. Many companies are stuck in the sales and marketing playbook from twenty years ago—still relying on expensive direct mailers, print catalogues, billboard ads, TV spots, spammy emails, and cold calling campaigns. The problem with these methods is that consumers have gotten really good at ignoring all of these push tactics from companies. From ad blockers to DVRs, your customers are telling you that they don’t want pushy ads.

Non-traditional marketing is any unconventional, strategic marketing program, activity or tactic that uses uncommon methods to reach a target audience in a new way. Because marketing is constantly changing, the tactics that are considered “non-traditional” will continue to evolve over time.

A report which is written by Mckinsey ; Company 2016 says that by next year 2019, non-traditional marketing will be a dominate source in marketing spend. As mentioned, DOOH is widely introduced. It is where the traditional and non-traditional medias interlink. However, according to Taylor 2015 predicts that by year 2020 all traditional space in major cities will be replaced by digital media. An online marketing can target its audiences in direct way that could not be used when doing it through traditional strategy. However this only works for the younger generation and does not apply to other platforms. According to the 8020s report, it stated that only 52% users in Ireland online users are under the age of 35.
Based on Katz 2008 and Kotler et al 2008, they recommended that traditional channels were most appropriate for reaching entire populace however, they expressed that it is not financially feasible to constantly use traditional channel expect if they are supported through sponsorship.
On the other hand, traditional marketing is a rather broad category that incorporates many forms of advertising and marketing. It’s the most recognizable type of promoting, incorporating the advertisement that we see and hear each day.
Belch & Belch (2006) devised an approximate time span of exposure or life-time traditional marketing communications. Magazines have the longest life span of any traditional type of advertising. Magazines can easily be passed around from hand-to-hand, or sit in an office for passers-by to read. Daily papers can be extremely powerful at target promoting dependent on their readership. Daily papers again have a fairly shorter life expectancy however a day by day daily paper can be gotten, left on a drive furthermore, got again by another individual from open.
In the term of having a successful for B2B marketing, Ellis (2011) explains the importance of events for B2B marketing from the simple coffee meeting to more formal conferences through traditional marketing. The leading form of B2B lead generation is still need face-to-face events. Face-to-face interaction and connection are as yet the main technique in conversion rates ad evident in Content Marketing Institute. Moreover, Word of Mouth advertising is extremely successful however a boundless channel of traditional marketing communications.
As for the small business, it is really a good reason when they want to rely on the traditional marketing. The reasons have as much to do with the advantages and benefits the mediums offer as the sheer number of individuals who keep on inclining toward them. For example, through broadcast. The ability to reach an expansive group of audience has for quite some time been the essential favourable position of TV and radio. Be that as it may, achieving such reach can be tricky for some entrepreneurs, who frequently can’t manage the cost of TV and radio spots. Nearby programming can be more affordable, yet bring down viewership numbers help clarify why.


Both Smith (2015) and Ellis (2011) discuss media fragmentation, a term that is used to explain how a consumer is on many different platforms at any one time. This multitasking lifestyle is growing and being present across multiple platforms both, traditional and non-traditional is key to the successful growth in a modern organisation (Blakeman,2014).

Every business strives to develop and create in light of the fact that even stagnation is a certain indication of disappointment. With the end goal to accomplish its objective, an organization needs to continually deal with amplifying its customer base, which means it has to use all available promotional tools and channels to reach as many new clients and stay in touch with the existing ones. How the issue of choosing the correct promoting strategy is dealt with a great effect on the overall performance of the company.

A few organizations lean toward traditional strategies since they have been effective previously. That is the reason despite everything we see print promotions, announcements or flyers dispersed everywhere throughout the world, and TV and radio ads are as yet going solid. Then again, new advertising techniques are overwhelming the world, achieving a considerably more noteworthy number of individuals in significantly less time for substantially less cash. They are all Internet-related and incorporate website pages, web journals, media social networking platforms and each other method for advancing a business on the web.

Both forms of marketing communications serve their purpose for their desired markets. Regardless of whether it is traditional or non-traditional, each one has its very own financial expenses and potential gathering of people related with it. The most effective method to use these media for target promoting in events, isn’t sufficiently considered and how marketing communications can focus on a similar crowd on various mediums. All together for an occasion to be run well and offer out effectively, it should be promoted well and in an appropriate way.


1. In the EMS Communication Centre, I have learnt that it is important to obtain the following information from the caller; the name and the contact number of the caller, the location of the incident, this include; the street name, house, building or office number, the suburb and the landmark of the location. The nature of the incident must also be obtained from the caller, the description of the incident; the caller should be interrogated according to the Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) protocol. And lastly the call taker should allocate priority to the incident of the caller. This information is important for the dispatchers and for the emergency responders as well, the dispatchers use the information gathered by the caller takers to dispatch the emergency responders, but the information is mostly important to the responders because they are the ones who uses the information; they use the address of the caller to locate the patient that they need to attend, they can use the callers contact number to call them back when they get lost on the way to the patient. The nature and the description of the incident is also important because it prepares the responders on what they should expect when they get to the patient and to bring enough equipment to serve the needs of the patient.

2. The EMS service uniform policy, according to the Standard Operations Procedures 2012 of the Emergency Medical Services; their uniform must be worn by all ranks, their uniform display a visibility of competence, accountability, integrity and responsiveness. The operational personnel uniform that is being issued by the employer include; a long medical green cotton shirt or a short-sleeved shirt, it must have two breast pockets and epaulettes. Medial green utility pants and they should not be faded. Black leather ankle boots with rubber sole. All weather jacket, the jacket should be lime green with medical shouldersand lower sleeves, it must have a reflective tape of at least 50mm wide around the chest, upper arm and on the waist, the back of the jacket should have a reflective label of the words ‘Medical’, and the material of the jacket must be breathable, water resistant and non-fading. A black leather belt, navy blue woolen socks. Long sleeved jersey or waist jacket style in medical green with shoulder epaulettes. Reflective vest that is prescribed as reflective utility jacket. A white helmet is required for all clinical ranks that have the qualification as appropriate on both sides of the helmet in letters of 50mm of height. The Doctors should wear a medical green helmet. The peak cap and the beanie must medical green in color and must have the Metro EMS badge on the front of the peak cap and the beanie, and the badge should be clearly visible. The South African flag should be worn on the left sleeve of every shirt and the dimension should be 70mm x 50mm. The name tag or the label must have one initial and the surname of the individual and should be worn above the left breast pocket on every shirt, jersey or jacket, this should be issued once the design has been confirmed. The reason for a name tag is that the patient has the right to be treated by a named health care practitioner. The letters on the name tag should be a minimum of 15mm high and 10mm wide and the letters should be white in color on a navy-blue background. Qualification tag or label should be worn above the right breast pocket as ALS, ILS, BLS and Medical Rescue Technician, the letters should also be white on a navy-blue background. The name and the qualification should be displayed on the right breast of the jackets. Service insignia; the qualification badge or patches should be worn on the upper right sleeve. Jewelry; for safety reasons, jewelry is restricted to a watch and wedding bands, Medic Alert bracelets are permitted, earing studs may be worn in the ears only and by females only. Hair; both for males and females, hair must be neat, for safety reasons; long hair must be tied up, for males; beards must be close shaven.

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3. Nursing Assistant: they perform personal hygiene care for patients (cleaning and bathing), helping patients use the toilet and dress, repositioning patients to prevent bed sores, assisting with transition from bed to wheelchair, relaying information to nurses, checking vital signs and serving meals and helping patients eat.
Certified Nursing Assistant: they are responsible for taking vital signs on a regular basis, which includes blood pressure and temperature, charting vital signs and other information, rendering assistance with personal hygiene performance such as bathing or showering, repositioning the patient on a regular basis to prevent the development of bed sores and performing range of motion exercises with patients with limited mobility
Hierarchy of Nursing Professionals: these are licensed practical nurses, they collect information on patient history with appropriate charting, perform wound cleaning, care and changing of dressings, inserting catheters and performing catheter care.
Registered Nurse: they are medical professionals who have received advanced education and training in the field of nursing and have passed a nursing exam to become licensed. They take detailed patient medical history, administer medication orally, by syringe or through an IV, starting intravenous drips (IVs), charting changes in patient’s medical condition, consulting with and making recommendations to the primary physician, operating specialized medical equipment such as monitors, provide other medical care to patient as deemed necessary and educating patient and family members about management of medical condition after patient returns home.
Nurse Practitioner: they are responsible for making medical diagnoses of illness, providing childhood vaccinations, conducting healthcare physicals, performing certain surgical procedures, developing treatment plan for illness, ordering lab work such as x-rays and blood work and prescribing certain medications.
Certified Nurse-Midwife: they perform physical exams and prescribing medication, ordering lab tests, giving prenatal care, assisting mothers during labor and delivery of births that are low risk and providing education and medical care after birth as necessary.
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists: they
take detailed health history from patient prior to surgery, administer anesthesia during surgery, ensure that patient handles anesthesia well during surgery and checking patient after surgery.
Doctor of Nursing Practice: they are doctoral degree designed to prepare nursing professionals to perform more responsibilities within their job, making diagnoses in certain circumstances and setting up a course of treatment for patients.

4. A Registrar works in a hospital or medical clinic and spends his or her days registering patients. The forms must be explained, taking payment for appointments, and collecting demographic and health history information.
A Medical officer is a doctor in charge of the health services of a civilian or military authority or other organization.
An intern is a student or trainee who works, sometimes without pay, to gain work experience or satisfy requirements for a qualification.
A specialist is a person who concentrates primarily on a subject or activity; a person highly skilled in a specific and restricted field.

5. The Maroon epaulette and Council badge worn by a Registered General Nurse. The navy-blue epaulette and Council badge worn by a Registered Psychiatric Nurse. The dark Saxe blue epaulette and Council badge worn by a Registered Mental Nurse. The light Saxe blue epaulette and Council badge worn by a Registered Nurse for Mental Defectives. The yellow epaulette and Council badge are worn by a Registered Fever Nurse. The mauve epaulette and Council badge worn by a Registered Sick Children’s Nurse. The green epaulette and Council badge worn by a Registered Midwife or Accoucheur. Registered nurse, midwife or accoucheur may be registered in more than one category. In such h cases, he /she must wear the specific color epaulettes prescribed in the regulations for such persons. One or more of the following colored bars must be attached to the prescribed epaulettes: the navy-blue bar worn if the person is also a Registered Psychiatric Nurse. The dark Saxe blue bar worn if the person is also a Registered Mental Nurse. The light Saxe blue bar worn if the person is also a Registered Nurse for Mental Defectives. The green bar worn if the person is also a Registered Midwife / Accoucheur. The white bar worn if the person is a Tutor (holds a qualification in Nursing Education). The silver bar worn if the person holds a qualification in Nursing Administration. The yellow bar worn if the person holds a qualification in Public Health Nursing (Community Nursing Science). The Fever and Sick Children’s Nurses have no prescribed bars. The examples of the unique devices that are worn by a Registered Nurse (General, Psychiatric and Community) and Registered Midwife: Registered General Nurse wear maroon epaulette and Council Badge, Registered Psychiatric Nurse wear Navy blue bar, Registered Midwife wear Green bar, Qualification in Community Nursing Science wear Yellow bar. The Distinguishing Devices for Enrolled Nurses and Enrolled Midwives: The white epaulette and maroon badge worn by an Enrolled Nurse. The white epaulette and green badge worn by an Enrolled Midwife. The white epaulette and half maroon / half green badge worn by a person who is both an Enrolled Nurse and an Enrolled Midwife. The brooch worn by an Enrolled Nursing Auxiliary.

6. Level 1 – District hospitals there are limited specialist services. District hospitals are categorized into small, medium and large district hospitals with the following number of beds: small district hospitals with no less than 50 beds and no more than 150 beds; medium size district hospitals with more than 150 beds and no more than 300 beds; and large district hospitals with no less than 300 beds and no more than 600 beds.

District hospital must help a defined population in a health district and support primary health care; deliver a district hospital package of care on a 24-hour basis; have general practitioners and clinical nurse practitioner’s primary health services; provide services that include in-patient, ambulatory health services as well as emergency health services; and where practical, provide training for health care service providers. District hospital receives outreach and support from general specialists based at regional hospitals. District hospital only provide the following specialist services; pediatric health services; obstetrics and gynecology; internal medicine; general surgery; family physician. Eerste River District Hospital is an example.

Level 2 – regional hospitals which have at least two specialist services. A regional hospital must, on a 24-hour basis, provide health services in the fields of internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, and general surgery. health services in at least one of the following specialties: orthopedic surgery; psychiatry; anesthetic; diagnostic radiology; trauma and emergency services; short term ventilation in a critical care unit; services to a definite regional drainage population, limited to provincial boundaries and receives referrals from several district hospitals; and where practical, provide training for health care service providers. The regional hospital receives outreach and support from tertiary hospitals. A regional hospital has between 200 and 800 beds. Khayelitsha District Hospital is an example.

Level 3 – academic hospitals which have most specialist services. A tertiary or academic hospital provides specialist level services provided by regional hospitals; provides intensive care services under the supervision of a specialist or specialist intensivist; may provide training for health care service providers; receives referrals from regional hospitals not limited to provincial boundaries; and has between 400 and 800 beds namely Groote Schuur, Red Cross and Tygerberg hospitals.

7. Hemorrhage: antepartum, intrapartum or postpartum
Prolonged/obstructed labor
Postpartum sepsis
Complications of abortion
Ectopic pregnancy
Ruptured uterus
placental abruption

8. In the EMS service the procedure that needs to be followed when an individual sustains a needle prick injury is as follows; the injured individual is encouraged to squeeze the injured site manually until it bleeds, the injured area must be washed with normal saline, soap or spirits. The injured individual must inform the communication Centre officer immediately. The operational shift manager must immediately bring the post exposure prophylaxis to the scene, the post prophylaxis must be taken within one to two hours of the incident. The individual must report the incident at the hospital and obtain medicines and treatment from the medical staff that is on duty. In cases of rural ambulances whereby the officer may not be able to reach the staff member on time, the PEP check should be carried with on the ambulance. The PEP pack must be stored in a container that protects it from heat.

If the patient is conscious, he/she must be informed of the incident and ask the patients status with respect. The blood sample of the source patient must be taken, but consent must be given by the patient. Blood specimen should be taken by the competent individual and be collected in appropriate receptacle. In the case of a medical case whereby a needle stick injury has occurred, the paramedic or officer on scene must be informed. Permission should be requested from the family members for the blood specimens to be taken. When the individual is unsure of the needle prick, the medical officer should be contacted for advice or transport the patient continuing CPR.

In the case of CPR whereby a needlestick injury has occurred, consent must be obtained from the family for blood specimen. If a family member is not available, then the health care provider should contact the OHS manager or the medic on call. The pathologist that is conducting the post mortem must be reachable to contact the family member to ask for consent to obtain blood specimen. The exposed individual must complete the exposure and WCL 2 forms. For the Metropole, the blood specimen of the source patient and the forms must be taken to GSH staff support clinic or TBH hospital staff clinic during office hours, after hours the individual must report to the GSH or TBH trauma units.
For rural, the blood of the source patient must be taken to the government hospital in the district.
The exposure forms are to be completed and given to the officer after the shift and sent to the Occupational Health and Safety Coordinator. The staff member injured must go for a follow up in 3 months, 6 months and 9 months.


1. Introduction
1.1 Soil pollution
“Soil pollution” is one of the most important issues, which our Planet faces nowadays. It means the presence in the soil of a chemical or substance out of place and/or present at a higher than normal concentration (more than the critical concentration) that has as a result harmful effects on any non-targeted organism. Although the source of pollutants have human origins, some contaminants can occur naturally in soils as components of minerals and as a result of weathering and can be toxic at high concentrations. Soil pollution often cannot be directly noticed or visually seen, making it a hidden danger for the environment and for humans. (Eugenio et al 2018).

With a widespread, rapid dissemination of contaminants like heavy metals in agricultural land, the stress on terrestrial ecosystems and societies has substantially increased and they can be the reason for unsolved environmental problems over the wide range (Alloway 2013; Grimm et al. 2008; Nejad et al. 2016).

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The diversity of contaminants is constantly increasing due to agrochemical and industrial processes. This diversity, and the transformation of organic compounds in soils by biological activity(bio degradation) into diverse metabolites, make soil surveys to identify the contaminants both difficult and expensive. The effects of soil contamination also depend on both soil properties and the chemical behavior of the contaminants since these control the mobility, bioavailability, and residence time of contaminants in the soil. (FAO and ITPS, 2015).

Industrialization, wars, mining and intensification in agriculture have left a legacy of contaminated soils around the world (Bundschuh et al., 2012; DEA, 2010; EEA, 2014; Luo et al., 2009; SSR, 2010; Eugenio et al 2018).

Soil pollution is an alarming and a global topic. It has been classified as the third most important problem, which threaten the soil functions in Europe and Eurasia, fourth in North Africa, fifth in Asia, seventh in the Northwest Pacific, eighth in North America, and ninth in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America (FAO and ITPS, 2015; Eugenio et al. 2018).

Soils consist of a mixture of weathered minerals (heavy metals) and varying amounts of organic compounds and can be contaminated as a result of (anthropogenic activities) such as spills or direct contact with contaminated waste streams such as airborne emissions, process solid waste, sludge or leachate from waste materials. And only when the concentration of the elements, which the soil contains, more than the critical concentration. (Chirila and Carazeanu 2008)

There are thousands of contaminant sources and pollutant types, but it can mainly divided into
1. Natural sources:
Several soil materials are natural sources of heavy metals and other elements, such as radionuclides, and these can pose a risk to the environment and human health at elevated concentrations. Arsenic (As) contamination is one of the major environmental problems around the world. Natural sources of As include volcanic releases (Albanese et al., 2007; Eugenio et al. 2018)
Natural events such as volcanic eruptions or forest fires can also cause natural pollution when many toxic elements are released into the environment. These toxic elements include dioxin-like compounds (acutely toxic) . It can also cause soil, water and air pollution (Deardorff, Karch and Holm, 2008; Eugenio et al. 2018)

2. Anthropogenic sources:
Centuries of anthropogenic activities have led to a widespread problem of soil pollution around the world. The main anthropogenic sources of soil pollution are the chemicals (such as pesticides) used in or produced as by?products of industrial activities, domestic and municipal wastes, including wastewater, agrochemicals, and petrol?derived products .These chemicals are released to the environment accidentally, for example from oil spills or leaching from landfills, or intentionally, as is the case with the use of fertilizers and pesticides, irrigation with untreated wastewater, or land application of sewage sludge. (Eugenio et al. 2018)

Industrial activities release pollutants to the atmosphere, water and soil. Gaseous pollutants and radionuclides are released to the atmosphere and can enter the soil directly through acid rain or atmospheric deposition.

1.2 Toxic elements
The soil contaminants can be classified in two categories: organic (oil products,
pesticides, dioxins, PCBs) and inorganic (heavy metals or fertilizers).
Organic contaminants include herbicides, pesticides, and plant and animal tissues, and are usually expected to cause harmful impacts on the environment. Trace levels of organic contaminant residues present in the soil, water, air, and sometimes food may result in harmful effects for human and environmental health (Kookana et al., 1998). They dissolve and accumulate in organic phases of animals and plants. The net enrichment of contaminants relative to that in the environment is described by the process of bioaccumulation.

Unlike organic contaminants, metal(loid)s do not undergo microbial or chemical degradation, and the total concentration of these metal(loid)s persist for a long time after their introduction in soils (Adriano et al. 2004; Bolan et al. 2014). Therefore heavy metals over the wide range cause very big problems for the environment, which will not be easily solved without an early remediation.

1.3 Heavy metals
The term “heavy metals” refers to the group of metals and metalloids of relatively high atomic mass (>5 g/cm3) such as Pb, Cd, Cu, Hg, Sn, and Zn, that can cause toxicity problems. Other non-metals that are often considered together with heavy metals include As, antimony (Sb) and selenium (Se). They named as metalloids (Kemp, 1998). These elements naturally occur at low concentrations in soils. Many of them cause no problem to the soil and living things at these low concentrations. They are also essential micronutrients for plants, animals and humans, but at high concentrations may cause phytotoxicity and harm human health because of their non?biodegradable nature, which causes them to readily accumulate in tissues and living organisms. (Eugenio et al. 2018)

Heavy metals are the most persistent and complex kind of pollutants to remediate in nature. And they are able to stay unchangeable in the soil for a long time. Some of them cannot be degraded by microorganisms (non?biodegradable). They not only degrade the quality of the atmosphere, water bodies, and food crops, but also threaten the health and well?being of animals and human beings. Metals accumulate in the tissues of living organisms because unlike most organic compounds they are not subject to metabolic breakdown. Among the heavy metals, Zn, Ni, Co, and Cu are relatively more toxic to plants, and As, Cd, Pb, Cr and Hg are relatively more toxic to higher animals (McBride, 1994; Eugenio et al. 2018).

Heavy metal(loid)s reach the soil environment through both pedogenic and anthropogenic processes.

1. Pedogenic
Most heavy metal(loid)s occur naturally in soil parent materials, chiefly in forms that are not readily bioavailable, that means they aren’t in an accessible form for plants uptake. The main source of them is weathering of soil parent materials including igneous and sedimentary rocks, and coal. They are the main reason for the groundwater pollution in China and Bangladesh. Volcanic and geological activities mobilize natural Hg from deep reservoirs in the earth to the atmosphere. Annual emission of Hg from global mercuriferous belts, the zone along plate tectonic including western North America, central Europe, and southern China was estimated up to 500 Mg/year (Bolan et al. 2014)

2. Anthropogenic
Anthropogenic/ human activities, primarily associated with industrial processes, manufacturing, the disposal of domestic and industrial waste materials, and the application of P fertilizers are the major source of metal(loid) enrichment/accumulation in soils. Atmospheric pollution from Pb-based petrol was a major issue in many countries where there was no constraint on the usage of leaded gasoline. While biosolids is the major source of metal(loid) inputs in Europe and North America, P fertilizers are considered to be the major source of heavy metal(loid) input, especially Cd, in Australia and New Zealand. Phosphate compounds contain a range of metal(loid)s .Cadmium contamination of agricultural soils is of particular concern because it reaches the food chain through regular use of Cd-containing P fertilizers (Loganathan et al. 2008; Bolan et al. 2014)

Accumulation of Cu in agricultural soils resulting from continuous use of Cu fungicides and biosolids application has been reported in many countries .One of the main consequences of excessive accumulation of Cu in soils is its toxicity to plants and microbial communities, for instance, formation of bare sterile patches in orchards ( Van zwieten et al. 2007; Bolan et al. 2014)

Unlike pedogenic inputs, heavy metal(loid)s added throw anthropogenic activities typically have a high bioavailability, thus they are in an accessible form for plants uptake and they can reach and accumulate very fast in the food chain of humans.

The heavy metals essentially become contaminants in the soil environments because (1) their rates of generation via man-made cycles are more rapid relative to natural ones, (2) they become transferred from mines to random environmental locations with high potential for direct exposure, (3) the concentrations of the metals in discarded products are high compared to those in the receiving environment, and (4) the chemical form (species) in which a metal is found in the receiving environmental system may render it more bioavailable (Amore et al. 2005; Nejad et al. 2016)

Figure 1 summarizes the frequency of metals occurring commonly in all matrices at Superfund sites. The most common metals found at contaminated sites are in the following order: lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and mercury (Hg).( Nejad et al. 2016)


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