Blood is the kind of sample most regularly dissected in the clinical lab. Phlebotomy is a procedure for which a needle is used to draw blood from a vein; usually, to do laboratory tests. The professional who do this procedure is called Phlebotomist. There sources where you can draw blood from, this source are venipuncture and capillary or peripheral blood.
1.1 The purpose of this laboratory experiment is for student to learn how to obtain an adequate blood for laboratory tests by drawing blood from a vein.
2. Methods and Materials
1. Approach the patient, identify yourself, the department you represent, and the procedure you are about to perform., identify the patient and explain the procedure to the patient.
2. Assemble equipment and supplies.
3. Prepare the vacuum blood collection system by attaching the needle to the hub and positioning a tube in the holder.
4. Apply the tourniquet and examine the arm for palpable veins.
5. Palpate the veins.
6. Release the tourniquet, cleanse the chosen site with a 70% alcohol swab. Begin at the puncture site selected and move the alcohol pad outward, in concentric circles (experienced phlebotomists are so quick that they may not release the tourniquet during site preparation).
7. Allow the site to air dry.
8. Reapply the tourniquet, making sure that the ends do not touch the prepared site.
9. Ask patient to clench fist tightly.
10. Position the holder in the palm of your hand between your thumb and index finger. Your palm should be pointing to the left if you are right-handed, and to the right if you are left-handed.
11. Uncap the needle. Inspect the needle for manufacturer’s defects.
12. Anchor the vein selected, using the thumb and index finger.
13. Position the needle in the same direction as the vein selected. Insert the needle, bevel up, at a 15-degree angle. The needle should be inserted in one smooth motion. Only the index finger and thumb should move forward to guide the needle into the vein.
14. Release the vein and push the evacuated tube onto the back of the needle. Be sure to keep the holder stationary. Once the tube has been pushed onto the needle, take your hand off the tube. If the stopper of the tube has been punctured by the back of the needle, and blood is not entering the tube, pushing on the tube will not cause blood to enter it.
15. Allow the tube to fill, when the vacuum has been exhausted, blood will no longer enter the tube.
16. Keeping the holder still, pull the evacuated tube of the back of the needle and replace it with the second tube (if the first tube contained an additive, gently invert it while waiting for the second tube to fill).
17. Once blood begins to enter the second tube, release the tourniquet within one minute of application.
18. Pull the evacuated tube off the needle. Allow it to rest in the holder.
19. Place a piece of gauze or a cotton ball over the puncture site, do not push down on the gauze.
20. Remove the needle from the patient’s arm and immediately apply pressure with the gauze.
21. Activate the needle safety device and dispose of unit.
22. If the last evacuated tube collected contains an additive, invert gently several times to mix the blood with the additive.
23. Inspect puncture site, apply bandage if needed.
24. Label the tubes collected IMMEDIATELY as follows
25. Discard materials in appropriate waste receptacle and disinfect work area.
26. Remove gloves, wash hands and leave patient courteously.
2.2 Capillary puncture.
1. Approach the patient, identify yourself, the department you represent, and the procedure you are about to perform. Using two unique patient identifiers, confirm the identity of the patient.
2. Check requisition order to ensure proper collection of samples.
3. Assemble all the necessary equipment’s.
4.Assess the patient and determine whether a finger or a heel would be appropriate for use. Heels are preferred for capillary puncture in infants less than 1 year of age.
5.The site of blood collection must be warm to ensure the free flow of blood.
6.Hold the area to be punctured with the thumb and index finger.
7.Clean the area with 70% alcohol pad and allow to air-dry.
8.Use a disposable sterile lancet to puncture the area.
9.Wipe away first drop of blood.
10.Apply gentle pressure to area to obtain a suitable specimen. When the tip of the collection tube touches this drop, blood will flow into the tube by capillary action into the bottom of the tube.
11.When the necessary amount of blood is obtained, clean gauze is used to apply gentle pressure on the puncture site. Bandage the site.
12. Discard used lancets at the sharps container.
13. Remove gloves and discard into biohazard container
14. Wash hands using proper procedure