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1. Physical Abuse: is an intentional act that causes injury or trauma by physical contact. It may also include domestic violence and sexual abuse. Physical abuse may involve more than one abuser, and more than one victim.
2. Sexual abuse: – Is undesired sexual behavior by one person to another. It is not only perpetrated by use of force and does not have to involve physical contact. It can often be perpetrated using force or by taking advantage of another. When force is immediate, of short duration, or infrequent, it is called sexual assault. The term also covers any behavior by an adult or older adolescent towards a child to stimulate any of the involved sexually. The use of a child, or other individuals younger than the age of consent, for sexual stimulation is referred to as child sexual abuse or statutory rape.
3. Emotional: – is a form of abuse, characterised by a person subjecting or exposing another person to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder It is often associated with situations of power imbalance in abusive relationships, and can include bullying, gaslighting, and abuse in the workplace.23 It also may be perpetrated by persons conducting torture, other violence, acute or prolonged human rights abuse, particularly without legal redress such as detention without trial, false accusations, false convictions and extreme defamation such as where perpetrated by state and media. Anxiety, lack of confidence, low self-esteem, disturbed sleep, bed wetting, crying, mood swings and anger/aggression.
4. Financial abuse: – is the illegal or unauthorized use of a person’s property, money, pension book or other valuables (including changing the person’s will to name the abuser as heir), often fraudulently obtaining power of attorney, followed by deprivation of money or other property, or by eviction from own home. Financial abuse applies to both elder abuse and domestic violence.4

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1.1 Identify the area for the research project.
I looked at many different areas in the health care setting like reducing falls, development of staff etc but I decided on staff retention as there is a high staff turn over in adult social care and what we can do as a management team to try and keep our staff.
1.2 Develop the aims and objectives of the research project. The aim of my research project is to how to recruit and retain a good reliable work force for adult social care to be able to meet to growing needs of individuals in our care. The main area I will focused on is care assistants. Improvements in recruitment and retention are important to make sure we have high quality staff who are trained reliable and flexible to cover the home. This is important because the emphasis is on the provision of care for venerable adults in care homes. It is vital that these venerable individuals are care for by qualified staff who understands the individuals needs and requirements. This will also give continuity for the individuals as they will see the same faces they will feel safer and more secure with in the home environment.
1.3 Explain the ethical considerations that apply to the area of research.
The ethical considerations that need to be taken in to account is the code of conduct its how we as managers treat our staff if we treat them horrible and we are unapproachable then we will not retain staff here at the home I work in we have a open door policy when a carer is worried or upset about anything I would like to think they will come and speak to us. This goes for all members of staff not just cares this is how management conduct themselves. Every home has values that need to be followed by all members of staff from the top down. We like to keep cares up to date on things that might affect them.
1.4 Complete a literature review of chosen area of research.
when completing a literature review of staff retention I found that most people left due to the environmental factors of care, job dissatisfaction, the hours you have to work the pay rate is not good compared to less skilled jobs out there, low organizational and professional commitment, higher stress levels the higher up you go, lack of support from people higher than you, and people not realising what is involved when caring for individuals. We need to get a good work and family balance right as well as you will find people who work in care work long hours.
But there is a great deal that management can do to over come these problems and retain staff. For example, they can ensure that staff always feel valued for their efforts.
2.1 Critically compare different types of research.
Skills of care done research on staff retention I fell this is a good one because it covered a lot of areas a for example staff retention, staff turnover recruitment ,retention, pay and reward they also looked at what individuals were doing right when they had a high retention rate of staff and went to speak to them so they could get ideas. They also spoke to company’s who had a high staff turn over to see if there was anything that they could avoid so they got the overall picture on staff retention.
They spoke to individuals from all levels from management down and their findings were published they found that most people left a job when they were dissatisfied with their job and this is well documented a s reasons why were given some examples are: individuals coming in to the job without a good understanding of their role or sector, a lack of feed back and supervision. Low pay and unsociable hours.
Where a company had a high staff retention they had addressed most if not all of the above issues.
2.2
Evaluate a range of methods that can be used to collect data.
Data collection is an important aspect of any type of research study as inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results.
The range of method are quantitative methods these are objective measurements and the statistics are mathematical or numeral analysis of data collection this is done through polls, questionnaires, or surveys or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computer techniques.
Quantitative data is more structured than qualitative data collection methods.
These are textual or visual analysis (from books or videos) and one to one or group interviews this is more commonly used in health care research (interviews and focus groups).
2.3
Identify a range of tools that can be used to analyse data.
The range of tools that can be used to analyse data can be:
• A single graph can be used in a number of data collection results.
• A check sheet can also be used this can be generic tool that can be adapted for a lot of data collection the check sheet can be structured prepared for wide variety of data collection needs.
• A questionnaire can be used as data collection this can collect many forms of data
• A case study can collect a in-depth description of a process, experience, or structure in a single experience.
• An interview to find out a number of things in one sitting.
• And visual observations to collect data.

2.4
Explain the importance of validity and reliability of data used with in research.
Validity and reliability are two important concepts in research when you look at the every day use of these works you get a sense of how munch they mean for example you are reliable when you turn up for work every day and you feel valued in when you have an opinion that is taken in to consideration. But their use is a lot more complex than that when its used in the terms of research. When doing research, you need to consider the face value of a questionnaire is it able to measure what it meant to for example are you asking the right questions and are they relevant to what you are trying to research. You need to be able to measure the questionnaires concept adequately when the questionnaire has been completed will we find out what we need to know or not (how to retain staff and keep them happy). You need to look at when you are going to give out the questionnaire as well is it better when they have come out of a supervision or when they are having a good day at work you also need to know who and where the answers come from are they individuals you know or has someone just satin a office and ticked different boxes.
3.1
Identify sources of support whilst conducting a research project.
Sources of support when I conduct a research project are
My manager who will answer any questions that I may have or allow me to use equipment that I may need
Staff that I ask they will fill in the questionnaires for my research project if they will cooperate
My assessor who will assist me if I have any problems or need assistance while doing my research project.
3.2
Formulate a detailed plan for a research project.
This is my plan for my research project:
1 I will identify the purpose for my work project
2 I will wright a introduction with back ground information
3 I will determine my goals and objectives
4 I will use s.m.a.r.t objectives for my work plan
SPECIFIC: what I’m going to do and why
MEASURABLE: is my project capable of being measured or counted
ACHIEVEABLE: can I get my project done in the time allocated. do I have resources available to be able to do my project?
RELIVANT: is my research relevant and have the desired goal or strategy.
TIME BOUND: is my project achievable in the allocated time given to complete it.
5 list resources what I will need to complete my project.
6 Identify constraints these are obstacles that may get in my way of achieving my goals and objectives. Planning is required if you are trying to do more than one thing at a time.
7 Who is accountable I will be accountable for completing each task in the allocated time scale.
8 Wright your strategy look at my work and identify any resources that are required and overcome any constraints in my way of completing my research.
www.wicki how to .com
3.3
Select research methods for the project.
My research methods will be looking at what other work places have done to try and retain staff and what went right for them and what went wrong.
I will send out surveys to current staff to see what is keeping them at the home I work in
I will look at previous case studies to see if there is anything that my home could implement to retain staff.
I will collate the data that I obtain through the surveys to come to a conclusion.
3.4
Develop research questions to be used within project.
I will be looking at questions on whether staff are happy in their role. Because happy staff are more likely to stay in a place of work. These are the questions I will ask on my survey and why I have asked them.
• Are management approachable: because even happy staff will need to approach their manager with a problem at one point and they need to know that they can do this without any problems.
• Seniors encourage me to do my best: we all need encouragement at some point and seniors are always on the floor with staff.
• I am recognised for my efforts: we should all be recognised for a job well done no matter how big or small.
• I feel valued by my supervisors: everyone wants to feel wanted and that they have done a good job.
• The home has a positive image: everyone wants to work in a home that is well know for good things not bad.
• I am satisfied with my job: we all want job satisfaction knowing we have done our best is a good feeling.
• I will be here in 1-5 years: people who are going to stay in a job will know within the first twelve months of being in a work place.
• Do you want to progress: individuals who are looking at progressing will stay at the same place of work?
• Are you satisfied with your position: individuals who are satisfied work better and stay?
• Are you recognised as a individual: no one wants to be known as just a carer they want their own identity?
• Are we flexible enough: flexibility is important in care as we must meet the individuals needs and have a work -home balance right as well.
• Would you recommend us to family and friends: When a carer does this it means it’s a good place to work for and they are not looking at leaving if they are encouraging others to come and work here.
• Are your job requirements clear: when you know what’s required of you? You can get on with the job you ae required to do happy.
• Do you enjoy working for the home I work in: if a individual is happy in there work place they will not go looking for a new job.
3.5
Conduct the research using identified methods.
See attached surveys

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4.1
Use data analysis methods to analyse the data.
Using the data gathered it says that the management in the home I work in are very open and approachable with everyone who was saying that they strongly agree. The seniors appear to encourage all staff to do there best and work with their team well. We need to work on giving more praise when individuals have done a good job. But all that took the survey feel valued by the individuals above them. The home that I work in has a positive image and most of the staff feel satisfied in their job and will be looking to progress through the ranks. All individuals who took the survey feel that they are recognised as an individual not just as part of a home. Staff enjoy flexibility where possible and would recommend us as a place to work to family and friends. We have a good induction program as all individuals were aware of what their role requirements were.
4.2
Draw conclusions from findings
I feel that our staff enjoy working for the home I work in due to the induction program, flexibility, good management who are open and honest with the staff and their role requirement are clear from the first day that they start. We have a positive senior team working together encouraging the others to do their best. The staff feel valued for the hard work they do every day. Who will be at the home for a long time because most of them want to progress and they have the support from the management to do this. We also have a positive image with staff who are recognised as individuals not just people who work for a home.in doing this they would recommend working for us to friends and family.
4.3
Reflect how research finding substantiate initial review.

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1. Major idea
The main idea of the contemporary work is to describe the impact of air pollution on the investor’s behaviour which further determines the stock market return.
2. Behavioural Finance
The effect of psychology on behaviour is unavoidable in financial decision making process. As selden (1912) describes the importance of belief and attitude at the time of investing and trading activities. Consequently, Festinger et. al., (1956) introduce dynamic behavioural issue of an individuals in social psychology known as ”theory of cognitive dissonance” because the conflict of beliefs lead to set a new cognitive behaviour of the same individual. For example, the risk aversion theory by Pratt (1964) which clearly state that each individual has different risk assessment at the time of investment decision because of cognitive dissonance. Therefore each investor has different judgments about the same state of action known as ” judgmental heuristic” introduced by Tversky and Kahneman (1973). Moreover, the investor makes different option when the same problem is presented in different ways also known as framing. Therefore the rational expectation theory is failed in the presence of framing and prospect theory. Consequently, Banerjee (1992) theoretically develop a dynamic model of herd behaviour.
The objective of the behavioural finance is to investigate the irrational behaviour of investors and such absurd systemic error disturbs the real value of the stock return known as market inefficiency. The overreaction or under reaction on good or bad information leads to set the pattern of the stock market also known as a game of sentiment. However, Fama (1998) first time argue that overreaction or under reaction is a common phenomenon within same circumstances. The investors hold bad stock in their hand whereas the good stock is sold quickly because of such reactive behaviour and overconfidence. Such overconfidence lead toward excessive trade and the result is market crashed which need a market with complete information.
3. Market Efficiency
The market can be divided into three categories on the basis of information. First, weak form of market efficiency in which past information has no relation with current market return. Technical analysis is useless in the weak form of market efficiency. Second, semi strong form of market efficiency not only negates the fundamental analysis but also refuse the role of public information in the formation of the stock return. Thirdly, a strong form of market efficiency pertain all the public and private information to forecast the stock market return. Consequently, no one can get an abnormal rate of return from the trading and investing activities. So each individual has the same information package and insider trading is discouraged in that kind of market.
4. Effect of weather on decision making
The discussion shows the psychological impact on the trading and investing activities through beliefs, judgments and overconfidence. Therefore the importance of behavioural finance can be ignored in the financial decision making process particularly in stock market analysis. For example, climate has a great impact on the individual’s behaviour through mood and emotions. Thus the bad or good mood is the terminology used in the behavioural finance and it leads toward investment or not investment.
5. Influence of Air Pollution
One of the major aspects to change the mood and emotion is air quality and air pollution. In the contemporary study of China, the air quality is measured using AQI (air quality index) which consists of SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, O3 and CO whereas API (air pollution index) consists of SO2, NO2 and PM10. An AQI from 0-50 and 51-100 shows an excellent and good level of air quality respectively without health implication. On the other way around, an AQI above 300 shows high air pollution level and hazardous to health. In this situation, individuals do not play an active role in the outdoor activities and reduced to go out from the home because of the health implication. Thus the influence of air pollution on individuals can be categorised into objective and subjective basis. The air pollution not only decrease the working productivity but also injurious to health in terms of objectivity. In addition, air pollution has also impact on the human psychology and mood also known as the subjective effect.
Thus air pollution decreases the labour productivity through health problem at individual level. At first level air pollution raise the illness, as a result, health spending level is increased gradually which further decrease the productivity. Accordingly, the firm performance and innovation level is also affected in the presence of high air pollution level. Therefore environmental quality has a significant impact on economic development through individual and firm level performance. As Chen et. al., (2013) clearly examines the impact of air pollution on the residents of the northern Chinese area and such pollution not only increases the mortality rate but also other health in the same area. As a result the labour efficiency and productivity has been decreased in that area. Therefore the weather condition has a significant impact on the health spending and complex health issues. As Chang, et al., (2016) also confirms the impact of air pollution on the productivity level and found the reduction of daily output about 2.5% due to increase the level of air pollution.
6. Air Pollution, Mood, Decision and Stock Market
Tamir and Yagil (2011) explore a negative impact of air pollution on the individual mood and investor’s behaviour. So a positive mood lead toward optimistic decision and vice versa.

The individual behaviour whether rational or irrational has a significant impact on the mood and decision negatively or positively. However the environmental factor shape the behaviour as discussed in the very recent study. One of the most important factors, air pollution, changes the mood (bad or good) at the time of trading and investing activities. At Last, air pollution has a negative impact on the stock return through good and bad mood.

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