• Emotional Intelligence is the knowledge of other’s emotions/knowledge of one’s own emotions. (Sattler, 2001; Pfieffer 2001).
• “Personality refers to deeply ingrained patterns of behavior, which include the way one relates to, perceives and thinks about the environment and one self.” – American Psychiatric Association-1987
• Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: 4th edition-text revision (DSM-IV-TR) defines schizophrenia as a disorder of thinking, volition, and affect (American Psychiatric Association, (APA), 2000).
• Cannabis (Marijuana) use can lead to the development of problem use, known as a Cannabis (marijuana) use disorder, which takes the form of addiction in severe cases. Recent data suggest that 30 percent of those who use Cannabis (marijuana) may have some degree of Cannabis (marijuana) use disorder. People who begin using Cannabis (marijuana) before the age of 18 are four to seven times more likely to develop a Cannabis (marijuana) use disorder than adults. (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2018, feb)
? RESEARCH VARIABLES: The research variables, of any scientific experiment or research process, are factors that can be manipulated and measured. Martyn Shuttleworth (Aug 9, 2008)
? DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES:
• Major Medical Illness
• Present psychiatric illness
• Past psychiatric illness
? VARIABLES UNDER THE STUDY:
Following variables under the study in research are:
A) Independent Variable: – An independent variable is a variable believed to affect the dependent variable.
1. Normal individuals
3. Cannabis addicts
B) Dependent Variable: – The dependent variable is the variable a researcher is interested in.
1. Emotional Intelligence Score
2. Personality Score
? MEASUREMENT TOOLS USED:
In the current study, the following three tools have been used for conducting this research and among them two scales have been used to estimate the emotional intelligence level and personality type of Normal individuals, Schizophrenics, Cannabis addicts.
1) THE SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET:
The term “socio-demographic” refers to a group defined by its sociological and demographic characteristics. Socio-demographic groups are used for analyses in the social sciences as well as for marketing and medical studies. Demographic characteristics can refer to age, sex, place of residence, religion, educational level and marital status. Sociological characteristics are more objective traits, such as membership in organizations, household status, interests, values and social groups. A group based on both sociological and demographic traits, such as people under 30 years of age who are interested in environmentalism, is an example of a socio-demographic group. Studies that divide people into groups by education, relative income, ethnicity and gender are considered socio-demographic studies.
While designing a survey or research it is very important to assess who to survey and how to breakdown overall survey response data into meaningful groups of respondents. Both assessments are based on demographic considerations.
The datasheet provides detailed information on the composition of the population. It was also used to differentiate between different groups in the population as this segmentation offers insight that would have been missed by only looking at the aggregate data.
The socio-demographic data used in this research are name, age, gender, residence, Occupation, Education, Major Medical Illness, Present psychiatric illness, Past psychiatric illness
2) WONG AND LAW EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SCALE – (WLEIS):
The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale – (WLEIS; Law et al., 2004; Wong and Law, 2002), was used to measure the level of Emotional Intelligence (EI) among normal individuals, schizophrenics and cannabis addicts.
? Developer: – The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale was developed by Law et al., in 2004 and Wong and Law in 2002.
? Description of the Scale: -This Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale have been used to measure emotional intelligence. This self-report scale has been for five main reasons. First, the WLEIS is consistent with Mayer and Salovey’s de_nition of EI (Mayer and Salovey, 1997) and is based on the ability model presented by these scholars. Second, recent studies have tested and retested this scale in different cultures (Law et al., 2008; Law et al., 2004; Shi and Wang, 2007) and different ethnic and gender groups (Whitman et al., 2011), and established it as a solid measure with sound validity and reliability. Third, unlike other self-report EI scales that have been criticized for not being conceptually different from measures of personality, the WLEIS has been found to be distinct from the Big Five personality model (Law et al., 2004). Fourth, this parsimonious 16-item scale was specifically developed for the use in organizations (Law et al., 2004; Wong and Law, 2002). Last, in a recent study (Law et al., 2008) the WLEIS was found to be a better predictor of objective job performance compared to the performance-based emotional intelligence test, MSCEIT (Mayer et al., 2000).Salovey and Mayer (1990) and Mayer and Salovey conceptualized EI as composed of four distinct dimension:
• Appraisal and expression of emotion in the self (Self-Emotion Appraisal (SEA)): This relates to the individual’s ability to understand their deep emotions and be able to express these emotions naturally. People who have great ability in this area will sense and acknowledge their emotions well before most people.
• Appraisal and recognition of emotion in others (Others’ Emotion Appraisal (OEA)): This relates to the people’s ability to perceive and understand the emotions of those people around them. People who are high in this ability will be much more sensitive to the feelings and emotions of others as well as reading their minds.
• Regulation of emotion in the self (Use of Emotion (UOE)): This relates to the people’s ability to regulate their emotions, which will enable a more rapid recovery from psychological distress.
• Use of emotion to facilitate performance (Regulation of Emotion (ROE)): This relates to the ability of individuals to make use of their emotions by directing them towards constructive activities and personal performance.
Key Dimensions Measured:
WEIS is a scale based on the four ability dimensions described in the domain of EI:
(1) Appraisal and expression of emotion in the self/ Self-Emotion Appraisal (SEA),
(2) appraisal and recognition of emotion in others/ Others’ Emotion Appraisal (OEA),
(3) regulation of emotion in the self / Use of Emotion (UOE),
(4) use of emotion to facilitate performance/ Regulation of Emotion (ROE).
Sample items for this measure are: (1) “I have a good sense of why I have certain feelings most of the time”; (2) “I always know my friends’ emotions from their behavior”; (3) “I always set goals for myself and then try my best to achieve them”; and (4) “I am able to control my temper so that I can handle dif_culties rationally”.
? LENGTH OF TEST: 5-10 Minutes
? SCORING: – Wong and Law (2002) selected a total of 16 items, four per dimension. The four scales of measure are: Self-Emotion Appraisal (SEA), Others’ Emotion Appraisal (OEA), Use of Emotion (UOE), and Regulation of Emotion (ROE). All items are positively keyed; and this poses as a weakness of the measure. There is no reverse scoring for any of the items. A sample item from SEA is “I have a good sense of why I have certain feelings most of the time.” A sample item from OEA is “I always know my friend’s emotions from their behavior.” “I always set goals for myself and then try my best to achieve them” and “I have good control of my own emotions” are items from UOE and ROE respectively.
The items on the measure are self-rated on a 5- point Likert-type scale i.e,
1 = strongly disagree
3=neither agree nor disagree
SUBSCALES ITEM NO
1.Self-Emotion Appraisal (SEA) 1-4
2.Others’ Emotion Appraisal (OEA) 5-8
3.Use of Emotion (UOE) 9-12
4.Regulation of Emotion (ROE) 13-16
? Reliability: The reliability of the scale was 0.88.
3) BIG FIVE INVENTORY- (BFI):
The Big Five Inventory (BFI) scale was used to assess the type of personality among normal individuals, schizophrenics and cannabis addicts.
? Developer: – The BIG FIVE INVENTORY was developed by Oliver P. John, Ph.D. and V. Benet-Martinez in 1998.
? Description of the Scale: – The BIG FIVE INVENTORY is a 44-item brief personality test. The test-taker responds with degree of agreement or disagreement on a 5-point Likert scale. The test has been normed on several hundred thousand adult Americans by Sam Gosling, Ph.D. and J. Potter at the University of Texas (Gosling). Differences between ethnic groups are generally insignificant. Slight variations by age from scale to scale are present. In the public domain and has been normed on tens of thousands of adults.
? Length of Test: 10 Minutes
? Scoring: – The Big Five Inventory has been placed in the public domain by Dr. John. Therefore, the author McConochie developed a scoring system for the BFI. McConochie’s version involves a few additional words to help clarify some items, as he found that some items involved vocabulary, e.g. “aloof”, item 27 that was unfamiliar to many adults. Scoring instructions are provided as an addendum to this manual, for the convenience of researchers. Gross norms are also provided. For detailed norms, the researcher is referred to Gosling.
The present author has found the BFI to be quick to administer and score, as valid as or more valid than other brief measures of the Big Five traits and of value in clinical and job applicant assessments.
The report is a simple one-page description of the individual’s scores, with descriptions of the meaning of each level of score (low, average and high). The “Neuroticism” dimension is inverted and termed Emotional Stability to keep all high scores “desirable”.
It provides a score for each of the Big Five personality traits: Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism or Emotional Stability, Extraversion and Intellect or Openness.
• Intellect or Openness: Openness to experience has been described as the depth and complexity of an individual’s mental life and experiences (John & Srivastava, 1999). It is also sometimes called intellect or imagination.
Common traits related to openness to experience include: Imaginative, Insightful, Wide variety of interests, Original, Daring, Preference for variety, Clever, Creative, Curious, Perceptive, Intellectual, Complex/Deep.
• Conscientiousness: Conscientiousness is a trait that can be described as the tendency to control impulses and act in socially acceptable ways, behaviors that facilitate goal-directed behavior (John & Srivastava, 1999).
Traits within the conscientiousness factor include: Persistent, Ambitious, Thorough, Self-disciplined, Consistent, Predictable, Controlled, Reliable, Resourceful, Hard working, Energetic, Persevering, and Planner.
• Extraversion: This factor has two familiar ends of the spectrum: extroversion and introversion. It concerns where an individual draws their energy and how they interact with others.
The traits associated with extroversion are: Sociable, Assertive, Merry, Outgoing, Energetic, Talkative, Articulate, Fun-loving, Affectionate, Friendly, Socially confident.
• Agreeableness: This factor concerns how well people get along with others. While extroversion concerns sources of energy and the pursuit of interactions with others, agreeableness concerns your orientation to others
The following traits fall under the umbrella of agreeableness: Altruistic, Trusting, Modest, Humble, Patient, Moderate, Tactful, Polite, Kind, Loyal, Unselfish, Helpful, Sensitive, Amiable, Cheerful and Considerate.
• Neuroticism or Emotional Stability: Neuroticism is the one Big Five factor in which a high score indicates more negative traits. Neuroticism is not a factor of meanness or incompetence, but one of confidence and being comfortable in one’s own skin
These traits are commonly associated with neuroticism: Awkward, Pessimistic, Moody, Jealous, Testy, Fearful, Nervous, Anxious, Timid, Wary, Self-critical, Unconfident, Insecure, Unstable and Oversensitive.
Scores on these traits can often explain important issues for adults and thus simplify counseling efforts. For example, an individual who is high in openness to experience is likely someone who has a love of learning, enjoys the arts, engages in a creative career or hobby, and likes meeting new people (Lebowitz, 2016a). While, an individual who is low in openness to experience probably prefers routine over variety, sticks to what they know, and prefers less abstract arts and entertainment.
Someone who is high in conscientiousness is likely to be successful in school and in their career, to excel in leadership positions, and to doggedly pursue their goals with determination and forethought (Lebowitz, 2016a).
A person who is low in conscientiousness is much more likely to procrastinate, to be flighty, impetuous, and impulsive.
People high in extroversion tend to seek out opportunities for social interaction, where they are often the “life of the party.” They are comfortable with others, gregarious, and prone to action rather than contemplation (Lebowitz, 2016a).
People low in extroversion are more likely to be people “of few words,” people who are quiet, introspective, reserved, and thoughtful.
People high in agreeableness tend to be well-liked, respected, and sensitive to the needs of others. They likely have few enemies, are sympathetic, and affectionate to their friends and loved ones, as well as sympathetic to the plights of strangers (Lebowitz, 2016a).
People on the low end of the agreeableness spectrum are less likely to be trusted and liked by others. They tend to be callous, blunt, rude, ill-tempered, antagonistic, and sarcastic.
Those high in neuroticism are generally given to anxiety, sadness, worry, and low self-esteem. They may be temperamental or easily angered, and they tend to be self-conscious and unsure of themselves (Lebowitz, 2016a).
Individuals who score on the low end of neuroticism are more likely to feel confident, sure of themselves, and adventurous. They may also be brave and unencumbered by worry or self-doubt. This is widely used scale.